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1.  Paraoxonases-2 and -3 Are Important Defense Enzymes against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Factors due to Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties 
Journal of Lipids  2012;2012:352857.
The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious damage in immunocompromised patients by secretion of various virulence factors, among them the quorum sensing N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12) and the redox-active pyocyanin (PCN). Paraoxonase-2 (PON2) may protect against P. aeruginosa infections, as it efficiently inactivates 3OC12 and diminishes PCN-induced oxidative stress. This defense could be circumvented because 3OC12 mediates intracellular Ca2+-rise in host cells, which causes rapid inactivation and degradation of PON2. Importantly, we recently found that the PON2 paralogue PON3 prevents mitochondrial radical formation. Here we investigated its role as additional potential defense mechanism against P. aeruginosa infections. Our studies demonstrate that PON3 diminished PCN-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, it showed clear anti-inflammatory potential by protecting against NF-κB activation and IL-8 release. The latter similarly applied to PON2. Furthermore, we observed a Ca2+-mediated inactivation and degradation of PON3, again in accordance with previous findings for PON2. Our results suggest that the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions of PON2 and PON3 are an important part of our innate defense system against P. aeruginosa infections. Furthermore, we conclude that P. aeruginosa circumvents PON3 protection by the same pathway as for PON2. This may help identifying underlying mechanisms in order to sustain the protection afforded by these enzymes.
PMCID: PMC3335252  PMID: 22570791
2.  Paraoxonase 2 Deficiency Alters Mitochondrial Function and Exacerbates the Development of Atherosclerosis 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2011;14(3):341-351.
Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of decreased activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes plays a role in the development of many inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. Our previous studies established that paraoxonase 2 (PON2) possesses antiatherogenic properties and is associated with lower ROS levels. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which PON2 modulates ROS production. In this report, we demonstrate that PON2-def mice on the hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E−/− background (PON2-def/apolipoprotein E−/−) develop exacerbated atherosclerotic lesions with enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress. We show that PON2 protein is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it is found associated with respiratory complex III. Employing surface-plasmon-resonance, we demonstrate that PON2 binds with high affinity to coenzyme Q10, an important component of the ETC. Enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress in PON2-def mice was accompanied by significantly reduced ETC complex I + III activities, oxygen consumption, and adenosine triphosphate levels in PON2-def mice. In contrast, overexpression of PON2 effectively protected mitochondria from antimycin- or oligomycin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results illustrate that the antiatherogenic effects of PON2 are, in part, mediated by the role of PON2 in mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 341–351.
PMCID: PMC3011913  PMID: 20578959
3.  Dominant Role of Paraoxonases in Inactivation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Signal N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-l-Homoserine Lactone ▿  
Infection and Immunity  2008;76(6):2512-2519.
The pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious infections in immunocompromised patients. N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) is a key component of P. aeruginosa's quorum-sensing system and regulates the expression of many virulence factors. 3OC12-HSL was previously shown to be hydrolytically inactivated by the paraoxonase (PON) family of calcium-dependent esterases, consisting of PON1, PON2, and PON3. Here we determined the specific activities of purified human PONs for 3OC12-HSL hydrolysis, including the common PON1 polymorphic forms, and found they were in the following order: PON2 ≫ PON1192R > PON1192Q > PON3. PON2 exhibited a high specific activity of 7.6 ± 0.4 μmols/min/mg at 10 μM 3OC12-HSL, making it the best PON2 substrate identified to date. By use of class-specific inhibitors, approximately 85 and 95% of the 3OC12-HSL lactonase activity were attributable to PON1 in mouse and human sera, respectively. In mouse liver homogenates, the activity was metal dependent, with magnesium- and manganese-dependent lactonase activities comprising 10 to 15% of the calcium-dependent activity. In mouse lung homogenates, all of the activity was calcium dependent. The calcium-dependent activities were irreversibly inhibited by extended EDTA treatment, implicating PONs as the major enzymes inactivating 3OC12-HSL. In human HepG2 and EA.hy 926 cell lysates, the 3OC12-HSL lactonase activity closely paralleled the PON2 protein levels after PON2 knockdown by small interfering RNA treatment of the cells. These findings suggest that PONs, particularly PON2, could be an important mechanism by which 3OC12-HSL is inactivated in mammals.
PMCID: PMC2423076  PMID: 18347034

Results 1-3 (3)