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1.  Ceramides Contained in LDL Are Elevated in Type 2 Diabetes and Promote Inflammation and Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes  2013;62(2):401-410.
Dysregulated lipid metabolism and inflammation are linked to the development of insulin resistance in obesity, and the intracellular accumulation of the sphingolipid ceramide has been implicated in these processes. Here, we explored the role of circulating ceramide on the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Ceramide transported in LDL is elevated in the plasma of obese patients with type 2 diabetes and correlated with insulin resistance but not with the degree of obesity. Treating cultured myotubes with LDL containing ceramide promoted ceramide accrual in cells and was accompanied by reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, Akt phosphorylation, and GLUT4 translocation compared with LDL deficient in ceramide. LDL-ceramide induced a proinflammatory response in cultured macrophages via toll-like receptor–dependent and –independent mechanisms. Finally, infusing LDL-ceramide into lean mice reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and this was due to impaired insulin action specifically in skeletal muscle. These newly identified roles of LDL-ceramide suggest that strategies aimed at reducing hepatic ceramide production or reducing ceramide packaging into lipoproteins may improve skeletal muscle insulin action.
doi:10.2337/db12-0686
PMCID: PMC3554351  PMID: 23139352
2.  Insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of obese type 2 diabetic men and men with normal glucose tolerance 
Diabetologia  2013;56:2255-2265.
Aims/hypothesis
Impaired regulation of lipolysis and accumulation of lipid intermediates may contribute to obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle (SM) of obese men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and obese type 2 diabetic men.
Methods
Eleven NGT men and nine long-term diagnosed type 2 diabetic men (7 ± 1 years), matched for age (58 ± 2 vs 62 ± 2 years), BMI (31.4 ± 0.6 vs 30.5 ± 0.6 kg/m2) and \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \overset{\cdot }{V}{\mathrm{O}}_{2 \max } $$\end{document} (28.9 ± 1.5 vs 29.5 ± 2.4 ml kg−1 min−1) participated in this study. Interstitial glycerol concentrations in AT and SM were assessed using microdialysis during a 1 h basal period and a 6 h stepwise hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp (8, 20 and 40 mU m−2 min−1). AT and SM biopsies were collected to investigate underlying mechanisms.
Results
Hyperinsulinaemia suppressed interstitial SM glycerol concentrations less in men with type 2 diabetes (−7 ± 6%, −13 ± 9% and −27 ± 9%) compared with men with NGT (−21 ± 7%, −38 ± 8% and −53 ± 8%) (p = 0.014). This was accompanied by increased circulating fatty acid and glycerol concentrations, a lower glucose infusion rate (21.8 ± 3.1 vs 30.5 ± 2.0 μmol kg body weight−1 min−1; p < 0.05), higher hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) serine 660 phosphorylation, increased saturated diacylglycerol (DAG) lipid species in the muscle membrane and increased protein kinase C (PKC) activation in type 2 diabetic men vs men with NGT. No significant differences in insulin-mediated reduction in AT interstitial glycerol were observed between groups.
Conclusions/interpretation
Our results suggest that a blunted insulin-mediated suppression of SM lipolysis may promote the accumulation of membrane saturated DAG, aggravating insulin resistance, at least partly mediated by PKC. This may represent an important mechanism involved in the progression of insulin resistance towards type 2 diabetes.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01680133
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-013-2995-9) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
doi:10.1007/s00125-013-2995-9
PMCID: PMC3764323  PMID: 23907381
Adipose tissue; Diabetes; Insulin resistance; Lipolysis; Skeletal muscle
3.  Fat Partitioning and Insulin Sensitivity 
Diabetes  2009;58(1):16-17.
doi:10.2337/db08-1466
PMCID: PMC2606866  PMID: 19114724
4.  Pigment Epithelium–Derived Factor Regulates Lipid Metabolism via Adipose Triglyceride Lipase 
Diabetes  2011;60(5):1458-1466.
OBJECTIVE
Pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF) is an adipocyte-secreted factor involved in the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Previous studies have identified PEDF as a regulator of triacylglycerol metabolism in the liver that may act through adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). We used ATGL−/− mice to determine the role of PEDF in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Recombinant PEDF was administered to ATGL−/− and wild-type mice, and whole-body energy metabolism was studied by indirect calorimetry. Adipose tissue lipolysis and skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism was determined in isolated tissue preparations. Muscle lipids were assessed by electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were assessed.
RESULTS
PEDF impaired the capacity to adjust substrate selection, resulting in a delayed diurnal decline in the respiratory exchange ratio, and suppressed daily fatty acid oxidation. PEDF enhanced adipocyte lipolysis and triacylglycerol lipase activity in skeletal muscle. Muscle fatty acid uptake and storage were unaffected, whereas fatty acid oxidation was impaired. These changes in lipid metabolism were abrogated in ATGL−/− mice and were not attributable to hypothalamic actions. ATGL−/− mice were also refractory to PEDF-mediated insulin resistance, but this was not related to changes in lipid species in skeletal muscle.
CONCLUSIONS
The results are the first direct demonstration that 1) PEDF influences systemic fatty acid metabolism by promoting lipolysis in an ATGL-dependent manner and reducing fatty acid oxidation and 2) ATGL is required for the negative effects of PEDF on insulin action.
doi:10.2337/db10-0845
PMCID: PMC3292318  PMID: 21464445
5.  Hematopoietic Cell–Restricted Deletion of CD36 Reduces High-Fat Diet–Induced Macrophage Infiltration and Improves Insulin Signaling in Adipose Tissue 
Diabetes  2011;60(4):1100-1110.
OBJECTIVE
The fatty acid translocase and scavenger receptor CD36 is important in the recognition and uptake of lipids. Accordingly, we hypothesized that it plays a role in saturated fatty acid–induced macrophage lipid accumulation and proinflammatory activation.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In vitro, the effect of CD36 inhibition and deletion in lipid-induced macrophage inflammation was assessed using the putative CD36 inhibitor, sulfosuccinimidyl oleate (SSO), and bone marrow–derived macrophages from mice with (CD36KO) or without (wild-type) global deletion of CD36. To investigate whether deletion of macrophage CD36 would improve insulin sensitivity in vivo, wild-type mice were transplanted with bone marrow from CD36KO or wild-type mice and then fed a standard or high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks.
RESULTS
SSO treatment markedly reduced saturated fatty acid–induced lipid accumulation and inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Mice harboring CD36-specific deletion in hematopoietic-derived cells (HSC CD36KO) fed an HFD displayed improved insulin signaling and reduced macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue compared with wild-type mice, but this did not translate into protection against HFD-induced whole-body insulin resistance. Contrary to our hypothesis and our results using SSO in RAW264.7 macrophages, neither saturated fatty acid–induced lipid accumulation nor inflammation was reduced when comparing CD36KO with wild-type bone marrow–derived macrophages.
CONCLUSIONS
Although CD36 does not appear important in saturated fatty acid–induced macrophage lipid accumulation, our study uncovers a novel role for CD36 in the migration of proinflammatory phagocytes to adipose tissue in obesity, with a concomitant improvement in insulin action.
doi:10.2337/db10-1353
PMCID: PMC3064084  PMID: 21378177
6.  T-Cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Attenuates STAT3 and Insulin Signaling in the Liver to Regulate Gluconeogenesis 
Diabetes  2010;59(8):1906-1914.
OBJECTIVE
Insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-instigated JAK/STAT3-signaling pathways in the liver inhibit the expression of gluconeogenic genes to decrease hepatic glucose output. The insulin receptor (IR) and JAK1 tyrosine kinases and STAT3 can serve as direct substrates for the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP). Homozygous TCPTP-deficiency results in perinatal lethality prohibiting any informative assessment of TCPTP's role in glucose homeostasis. Here we have used Ptpn2+/− mice to investigate TCPTP's function in glucose homeostasis.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We analyzed insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis in chow versus high-fat–fed (HFF) Ptpn2+/− and Ptpn2+/+ mice and insulin and IL-6 signaling and gluconeogenic gene expression in Ptpn2+/− and Ptpn2+/+ hepatocytes.
RESULTS
HFF Ptpn2+/− mice exhibited lower fasted blood glucose and decreased hepatic glucose output as determined in hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps and by the decreased blood glucose levels in pyruvate tolerance tests. The reduced hepatic glucose output coincided with decreased expression of the gluconeogenic genes G6pc and Pck1 and enhanced hepatic STAT3 phosphorylation and PI3K/Akt signaling in the fasted state. Insulin-induced IR-β–subunit Y1162/Y1163 phosphorylation and PI3K/Akt signaling and IL-6–induced STAT3 phosphorylation were also enhanced in isolated Ptpn2+/− hepatocytes. The increased insulin and IL-6 signaling resulted in enhanced suppression of G6pc and Pck1 mRNA.
CONCLUSIONS
Liver TCPTP antagonises both insulin and STAT3 signaling pathways to regulate gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output.
doi:10.2337/db09-1365
PMCID: PMC2911070  PMID: 20484139
7.  Insulin Resistance and Altered Systemic Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking Nur77 
Diabetes  2009;58(12):2788-2796.
OBJECTIVE
Nur77 is an orphan nuclear receptor with pleotropic functions. Previous studies have identified Nur77 as a transcriptional regulator of glucose utilization genes in skeletal muscle and gluconeogenesis in liver. However, the net functional impact of these pathways is unknown. To examine the consequence of Nur77 signaling for glucose metabolism in vivo, we challenged Nur77 null mice with high-fat feeding.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Wild-type and Nur77 null mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% calories from fat) for 3 months. We determined glucose tolerance, tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, oxygen consumption, muscle and liver lipid content, muscle insulin signaling, and expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes.
RESULTS
Mice with genetic deletion of Nur77 exhibited increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed greater high-fat diet–induced insulin resistance in both skeletal muscle and liver of Nur77 null mice compared with controls. Loss of Nur77 expression in skeletal muscle impaired insulin signaling and markedly reduced GLUT4 protein expression. Muscles lacking Nur77 also exhibited increased triglyceride content and accumulation of multiple even-chained acylcarnitine species. In the liver, Nur77 deletion led to hepatic steatosis and enhanced expression of lipogenic genes, likely reflecting the lipogenic effect of hyperinsulinemia.
CONCLUSIONS
Collectively, these data demonstrate that loss of Nur77 influences systemic glucose metabolism and highlight the physiological contribution of muscle Nur77 to this regulatory pathway.
doi:10.2337/db09-0763
PMCID: PMC2780886  PMID: 19741162
8.  Reactive oxygen species enhance insulin sensitivity 
Cell metabolism  2009;10(4):260-272.
SUMMARY
Chronic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria may contribute to the development of insulin resistance, a primary feature of type 2 diabetes. In recent years it has become apparent that ROS generation in response to physiological stimuli such as insulin may also facilitate signaling by reversibly oxidizing and inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here we report that mice lacking one of the key enzymes involved in the elimination of physiological ROS, glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), were protected from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. The increased insulin sensitivity in Gpx1−/− mice was attributed to insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling and glucose uptake in muscle and could be reversed by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine. Increased insulin signaling correlated with enhanced oxidation of the PTP family member PTEN, which terminates signals generated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. These studies provide causal evidence for the enhancement of insulin signaling by ROS in vivo.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.08.009
PMCID: PMC2892288  PMID: 19808019
9.  Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Stimulates Muscle Glucose Uptake by a PI3-Kinase–Dependent Pathway That Is Impaired With Obesity 
Diabetes  2009;58(4):829-839.
OBJECTIVE
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) reverses muscle insulin resistance by increasing fatty acid oxidation through gp130-LIF receptor signaling to the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). CNTF also increases Akt signaling in neurons and adipocytes. Because both Akt and AMPK regulate glucose uptake, we investigated muscle glucose uptake in response to CNTF signaling in lean and obese mice.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Mice were injected intraperitoneally with saline or CNTF, and blood glucose was monitored. The effects of CNTF on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and AMPK/Akt signaling were investigated in incubated soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from muscle-specific AMPKα2 kinase-dead, gp130ΔSTAT, and lean and obese ob/ob and high-fat–fed mice. The effect of C2-ceramide on glucose uptake and gp130 signaling was also examined.
RESULTS
CNTF reduced blood glucose and increased glucose uptake in isolated muscles in a time- and dose-dependent manner with maximal effects after 30 min with 100 ng/ml. CNTF increased Akt-S473 phosphorylation in soleus and EDL; however, AMPK-T172 phosphorylation was only increased in soleus. Incubation of muscles from AMPK kinase dead (KD) and wild-type littermates with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY-294002 demonstrated that PI3-kinase, but not AMPK, was essential for CNTF-stimulated glucose uptake. CNTF-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation were substantially reduced in obesity (high-fat diet and ob/ob) despite normal induction of gp130/AMPK signaling—effects also observed when treating myotubes with C2-ceramide.
CONCLUSIONS
CNTF acutely increases muscle glucose uptake by a mechanism involving the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway that does not require AMPK. CNTF-stimulated glucose uptake is impaired in obesity-induced insulin resistance and by ceramide.
doi:10.2337/db08-0659
PMCID: PMC2661597  PMID: 19136654
10.  Overexpression of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1 in Skeletal Muscle Is Sufficient to Enhance Fatty Acid Oxidation and Improve High-Fat Diet–Induced Insulin Resistance 
Diabetes  2009;58(3):550-558.
OBJECTIVE—Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with lipid accumulation, but whether insulin resistance is due to reduced or enhanced flux of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria is both controversial and unclear. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle–specific overexpression of the muscle isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the enzyme that controls the entry of long-chain fatty acyl CoA into mitochondria, would enhance rates of fatty acid oxidation and improve insulin action in muscle in high-fat diet insulin-resistant rats.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Rats were fed a standard (chow) or high-fat diet for 4 weeks. After 3 weeks, in vivo electrotransfer was used to overexpress the muscle isoform of CPT1 in the distal hindlimb muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus [EDL]). Skeletal muscle insulin action was examined in vivo during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.
RESULTS—In vivo electrotransfer produced a physiologically relevant increase of ∼20% in enzyme activity; and although the high-fat diet produced insulin resistance in the sham-treated muscle, insulin action was improved in the CPT1-overexpressing muscle. This improvement was associated with a reduction in triacylglycerol content, the membrane-to-cytosolic ratio of diacylglycerol, and protein kinase C θ activity. Importantly, overexpression of CPT1 did not affect markers of mitochondrial capacity or function, nor did it alter skeletal muscle acylcarnitine profiles irrespective of diet.
CONCLUSIONS—Our data provide clear evidence that a physiological increase in the capacity of long-chain fatty acyl CoA entry into mitochondria is sufficient to ameliorate lipid-induced insulin resistance in muscle.
doi:10.2337/db08-1078
PMCID: PMC2646053  PMID: 19073774
11.  Macrophage PPARγ is required for normal skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin sensitivity and full antidiabetic effects of thiazolidinediones 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  2007;117(6):1658-1669.
PPARγ is required for fat cell development and is the molecular target of antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which exert insulin-sensitizing effects in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Unexpectedly, we found that inactivation of PPARγ in macrophages results in the development of significant glucose intolerance plus skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin resistance in lean mice fed a normal diet. This phenotype was associated with increased expression of inflammatory markers and impaired insulin signaling in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver. PPARγ-deficient macrophages secreted elevated levels of factors that impair insulin responsiveness in muscle cells in a manner that was enhanced by exposure to FFAs. Consistent with this, the relative degree of insulin resistance became more severe in mice lacking macrophage PPARγ following high-fat feeding, and these mice were only partially responsive to TZD treatment. These findings reveal an essential role of PPARγ in macrophages for the maintenance of whole-body insulin action and in mediating the antidiabetic actions of TZDs.
doi:10.1172/JCI31561
PMCID: PMC1868788  PMID: 17525798

Results 1-11 (11)