Key Clinical Message
A patient with developmental delay and nine, de novo, tandem duplications affecting eight different chromosomes that arose on both maternal and paternal chromosomes indicating a vulnerable zygotic or early postzygotic period of development for these errors, potentially affected by genetic and nongenetic factors.
Chromosomal microduplication; de novo copy number variations; developmental delay; multiple congenital anomalies
We describe a child of Middle Eastern descent by first-cousin mating with idiopathic neurogenic bladder and high grade vesicoureteral reflux at 1 year of age, whose characteristic facial grimace led to the diagnosis of Ochoa (Urofacial) syndrome at age 5 years. We used homozygosity mapping, exome capture and paired end sequencing to identify the disease causing mutation in the proband. We reviewed the literature with respect to the urologic manifestations of Ochoa syndrome. A large region of marker homozygosity was observed at 10q24, consistent with known autosomal recessive inheritance, family consanguinity and previous genetic mapping in other families with Ochoa syndrome. A homozygous mutation was identified in the proband in HPSE2: c.1374_1378delTGTGC, a deletion of 5 nucleotides in exon 10 that is predicted to lead to a frameshift followed by replacement of 132 C-terminal amino acids with 153 novel amino acids (p.Ala458Alafsdel132ins153). This mutation is novel relative to very recently published mutations in HPSE2 in other families. Early intervention and recognition of Ochoa syndrome with control of risk factors and close surveillance will decrease complications and renal failure.
Ochoa syndrome; Urofacial syndrome; HPSE2 mutation; Neurogenic bladder
Mouse early transposon insertions are responsible for ∼10% of spontaneous mutant phenotypes. We previously reported the phenotypes and genetic mapping of Polypodia, (Ppd), a spontaneous, X-linked dominant mutation with profound effects on body plan morphogenesis. Our new data shows that mutant mice are not born in expected Mendelian ratios secondary to loss after E9.5. In addition, we refined the Ppd genetic interval and discovered a novel ETnII-β early transposon insertion between the genes for Dusp9 and Pnck. The ETn inserted 1.6 kb downstream and antisense to Dusp9 and does not disrupt polyadenylation or splicing of either gene. Knock-in mice engineered to carry the ETn display Ppd characteristic ectopic caudal limb phenotypes, showing that the ETn insertion is the Ppd molecular lesion. Early transposons are actively expressed in the early blastocyst. To explore the consequences of the ETn on the genomic landscape at an early stage of development, we compared interval gene expression between wild-type and mutant ES cells. Mutant ES cell expression analysis revealed marked upregulation of Dusp9 mRNA and protein expression. Evaluation of the 5′ LTR CpG methylation state in adult mice revealed no correlation with the occurrence or severity of Ppd phenotypes at birth. Thus, the broad range of phenotypes observed in this mutant is secondary to a novel intergenic ETn insertion whose effects include dysregulation of nearby interval gene expression at early stages of development.
Mobile genetic elements, particularly early transposons (ETn), cause malformations by inserting within genes leading to disruption of exons, splicing or polyadenylation. Few mutagenic early transposon insertions have been found outside genes and the effects of such insertions on surrounding gene regulation is poorly understood. We discovered a novel intergenic ETnII-β insertion in the mouse mutant Polypodia (Ppd). We reproduced the mutant phenotype after engineering the mutation in wild-type cells with homologous recombination, proving that this early transposon insertion is Ppd. Mutant mice are not born in expected Mendelian ratios secondary to loss after E9.5. Embryonic stem cells from mutant mice show upregulated transcription of an adjacent gene, Dusp9. Thus, at an early and critical stage of development, dysregulated gene transcription is one consequence of the insertion mutation. DNA methylation of the ETn 5′ LTR is not correlated with phenotypic outcome in mutant mice. Polypodia is an example of an intergenic mobile element insertion in mice causing dramatic morphogenetic defects and fetal death.
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute the most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease in children, accounting for ~50% of all cases. Although many forms of CAKUT are likely caused by single-gene defects, only few causative genes have been identified. To identify new causative genes many candidate genes need to be analyzed due to the broad genetic locus heterogeneity of CAKUT. We therefore applied our newly developed approach of DNA pooling with consecutive massively parallel exon resequencing to overcome this problem. We pooled DNA of 20 individuals and amplified by PCR all 313 exons of 30 CAKUT candidate genes. PCR products were then subjected to massively parallel exon resequencing. Mutation carriers were identified using Sanger sequencing. We repeated the experiment to cover 40 patients in total (29 with unilateral renal agenesis and 11 with other CAKUT phenotypes). We detected 5 heterozygous missense mutations in 2 candidate genes that were not previously implicated in non-syndromic CAKUT in humans, 4 mutations in the FRAS1 gene and 1 in FREM2. All mutations were absent from 96 healthy control individuals and had a PolyPhen score of >1.4 (“possibly damaging”). Recessive truncating mutations in FRAS1 and FREM2 were known to cause Fraser syndrome in humans and mice, whereas a phenotype in heterozygous carriers has not been described. We hereby identify heterozygous missense mutations in FRAS1 and FREM2 as a new cause of non-syndromic CAKUT in human.
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is divided into steroid-sensitive (SSNS) and -resistant (SRNS) variants. SRNS causes end-stage kidney disease, which cannot be cured. While the disease mechanisms of NS are not well understood, genetic mapping studies suggest a multitude of unknown single-gene causes. We combined homozygosity mapping with whole-exome resequencing and identified an ARHGDIA mutation that causes SRNS. We demonstrated that ARHGDIA is in a complex with RHO GTPases and is prominently expressed in podocytes of rat glomeruli. ARHGDIA mutations (R120X and G173V) from individuals with SRNS abrogated interaction with RHO GTPases and increased active GTP-bound RAC1 and CDC42, but not RHOA, indicating that RAC1 and CDC42 are more relevant to the pathogenesis of this SRNS variant than RHOA. Moreover, the mutations enhanced migration of cultured human podocytes; however, enhanced migration was reversed by treatment with RAC1 inhibitors. The nephrotic phenotype was recapitulated in arhgdia-deficient zebrafish. RAC1 inhibitors were partially effective in ameliorating arhgdia-associated defects. These findings identify a single-gene cause of NS and reveal that RHO GTPase signaling is a pathogenic mediator of SRNS.
Two hereditary syndromes, lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LD) and blepharo-chelio-dontic (BCD) syndrome include the aberrant growth of eyelashes from the meibomian glands, known as distichiasis. LD is an autosomal dominant syndrome primarily characterized by distichiasis and the onset of lymphedema usually during puberty. Mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXC2 are the only known cause of LD. BCD syndrome consists of autosomal dominant abnormalities of the eyelid, lip, and teeth, and the etiology remains unknown. In this report, we describe a proband that presented with distichiasis, microcephaly, bilateral grade IV vesicoureteral reflux requiring ureteral re-implantation, mild intellectual impairment and apparent glomuvenous malformations. Distichiasis was present in three generations of the proband’s maternal side of the family. The glomuvenous malformations were severe in the proband, and maternal family members exhibited lower extremity varicosities of variable degree. A GLMN (glomulin) gene mutation was identified in the proband that accounts for the observed glomuvenous malformations; no other family member could be tested. TIE2 sequencing revealed no mutations. In the proband, an additional submicroscopic 265 kb contiguous gene deletion was identified in 16q24.3, located 609 kb distal to the FOXC2 locus, which was inherited from the proband’s mother. The deletion includes the C16ORF95, FBXO31, MAP1LC3B, and ZCCHC14 loci and 115 kb of a gene desert distal to FOXC2 and FOXL1. Thus, it is likely that the microcephaly, distichiasis, vesicoureteral and intellectual impairment in this family may be caused by the deletion of one or more of these genes and/or deletion of distant cis-regulatory elements of FOXC2 expression.
FOXC2; FBXO31; MAP1LC3B; ZCCHC14; GLMN; distichiasis; vascular malformation; venous malformation; glomuvenous malformation
Individual cancers harbor a set of genetic aberrations that can be informative for identifying rational therapies currently available or in clinical trials. We implemented a pilot study to explore the practical challenges of applying high-throughput sequencing in clinical oncology. We enrolled patients with advanced or refractory cancer who were eligible for clinical trials. For each patient, we performed whole-genome sequencing of the tumor, targeted whole-exome sequencing of tumor and normal DNA, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the tumor to identify potentially informative mutations in a clinically relevant time frame of 3 to 4 weeks. With this approach, we detected several classes of cancer mutations including structural rearrangements, copy number alterations, point mutations, and gene expression alterations. A multidisciplinary Sequencing Tumor Board (STB) deliberated on the clinical interpretation of the sequencing results obtained. We tested our sequencing strategy on human prostate cancer xenografts. Next, we enrolled two patients into the clinical protocol and were able to review the results at our STB within 24 days of biopsy. The first patient had metastatic colorectal cancer in which we identified somatic point mutations in NRAS, TP53, AURKA, FAS, and MYH11, plus amplification and overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8). The second patient had malignant melanoma, in which we identified a somatic point mutation in HRAS and a structural rearrangement affecting CDKN2C. The STB identified the CDK8 amplification and Ras mutation as providing a rationale for clinical trials with CDK inhibitors or MEK (mitogenactivated or extracellular signal–regulated protein kinase kinase) and PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) inhibitors, respectively. Integrative high-throughput sequencing of patients with advanced cancer generates a comprehensive, individual mutational landscape to facilitate biomarker-driven clinical trials in oncology.
The N-terminal region of human HOXA13 has seven discrete polyalanine tracts. Our previous analysis of these tracts in multiple major vertebrate clades suggested that three are mammal-specific. We now report the N-terminal HOXA13 repetitive tract structures in the monotreme Tachyglossus aculeatus (echidna). Contrary to our expectations, echidna HOXA13 possesses a unique set of polyalanine tracts and an unprecedented polyglycine tract. The data support the conclusion that the emergence of expanded polyalanine tracts in proteins occurred very early in the stem lineage that gave rise to mammals, between 162 and 315 MYA.
HOXA13; polyalanine; monotreme; trinucleotide repeat expansion; echidna
We previously demonstrated that a ~1 Mb domain of genes upstream of and including Hoxa13 is co-expressed in the developing mouse limbs and genitalia. A very highly conserved non-coding sequence, mmA13CNS, located ~350 kb upstream of the Hoxa13 gene, was shown to be insufficient in transgenic mice to direct precise Hoxa13-like expression in the limb buds or genital bud, although some LacZ expression from the transgene was found in those tissues. In this report, we used overlapping β-globin minimal promoter LacZ recombinant BAC mouse transgenes encompassing mmA13CNS to localize genital bud and distal limb enhancers. Hoxa13-like embryonic genital bud expression was observed with both BACs, suggesting that a genital bud enhancer lies within the region of BAC overlap. In contrast, at least two separate regions of sequence remote to the HoxA cluster are required to drive Hoxa13-like expression in developing distal limbs. Given that the paralogous posterior HoxD and neighboring genes have been shown to be under the influence of long-range distal limb and genital bud enhancers, we hypothesize that both HoxA and HoxD long-range enhancers have one ancestral origin, which diverged in both sequence and function after the HoxA/D cluster duplication.
long-range regulation; Hoxa13; limb development; genital development; BAC transgenesis
BMP4 loss-of-function mutations and deletions have been shown to be associated with ocular, digital, and brain anomalies, but due to the paucity of these reports, the full phenotypic spectrum of human BMP4 mutations is not clear. We screened 133 patients with a variety of ocular disorders for BMP4 coding region mutations or genomic deletions. BMP4 deletions were detected in two patients: a patient affected with SHORT syndrome and a patient with anterior segment anomalies along with craniofacial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment. In addition to this, three intragenic BMP4 mutations were identified. A patient with anophthalmia, microphthalmia with sclerocornea, right-sided diaphragmatic hernia, and hydrocephalus was found to have a c.592C>T (p.R198X) nonsense mutation in BMP4. A frameshift mutation, c.171dupC (p.E58RfsX17), was identified in two half-siblings with anophthalmia/microphthalmia, discordant developmental delay/postaxial polydactyly, and poor growth as well as their unaffected mother; one affected sibling carried an additional BMP4 mutation in the second allele, c.362A>G (p.H121R). This is the first report indicating a role for BMP4 in SHORT syndrome, Axenfeld–Rieger malformation, growth delay, macrocephaly, and diaphragmatic hernia. These results significantly expand the number of reported loss-of-function mutations, further support the critical role of BMP4 in ocular development, and provide additional evidence of variable expression/non-penetrance of BMP4 mutations.
Chromosome region 1q21.1 contains extensive and complex low-copy repeats, and copy number variants (CNVs) in this region have recently been reported in association with congenital heart defects1, developmental delay2,3, schizophrenia and related psychoses4,5. We describe 21 probands with the 1q21.1 microdeletion and 15 probands with the 1q21.1 microduplication. These CNVs were inherited in most of the cases in which parental studies were available. Consistent and statistically significant features of microcephaly and macrocephaly were found in individuals with micro-deletion and microduplication, respectively. Notably, a paralog of the HYDIN gene located on 16q22.2 and implicated in autosomal recessive hydrocephalus6 was inserted into the 1q21.1 region during the evolution of Homo sapiens7; we found this locus to be deleted or duplicated in the individuals we studied, making it a probable candidate for the head size abnormalities observed. We propose that recurrent reciprocal microdeletions and microduplications within 1q21.1 represent previously unknown genomic disorders characterized by abnormal head size along with a spectrum of developmental delay, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, dysmorphic features and congenital anomalies. These phenotypes are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity.
HOX proteins are important transcriptional regulators in mammalian embryonic development and are dysregulated in human cancers. However, there are few known direct HOX target genes and their mechanisms of regulation are incompletely understood. To isolate and characterize gene segments through which HOX proteins regulate transcription we used cesium chloride centrifugation-based chromatin purification and immunoprecipitation (ChIP). From NIH 3T3-derived HOXA13-FLAG expressing cells, 33% of randomly selected, ChIP clones were reproducibly enriched. Hox-enriched fragments (HEFs) were more AT-rich compared with cloned fragments that failed reproducible ChIP. All HEFs augmented transcription of a heterologous promoter upon coexpression with HOXA13. One HEF was from intron 2 of Enpp2, a gene highly upregulated in these cells and has been implicated in cell motility. Using Enpp2 as a candidate direct target, we identified three additional HEFs upstream of the transcription start site. HOXA13 upregulated transcription from an Enpp2 promoter construct containing these sites, and each site was necessary for full HOXA13-induced expression. Lastly, given that HOX proteins have been demonstrated to interact with histone deacetylases and/or CBP, we explored whether histone acetylation changed at Enpp2 upon HOXA13-induced activation. No change in the general histone acetylation state was observed. Our results support models in which occupation of multiple HOX binding sites is associated with highly activated genes.
Interactions with co-factors provide a means by which HOX proteins exert specificity. To identify candidate protein interactors of HOXA13, we created and screened an E11.5–E12.5, distal limb bud yeast two-hybrid prey library. Among the interactors, we isolated the BMP-signaling effector Smad5, which interacted with the paralogous HOXD13 but not with HOXA11 or HOXA9, revealing unique interaction capabilities of the AbdB-like HOX proteins. Using deletion mutants, we determined that the MH2 domain of Smad5 is necessary for HOXA13 interaction. This is the first report demonstrating an interaction between HOX proteins and the MH2 domain of Smad proteins. HOXA13 and HOXD13 also bind to other BMP and TGF-β/Activin-regulated Smad proteins including Smad1 and Smad2, but not Smad4. Furthermore, HOXD13 could be co-immunoprecipitated with Smad1 from cells. Expression of HOXA13, HOXD13 or a HOXD13 homeodomain mutant (HOXD13IQN>AAA) antagonized TGF-β-stimulated transcriptional activation of the pAdtrack-3TP-Lux reporter vector in Mv1Lu cells as well as the Smad3/Smad4-activated pTRS6-E1b promoter in Hep3B cells. Finally, using mammalian one-hybrid assay, we show that transcriptional activation by a GAL4/Smad3-C-terminus fusion protein is specifically inhibited by HOXA13. Our results identify a new co-factor for HOX group 13 proteins and suggest that HOX proteins may modulate Smad-mediated transcriptional activity through protein–protein interactions without the requirement for HOX monomeric DNA-binding capability.
Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) is becoming a widely
used gene expression profiling method for the study of development,
cancer and other human diseases. Investigators using SAGE rely heavily
on the quantitative aspect of this method for cataloging gene expression
and comparing multiple SAGE libraries. We have developed additional
computational and statistical tools to assess the quality and reproducibility
of a SAGE library. Using these methods, a critical variable in the
SAGE protocol was identified that has the potential to bias the
Tag distribution relative to the GC content of the 10 bp SAGE Tag
DNA sequence. We also detected this bias in a number of publicly
available SAGE libraries. It is important to note that the GC content bias
went undetected by quality control procedures in the current SAGE
protocol and was only identified with the use of these statistical
analyses on as few as 750 SAGE Tags. In addition to keeping any
solution of free DiTags on ice, an analysis of the GC content should
be performed before sequencing large numbers of SAGE Tags to be
confident that SAGE libraries are free from experimental bias.