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author:("Zhang, qidong")
1.  Insulin Resistance and Altered Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking Nur77 
Diabetes  2009;58(12):2788-2796.
OBJECTIVE
Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor with pleotropic functions. Previous studies have identified Nur77 as a transcriptional regulator of glucose utilization genes in skeletal muscle and gluconeogenesis in liver. However, the net functional impact of these pathways is unknown. To examine the consequence of Nur77 signaling for glucose metabolism in vivo, we challenged Nur77 null mice with high-fat feeding.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Wild-type and Nur77 null mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% calories from fat) for 3 months. We determined glucose tolerance, tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, oxygen consumption, muscle and liver lipid content, muscle insulin signaling, and expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes.
RESULTS
Mice with genetic deletion of Nur77 exhibited increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed greater high-fat diet–induced insulin resistance in both skeletal muscle and liver of Nur77 null mice compared with controls. Loss of Nur77 expression in skeletal muscle impaired insulin signaling and markedly reduced GLUT4 protein expression. Muscles lacking Nur77 also exhibited increased triglyceride content and accumulation of multiple even-chained acylcarnitine species. In the liver, Nur77 deletion led to hepatic steatosis and enhanced expression of lipogenic genes, likely reflecting the lipogenic effect of hyperinsulinemia.
CONCLUSIONS
Collectively, these data demonstrate that loss of Nur77 influences systemic glucose metabolism and highlight the physiological contribution of muscle Nur77 to this regulatory pathway.
doi:10.2337/db09-0763
PMCID: PMC2780886  PMID: 19741162
2.  Nur77 coordinately regulates expression of genes linked to glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle 
Innervation is important for normal metabolism in skeletal muscle, including insulin-sensitive glucose uptake. However, the transcription factors that transduce signals from the neuromuscular junction to the nucleus and affect changes in metabolic gene expression are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a regulator of gene expression linked to glucose utilization in muscle. In vivo, Nur77 is preferentially expressed in glycolytic compared to oxidative muscle and is responsive to β-adrenergic stimulation. Denervation of rat muscle compromises expression of Nur77 in parallel with that of numerous genes linked to glucose metabolism, including GLUT4 and genes involved in glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and the glycerophosphate shuttle. Ectopic expression of Nur77, either in rat muscle or in C2C12 muscle cells, induces expression of a highly overlapping set of genes, including GLUT4, muscle phosphofructokinase, and glycogen phosphorylase. Furthermore, selective knockdown of Nur77 in rat muscle by shRNA or genetic deletion of Nur77 in mice reduces the expression of a battery of genes involved in skeletal muscle glucose utilization in vivo. Finally, we show that Nur77 binds the promoter regions of multiple innervation-dependent genes in muscle. These results identify Nur77 as a potential mediator of neuromuscular signaling in the control of metabolic gene expression.
doi:10.1210/me.2007-0169
PMCID: PMC2602962  PMID: 17550977
Nur77; glucose metabolism; skeletal muscle
3.  p115 Interacts with the GLUT4 Vesicle Protein, IRAP, and Plays a Critical Role in Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 Translocation 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2005;16(6):2882-2890.
Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is an abundant cargo protein of Glut4 storage vesicles (GSVs) that traffics to and from the plasma membrane in response to insulin. We used the amino terminus cytoplasmic domain of IRAP, residues 1–109, as an affinity reagent to identify cytosolic proteins that might be involved in GSV trafficking. In this way, we identified p115, a peripheral membrane protein known to be involved in membrane trafficking. In murine adipocytes, we determined that p115 was localized to the perinuclear region by immunofluorescence and throughout the cell by fractionation. By immunofluorescence, p115 partially colocalizes with GLUT4 and IRAP in the perinuclear region of cultured fat cells. The amino terminus of p115 binds to IRAP and overexpression of a N-terminal construct results in its colocalization with GLUT4 throughout the cell. Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation is completely inhibited under these conditions. Overexpression of p115 C-terminus has no significant effect on GLUT4 distribution and translocation. Finally, expression of the p115 N-terminus construct has no effect on the distribution and trafficking of GLUT1. These data suggest that p115 has an important and specific role in insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation, probably by way of tethering insulin-sensitive Glut4 vesicles at an as yet unknown intracellular site.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E05-01-0072
PMCID: PMC1142432  PMID: 15800058

Results 1-3 (3)