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1.  NAG-1/GDF15 Transgenic Mouse Has Less White Adipose Tissue and a Reduced Inflammatory Response 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:641851.
NAG-1/GDF15 is a TGF-β superfamily member with poorly characterized biological activity proposed to inhibit inflammatory cytokine production. Transgenic mice expressing human NAG-1/GDF15 (NAG-1Tg/Lox) are leaner with lower body weight and are resistant to chemically or genetically induced intestinal tumors. Because of the link between obesity, inflammation, and cancer, we examined whether these mice exhibit a reduced response to inflammatory stimuli. The NAG-1Tg/Lox mice had a reduced inflammatory response to LPS based on the serum levels of cytokines KC, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNFα. In contrast to literature reports and our in vivo results, NAG-1 did not inhibit LPS-induced cytokine expression in vitro in RAW264.7 cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, or mouse liver Kupffer cells, suggesting that NAG-1/GDF15 does not directly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. However, NAG-1Tg/Lox mice have less white adipose tissue, the major source of inflammatory adipokines including leptin. Basal and LPS-treated serum leptin and mRNA levels in the adipose tissue of NAG-1Tg/Lox mice were lower than those in WT mice. We propose that the reduced white adipose tissue and reduced leptin expression may be responsible, in part, for the reduced inflammatory response to LPS and the decrease in intestinal tumors observed in NAG-1Tg/Lox mice.
PMCID: PMC3662179  PMID: 23737651
2.  Elevated dietary linoleic acid increases gastric carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis in mice 
British Journal of Cancer  2010;103(8):1182-1191.
Dietary (n-6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids influence cancer development, but the mechanisms have not been well characterised in gastric carcinoma.
We used two in vivo models to investigate the effects of these common dietary components on tumour metastasis. In a model of experimental metastasis, immunocompromised mice were fed diets containing linoleic acid (LA) at 2% (LLA), 8% (HLA) or 12% (VHLA) by weight and inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with human gastric carcinoma cells (OCUM-2MD3). To model spontaneous metastasis, OCUM-2MD3 tumours were grafted onto the stomach walls of mice fed with the different diets. In in vitro assays, we investigated invasion and ERK phosphorylation of OCUM-2MD3 cells in the presence or absence of LA. Finally, we tested whether a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin, could block peritoneal metastasis in vivo.
Both the HLA and VHLA groups showed increased incidence of tumour nodules (LA: 53% HLA: 89% VHLA: 100% P<0.03); the VHLA group also displayed increased numbers of tumour nodules and higher total volume relative to LLA group in experimental metastasis model. Both liver invasion (78%) and metastasis to the peritoneal cavity (67%) were more frequent in VHLA group compared with the LLA group (22% and 11%, respectively; P<0.03) in spontaneous metastasis model. We also found that the invasive ability of these cells is greatly enhanced when exposed to LA in vitro. Linoleic acid also increased invasion of other scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells, OCUM-12, NUGC3 and MKN-45. Linoleic acid effect on OCUM-2MD3 cells seems to be dependent on phosphorylation of ERK. The data suggest that invasion and phosphorylation of ERK were dependent on COX. Indomethacin decreased the number of tumours and total tumour volume in both LLA and VHLA groups. Finally, COX-1, which is known to be an important enzyme in the generation of bioactive metabolites from dietary fatty acids, appears to be responsible for the increased metastatic behaviour of OCUM-2MD3 cells in the mouse model.
Dietary LA stimulates invasion and peritoneal metastasis of gastric carcinoma cells through COX-catalysed metabolism and activation of ERK, steps that compose pathway potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention.
PMCID: PMC2967057  PMID: 20842125
gastric carcinoma; dietary fatty acid; cyclooxygenase; metastasis; invasion
3.  Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein does not stimulate either prostaglandin formation or the expression of prostaglandin H synthase in THP-1 human monocytes/macrophages. 
Journal of Virology  1995;69(12):8020-8026.
Prostaglandin E2 is observed at elevated levels during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and thus may contribute to the HIV-dependent immunosuppression. The mechanisms responsible for this increase are not understood. Evidence indicates that the viral envelope proteins perturb membrane signaling mediated by the CD4 receptor, suggesting that the free envelope protein and/or the intact virus may be responsible for the increase in prostaglandin E2 levels. In this study, we have used THP-1 human monocytes and THP-1 cells differentiated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment into macrophages to determine if the HIV envelope protein, gp120, or an anti-CD4 receptor antibody stimulates prostaglandin formation by interacting with the CD4 receptor. Incubation of THP-1 cells with OKT4A antibody greatly stimulated the CD4-p56lck receptor complex as estimated by enhanced p56lck autophosphorylation, while the gp120 gave small but significant responses. Monocytic THP-1 cells poorly metabolized arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 as measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. Western blot (immunoblot) and Northern (RNA) blot analyses revealed that unstimulated monocytes expressed little prostaglandin H synthase 1 and 2 (PGHS-1 and -2). Incubation of the monocytes with lipopolysaccharide, OKT4A, or gp120 did not increase the formation of prostaglandins. The expression of PGHS-1 or PGHS-2 was also not increased. Differentiation of the monocytes to macrophages by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment resulted in increased expression of PGHS-1 and increased formation of prostaglandins compared with that for the monocytes. Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of the macrophages increased the formation of prostaglandins and increased the expression of PGHS-2 in the macrophages. However, OKT4A or gp120 preparation, at concentrations that stimulated p56lck autophosphorylation, did not enhance the formation of prostaglandins or the expression of PGHS-1 or PGHS-2. OKT4A and gp120 also did not stimulate the release of arachidonic acid, indicating that phospholipase A2 was not activated by the CD4 receptor in either the THP-1 monocytes or macrophages. These results indicate that activation of the CD4-p56lck receptor signal transduction pathway by the HIV envelope protein does not increase prostaglandin formation.
PMCID: PMC189747  PMID: 7494315
4.  Metabolism of aromatic amines by prostaglandin H synthase. 
The metabolism of aromatic amines by the peroxidase activity of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) has been studied in this laboratory by use of two model compounds, the carcinogenic primary amine 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and the substituted amine aminopyrine (AP). 2-AF is oxidized by PHS to 2, 2-azobisfluorene, 2-aminodifluorenylamine, 2-nitrofluorene, polymeric material, and products covalently bound to macromolecules. In the presence of phenolic compounds, 2-AF oxidation results in the formation of amine/phenol adducts. The data are consistent with a one-electron mechanism of 2-AF oxidation by PHS; furthermore, an N-hydroxy intermediate is not involved in 2-AF metabolism by PHS. PHS also catalyzes the binding of 2-AF to DNA in vitro. Unique 2-AF/DNA adducts were isolated and are distinct from the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-AF adduct formed from the reaction of N-hydroxy-2-AF with DNA. These new adducts represent a marker unique to peroxidative activation of 2-AF. AP is oxidized by the peroxidase activity of PHS to the cation radical, with one molecule of hydroperoxy fatty acid reduced for every two molecules of AP free radical formed. The decay of the AP radical follows second order kinetics, supporting the proposed mechanism in which the AP radical disproportionates to an iminium cation, followed by hydrolysis of this species to the demethylated amine and formaldehyde. In the presence of glutathione, the cation radical is reduced to the parent amine, resulting in the formation of the glutathione thiyl radical. It thus appears that both primary and substituted aromatic amines may undergo one-electron oxidation by PHS.
PMCID: PMC1568607  PMID: 3938394
5.  Pulmonary biosynthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins and related substances. 
On passage through the lung vascular bed, prostaglandins are removed from the circulation by a transport carrier and subsequently inactivated by intracellular enzymes. However, PGI2 is not inactivated by the lung in vivo. Although PGI2 is an excellent substrate for the intracellular enzymes in vitro, PGI2 is not a substrate for the carrier system. Thus, the transport carrier determines which circulating prostaglandin is inactivated by the pulmonary vascular bed. Also, the lung has a high capacity for forming prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Considerable differences exist between species in relation to amount and specific prostaglandin formed as determined by incubation of 11C-PGH2 with pulmonary microsomes. The pulmonary biosynthesis and metabolism of these prostaglandins and related substances are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1568381  PMID: 6428876
6.  Studies on the uptake, metabolism, and release of endogenous and exogenous chemicals by use of the isolated perfused lung 
The isolated perfused lung is a valuable tool for studying many lung functions. The kinds of information one can obtain from the isolated perfused lung are illustrated by examples from our studies on the uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous chemicals.
PMCID: PMC1475218  PMID: 1017422

Results 1-6 (6)