The Ras association and PH domains of RIAM function as a proximity detector for activated Rap1 and PI(4,5)P2.
Adaptive immunity depends on lymphocyte adhesion that is mediated by the integrin lymphocyte functional antigen 1 (LFA-1). The small guanosine triphosphatase Rap1 regulates LFA-1 adhesiveness through one of its effectors, Rap1-interacting adapter molecule (RIAM). We show that RIAM was recruited to the lymphocyte plasma membrane (PM) through its Ras association (RA) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, both of which were required for lymphocyte adhesion. The N terminus of RIAM inhibited membrane translocation. In vitro, the RA domain bound both Rap1 and H-Ras with equal but relatively low affinity, whereas in vivo only Rap1 was required for PM association. The PH domain bound phosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and was responsible for the spatial distribution of RIAM only at the PM of activated T cells. We determined the crystal structure of the RA and PH domains and found that, despite an intervening linker of 50 aa, the two domains were integrated into a single structural unit, which was critical for proper localization to the PM. Thus, the RA-PH domains of RIAM function as a proximity detector for activated Rap1 and PI(4,5)P2.
A cycle of palmitoylation/depalmitoylation of H-Ras mediates bidirectional trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane but nothing is known about how this cycle is regulated. We show that the prolyl isomerase (PI) FKBP12 binds to H-Ras in a palmitoylation-dependent fashion and promotes depalmitoylation. A variety of inhibitors of the PI activity of FKBP12, including FK506, rapamycin and cycloheximide, increase steady-state palmitoylation. FK506 inhibits retrograde trafficking of H-Ras from the plasma membrane to the Golgi in a proline 179-dependent fashion, augments early GTP-loading of Ras in response to growth factors, and promotes H-Ras dependent neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells. These data demonstrate that FKBP12 regulates H-Ras trafficking by promoting depalmitoylation through cis-trans isomerization of a peptidyl-prolyl bond in proximity to the palmitoylated cysteines.
Proteins that end with a CAAX sequence are targeted to cellular membranes by a series of posttranslational modifications that include prenylation, proteolysis, and carboxyl methylation. Two prenyltransferases modify CAAX proteins: farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I). Rho family GTPases that control the actin cytoskeleton and are therefore critical to inflammatory cell function are substrates for GGTase-I. In this issue of the JCI, Khan et al. examined mice in which GGTase-I was conditionally deleted in macrophages. Rather than obtunded cells, the authors found activated Rho proteins in fully functional macrophages that hypersecreted inflammatory cytokines and induced an erosive, inflammatory arthritis. This surprising result calls into question the role of protein geranylgeranylation in inflammatory cell signaling.
In analyzing the sequence tags for mutant mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines in BayGenomics (a mouse gene-trapping resource), we identified a novel gene, Agpat6, with sequence similarities to previously characterized glycerolipid acyltransferases. Agpat6’s closest family member is another novel gene that we have provisionally designated Agpat8. Both Agpat6 and Agpat8 are conserved from plants, nematodes, and flies to mammals. AGPAT6, which is predicted to contain multiple membrane-spanning helices, is found exclusively within the endoplasmic reticulum in mammalian cells. To gain insights into the in vivo importance of Agpat6, we used the Agpat6 ES cell line from BayGenomics to create Agpat6-deficient (Agpat6−/−) mice. Agpat6−/− mice lacked full-length Agpat6 transcripts, as judged by northern blots. One of the most striking phenotypes of Agpat6−/− mice was a defect in lactation. Pups nursed by Agpat6−/− mothers die perinatally. Normally, Agpat6 is expressed at high levels in the mammary epithelium of breast tissue, but not in the surrounding adipose tissue. Histological studies revealed that the aveoli and ducts of Agpat6−/− lactating mammary glands were underdeveloped, and there was a dramatic decrease in size and number of lipid droplets within mammary epithelial cells and ducts. Also, the milk from Agpat6−/− mice was markedly depleted in diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols. Thus, we identified a novel glycerolipid acyltransferase of the endoplasmic reticulum, AGPAT6, which is crucial for the production of milk fat by the mammary gland.
LPAAT; acyltransferase; transacylase; milk fat
Ras proteins associate with cellular membranes as a consequence of a series of posttranslational modifications of a C-terminal CAAX sequence that include prenylation and are thought to be required for biological activity. In Drosophila melanogaster, Ras1 is required for eye development. We found that Drosophila Ras1 is inefficiently prenylated as a consequence of a lysine in the A1 position of its CAAX sequence such that a significant pool remains soluble in the cytosol. We used mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) to assess if various Ras1 transgenes could restore photoreceptor fate to eye disc cells that are null for Ras1. Surprisingly, we found that whereas Ras1 with an enhanced efficiency of membrane targeting could not rescue the Ras1 null phenotype, Ras1 that was not at all membrane targeted by virtue of a mutation of the CAAX cysteine was able to fully rescue eye development. In addition, constitutively active Ras112V,C186S not targeted to membranes produced a hypermorphic phenotype and stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in S2 cells. We conclude that the membrane association of Drosophila Ras1 is not required for eye development.
Signal transduction along the Ras/MAPK pathway has been generally thought to take place at the plasma membrane. It is now evident that the plasma membrane is not the only platform capable of Ras/MAPK signal induction. Fusion of Ras with green fluorescent protein and the development of genetically encoded fluorescent probes for Ras activation have revealed signaling events on a variety of intracellular membranes including endosomes, the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, the Ras/MAPK pathway is spatially compartmentalized within cells and this may afford greater complexity of signal output.
The Rnd proteins (Rnd1, Rnd2 and Rnd3/RhoE) form a distinct branch of the Rho family of small GTPases. Altered Rnd3 expression causes changes in cytoskeletal organization and cell cycle progression. Rnd3 functions to decrease RhoA activity, but how Rnd3 itself is regulated to cause these changes is still under investigation. Unlike other Rho family proteins, Rnd3 is regulated not by GTP/GDP cycling, but at the level of expression and by posttranslational modifications such as prenylation and phosphorylation. We show here that, upon PKC agonist stimulation, Rnd3 undergoes an electrophoretic mobility shift and its subcellular localization becomes enriched at internal membranes. These changes are blocked by inhibition of conventional PKC isoforms and do not occur in PKCα-null cells or to a nonphosphorylatable mutant of Rnd3. We further show that PKCα directly phosphorylates Rnd3 in an in vitro kinase assay. Additionally, we provide evidence that the phosphorylation status of Rnd3 has a direct effect on its ability to block signaling from the Rho-ROCK pathway. These results identify an additional mechanism of regulation and provide clarification of how Rnd3 modulates Rho signaling to alter cytoskeletal organization.
GTPase; phosphorylation; kinase; plasma membrane; stress fibers
The Ras GTPases act as binary switches for signal transduction pathways that are important for growth regulation and tumorigenesis. Despite the biochemical simplicity of this switch, Ras proteins control multiple pathways, and the functions of the four mammalian Ras proteins are not overlapping. This raises an important question—how does a Ras protein selectively regulate a particular activity? One recently emerging model suggests that a single Ras protein can control different functions by acting in distinct cellular compartments. A critical test of this model is to identify pathways that are selectively controlled by Ras when it is localized to a particular compartment. A recent study has examined Ras signaling in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which expresses only one Ras protein that controls two separate evolutionarily conserved pathways. This study demonstrates that whereas Ras localized to the plasma membrane selectively regulates a MAP kinase pathway to mediate mating pheromone signaling, Ras localized to the endomembrane activates a Cdc42 pathway to mediate cell polarity and protein trafficking. This study has provided unambiguous evidence for compartmentalized signaling of Ras.
signal transduction; oncogene; cancer; Rho; GTPase; lipid rafts; S. pombe; Prenylation
Rap1 is a small GTPase that modulates adhesion of T cells by regulating inside-out signaling through LFA-1. The bulk of Rap1 is expressed in a GDP-bound state on intracellular vesicles. Exocytosis of these vesicles delivers Rap1 to the plasma membrane, where it becomes activated. We report here that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is expressed on the same vesicular compartment in T cells as Rap1 and is translocated to the plasma membrane along with Rap1. Moreover, PLD activity is required for both translocation and activation of Rap1. Increased T-cell adhesion in response to stimulation of the antigen receptor depended on PLD1. C3G, a Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor located in the cytosol of resting cells, translocated to the plasma membranes of stimulated T cells. Our data support a model whereby PLD1 regulates Rap1 activity by controlling exocytosis of a stored, vesicular pool of Rap1 that can be activated by C3G upon delivery to the plasma membrane.
Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt) is a highly conserved enzyme that methyl esterifies the α carboxyl group of prenylated proteins including Ras and related GTPases. Methyl esterification neutralizes the negative charge of the prenylcysteine and thereby increases membrane affinity. Icmt is an integral membrane protein restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog, Ste14p, traverses the ER membrane six times. We used a novel fluorescent reporter to map the topology of human Icmt in living cells. Our results indicate that Icmt traverses the ER membrane eight times, with both N and C termini disposed toward the cytosol and with a helix-turn-helix structure comprising transmembrane (TM) segments 7 and 8. Several conserved amino acids that map to cytoplasmic portions of the enzyme are critical for full enzymatic activity. Mammalian Icmt has an N-terminal extension consisting of two TM segments not found in Ste14p and therefore likely to be regulatory. Icmt is a target for anticancer drug discovery, and these data may facilitate efforts to develop small-molecule inhibitors.
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) pathway directs multiple cell fate decisions within a single cell. How different system outputs are generated is unknown. Here we explore whether activating the MAPK module from different membrane environments can rewire system output. We identify two classes of nanoscale environment within the plasma membrane. The first, which corresponds to nanoclusters occupied by GTP-loaded H-, N- or K-Ras, supports Raf activation and amplifies low Raf kinase input to generate a digital ERKpp output. The second class, which corresponds to nanoclusters occupied by GDP-loaded Ras, cannot activate Raf and therefore does not activate the MAPK module, illustrating how lateral segregation on plasma membrane influences signal output. The MAPK module is activated at the Golgi, but in striking contrast to the plasma membrane, ERKpp output is analog. Different modes of Raf activation precisely correlate with these different ERKpp system outputs. Intriguingly, the Golgi contains two distinct membrane environments that generate ERKpp, but only one is competent to drive PC12 cell differentiation. The MAPK module is not activated from the ER. Taken together these data clearly demonstrate that the different nanoscale environments available to Ras generate distinct circuit configurations for the MAPK module, bestowing cells with a simple mechanism to generate multiple system outputs from a single cascade.
Rac1 regulates a wide variety of cellular processes. The polybasic region of the Rac1 C terminus functions both as a plasma membrane–targeting motif and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS). We show that a triproline N-terminal to the polybasic region contributes to the NLS, which is cryptic in the sense that it is strongly inhibited by geranylgeranylation of the adjacent cysteine. Subcellular fractionation demonstrated endogenous Rac1 in the nucleus and Triton X-114 partition revealed that this pool is prenylated. Cell cycle–blocking agents, synchronization of cells stably expressing low levels of GFP-Rac1, and time-lapse microscopy of asynchronous cells revealed Rac1 accumulation in the nucleus in late G2 and exclusion in early G1. Although constitutively active Rac1 restricted to the cytoplasm inhibited cell division, activated Rac1 expressed constitutively in the nucleus increased the mitotic rate. These results show that Rac1 cycles in and out of the nucleus during the cell cycle and thereby plays a role in promoting cell division.
The three closely related human Ras genes, Hras, Nras, and Kras, are all widely expressed, engage a common set of downstream effectors, and can each exhibit oncogenic activity. However, the vast majority of activating Ras mutations in human tumors involve Kras. Moreover, Kras mutations are most frequently seen in tumors of endodermally derived tissues (lung, pancreas, and colon), suggesting that activated Kras may affect an endodermal progenitor to initiate oncogenesis. Using a culture model of retinoic acid (RA)-induced stem cell differentiation to endoderm, we determined that while activated HrasV12 promotes differentiation and growth arrest in these endodermal progenitors, KrasV12 promotes their proliferation. Furthermore, KrasV12-expressing endodermal progenitors fail to differentiate upon RA treatment and continue to proliferate and maintain stem cell characteristics. NrasV12 neither promotes nor prevents differentiation. A structure-function analysis demonstrated that these distinct effects of the Ras isoforms involve their variable C-terminal domains, implicating compartmentalized signaling, and revealed a requirement for several established Ras effectors. These findings indicate that activated Ras isoforms exert profoundly different effects on endodermal progenitors and that mutant Kras may initiate tumorigenesis by expanding a susceptible stem/progenitor cell population. These results potentially explain the high frequency of Kras mutations in tumors of endodermal origin.
Posttranslational modification is critical for the function of the gene products of ras oncogenes, which are frequently mutated in cancer. Ras proteins are modified by farnesyltransferase (FTase), but many related small GTPases that also end in a CAAX motif (where C is cysteine, A is often an aliphatic amino acid, and X is any amino acid) are modified by a closely related enzyme known as geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I). Accordingly, inhibitors for both of these enzymes have been developed, and those active against FTase are in clinical trials. In this issue of the JCI, Sjogren et al. report the development of a mouse strain homozygous for a conditional allele of the gene that encodes GGTase-I (see the related article beginning on page 1294). They found that ablation of the GGTase-I–encoding gene in cells destined to produce lung tumors driven by oncogenic K-Ras resulted in delayed onset and decreased severity of disease, validating in a genetic model the theory that GGTase-I is a good target for anti-cancer drug development.
Palmitoylation is postulated to regulate Ras signaling by modulating its intracellular trafficking and membrane microenvironment. The mechanisms by which palmitoylation contributes to these events are poorly understood. Here, we show that dynamic turnover of palmitate regulates the intracellular trafficking of HRas and NRas to and from the Golgi complex by shifting the protein between vesicular and nonvesicular modes of transport. A combination of time-lapse microscopy and photobleaching techniques reveal that in the absence of palmitoylation, GFP-tagged HRas and NRas undergo rapid exchange between the cytosol and ER/Golgi membranes, and that wild-type GFP-HRas and GFP-NRas are recycled to the Golgi complex by a nonvesicular mechanism. Our findings support a model where palmitoylation kinetically traps Ras on membranes, enabling the protein to undergo vesicular transport. We propose that a cycle of depalmitoylation and repalmitoylation regulates the time course and sites of Ras signaling by allowing the protein to be released from the cell surface and rapidly redistributed to intracellular membranes.
The CAAX motif at the C terminus of most monomeric GTPases is required for membrane targeting because it signals for a series of three posttranslational modifications that include isoprenylation, endoproteolytic release of the C-terminal– AAX amino acids, and carboxyl methylation of the newly exposed isoprenylcysteine. The individual contributions of these modifications to protein trafficking and function are unknown. To address this issue, we performed a series of experiments with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Rce1 (responsible for removal of the –AAX sequence) or Icmt (responsible for carboxyl methylation of the isoprenylcysteine). In MEFs lacking Rce1 or Icmt, farnesylated Ras proteins were mislocalized. In contrast, the intracellular localizations of geranylgeranylated Rho GTPases were not perturbed. Consistent with the latter finding, RhoGDI binding and actin remodeling were normal in Rce1- and Icmt-deficient cells. Swapping geranylgeranylation for farnesylation on Ras proteins or vice versa on Rho proteins reversed the differential sensitivities to Rce1 and Icmt deficiency. These results suggest that postprenylation CAAX processing is required for proper localization of farnesylated Ras but not geranygeranylated Rho proteins.
Peptide deformylase activity was thought to be limited to ribosomal protein synthesis in prokaryotes, where new peptides are initiated with an N-formylated methionine. We describe here a new human peptide deformylase (Homo sapiens PDF, or HsPDF) that is localized to the mitochondria. HsPDF is capable of removing formyl groups from N-terminal methionines of newly synthesized mitochondrial proteins, an activity previously not thought to be necessary in mammalian cells. We show that actinonin, a peptidomimetic antibiotic that inhibits HsPDF, also inhibits the proliferation of 16 human cancer cell lines. We designed and synthesized 33 chemical analogs of actinonin; all of the molecules with potent activity against HsPDF also inhibited tumor cell growth, and vice versa, confirming target specificity. Small interfering RNA inhibition of HsPDF protein expression was also antiproliferative. Actinonin treatment of cells led to a tumor-specific mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ATP depletion in a time- and dose-dependent manner; removal of actinonin led to a recovery of the membrane potential consistent with indirect effects on the electron transport chain. In animal models, oral or parenteral actinonin was well tolerated and inhibited human prostate cancer and lung cancer growth. We conclude that HsPDF is a new human mitochondrial enzyme that may provide a novel selective target for anticancer therapy by use of actinonin-based antibiotics.
Rap1 and Ras are closely related GTPases that share some effectors but have distinct functions. We studied the subcellular localization of Rap1 and its sites of activation in living cells. Both GFP-tagged Rap1 and endogenous Rap1 were localized to the plasma membrane (PM) and endosomes. The PM association of GFP-Rap1 was dependent on GTP binding, and GFP-Rap1 was rapidly up-regulated on this compartment in response to mitogens, a process blocked by inhibitors of endosome recycling. A novel fluorescent probe for GTP-bound Rap1 revealed that this GTPase was transiently activated only on the PM of both fibroblasts and T cells. Activation on the PM was blocked by inhibitors of endosome recycling. Moreover, inhibition of endosome recycling blocked the ability of Rap1 to promote integrin-mediated adhesion of T cells. Thus, unlike Ras, the membrane localizations of Rap1 are dynamically regulated, and the PM is the principle platform from which Rap1 signaling emanates. These observations may explain some of the biological differences between these GTPases.
GTPase; Ras; GFP; Jurkat; endosomes
Ras activation is critical for T-cell development and function, but the specific roles of the different Ras isoforms in T-lymphocyte function are poorly understood. We recently reported T-cell receptor (TCR) activation of ectopically expressed H-Ras on the the Golgi apparatus of T cells. Here we studied the isoform and subcellular compartment specificity of Ras signaling in Jurkat T cells. H-Ras was expressed at much lower levels than the other Ras isoforms in Jurkat and several other T-cell lines. Glutathione S-transferase-Ras-binding domain (RBD) pulldown assays revealed that, although high-grade TCR stimulation and phorbol ester activated both N-Ras and K-Ras, low-grade stimulation of the TCR resulted in specific activation of N-Ras. Surprisingly, whereas ectopically expressed H-Ras cocapped with the TCRs in lipid microdomains of the Jurkat plasma membrane, N-Ras did not. Live-cell imaging of Jurkat cells expressing green fluorescent protein-RBD, a fluorescent reporter of GTP-bound Ras, revealed that N-Ras activation occurs exclusively on the Golgi apparatus in a phospholipase Cγ- and RasGRP1-dependent fashion. The specificity of N-Ras signaling downstream of low-grade TCR stimulation was dependent on the monoacylation of the hypervariable membrane targeting sequence. Our data show that, in contrast to fibroblasts stimulated with growth factors in which all three Ras isoforms become activated and signaling occurs at both the plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus, Golgi-associated N-Ras is the critical Ras isoform and intracellular pool for low-grade TCR signaling in Jurkat T cells.
Membrane targeting of G-protein αβγ heterotrimers was investigated in live cells by use of Gα and Gγ subunits tagged with spectral mutants of green fluorescent protein. Unlike Ras proteins, Gβγ contains a single targeting signal, the CAAX motif, which directed the dimer to the endoplasmic reticulum. Endomembrane localization of farnesylated Gγ1, but not geranylgeranylated Gγ2, required carboxyl methylation. Targeting of the heterotrimer to the plasma membrane (PM) required coexpression of all three subunits, combining the CAAX motif of Gγ with the fatty acyl modifications of Gα. Gα associated with Gβγ on the Golgi and palmitoylation of Gα was required for translocation of the heterotrimer to the PM. Thus, two separate signals, analogous to the dual-signal targeting mechanism of Ras proteins, cooperate to target heterotrimeric G proteins to the PM via the endomembrane.
Determinants of membrane targeting of Rho proteins were investigated in live cells with green fluorescent fusion proteins expressed with or without Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI)α. The hypervariable region determined to which membrane compartment each protein was targeted. Targeting was regulated by binding to RhoGDIα in the case of RhoA, Rac1, Rac2, and Cdc42hs but not RhoB or TC10. Although RhoB localized to the plasma membrane (PM), Golgi, and motile peri-Golgi vesicles, TC10 localized to PMs and endosomes. Inhibition of palmitoylation mislocalized H-Ras, RhoB, and TC10 to the endoplasmic reticulum. Although overexpressed Cdc42hs and Rac2 were observed predominantly on endomembrane, Rac1 was predominantly at the PM. RhoA was cytosolic even when expressed at levels in vast excess of RhoGDIα. Oncogenic Dbl stimulated translocation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Rac1, GFP-Cdc42hs, and GFP-RhoA to lamellipodia. RhoGDI binding to GFP-Cdc42hs was not affected by substituting farnesylation for geranylgeranylation. A palmitoylation site inserted into RhoA blocked RhoGDIα binding. Mutations that render RhoA, Cdc42hs, or Rac1, either constitutively active or dominant negative abrogated binding to RhoGDIα and redirected expression to both PMs and internal membranes. Thus, despite the common essential feature of the CAAX (prenylation, AAX tripeptide proteolysis, and carboxyl methylation) motif, the subcellular localizations of Rho GTPases, like their functions, are diverse and dynamic.
Rho; Rac; Cdc42hs; RhoGDI; green fluorescent protein
We studied the feasibility of using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as antigen carriers to improve immune responses to peptides that are weak immunogens, a characteristic typical of human tumor antigens. Binding and presentation of peptide antigens by the MHC molecules of antigen presenting cells (APCs) is essential to mounting an effective immune response. The Wilm’s tumor protein (WT1) is upregulated in many human leukemias and cancers and several vaccines directed at this protein are in human clinical trials. WT1 peptide 427 induces human CD4 T cell responses in the context of multiple human HLA-DR.B1 molecules, but the peptide has a poor binding affinity to BALB/c mouse MHC class II molecules. We used novel, spectrally quantifiable chemical approaches to covalently append large numbers of peptide ligands (0.4 mmol/g) onto solubilized SWNT scaffolds. Peptide-SWNT constructs were rapidly internalized into professional APCs (dendritic cells and macrophages) within minutes in vitro, in a dose dependent manner. Immunization of BALB/c mice with the SWNT–peptide constructs mixed with immunological adjuvant induced specific IgG responses against the peptide, while the peptide alone or peptide mixed with the adjuvant did not induce such a response. The conjugation of the peptide to SWNT did not enhance the peptide-specific CD4 T cell response in human and mouse cells, in vitro. The solubilized SWNTs alone were nontoxic in vitro, and we did not detect antibody responses to SWNT in vivo. These results demonstrated that SWNTs are able to serve as antigen carriers for delivery into APCs to induce humoral immune responses against weak tumor antigens.
carbon nanotubes; nanomedicine; Wilms’ tumor antigen; peptide vaccines; dendritic cells