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2.  GPIHBP1 Missense Mutations Often Cause Multimerization of GPIHBP1 and Thereby Prevent Lipoprotein Lipase Binding 
Circulation research  2014;116(4):624-632.
Rationale
GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the subendothelial spaces and shuttles it to the capillary lumen. GPIHBP1 missense mutations that interfere with LPL binding cause familial chylomicronemia.
Objective
We sought to understand mechanisms by which GPIHBP1 mutations prevent LPL binding and lead to chylomicronemia.
Methods and Results
We expressed mutant forms of GPIHBP1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells, rat and human endothelial cells, and Drosophila S2 cells. In each expression system, mutation of cysteines in GPIHBP1’s Ly6 domain (including mutants identified in chylomicronemia patients) led to the formation of disulfide-linked dimers and multimers. GPIHBP1 dimerization/multimerization was not unique to cysteine mutations; mutations in other amino acid residues, including several associated with chylomicronemia, also led to protein dimerization/multimerization. The loss of GPIHBP1 monomers is quite relevant to the pathogenesis of chylomicronemia because only GPIHBP1 monomers—and not dimers or multimers—are capable of binding LPL. One GPIHBP1 mutant, GPIHBP1-W109S, had distinctive properties. GPIHBP1-W109S lacked the ability to bind LPL but had a reduced propensity for forming dimers or multimers, suggesting that W109 might play a more direct role in binding LPL. In support of that idea, replacing W109 with any of 8 other amino acids abolished LPL binding—and often did so without promoting the formation of dimers and multimers.
Conclusions
Many amino acid substitutions in GPIHBP1’s Ly6 domain that abolish LPL binding lead to protein dimerization/multimerization. Dimerization/multimerization is relevant to disease pathogenesis, given that only GPIHBP1 monomers are capable of binding LPL.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305085
PMCID: PMC4329087  PMID: 25387803
Lipoprotein lipase; hypertriglyceridemia; multimerization; GPIHBP1; lipids and lipoprotein metabolism; chylomicron; triglycerides; endothelial cell
3.  Equivalent binding of wild-type lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and S447X-LPL to GPIHBP1, the endothelial cell LPL transporter 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2014;1841(7):963-969.
The S447X polymorphism in lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which shortens LPL by two amino acids, is associated with low plasma triglyceride levels and reduced risk for coronary heart disease. S447X carriers have higher LPL levels in the pre- and post-heparin plasma, raising the possibility that the S447X polymorphism leads to higher LPL levels within capillaries. One potential explanation for increased amounts of LPL in capillaries would be more avid binding of S447X-LPL to GPIHBP1 (the protein that binds LPL dimers and shuttles them to the capillary lumen). This explanation seems plausible because sequences within the carboxyl terminus of LPL are known to mediate LPL binding to GPIHBP1. To assess the impact of the S447X polymorphism on LPL binding to GPIHBP1, we compared the ability of internally tagged versions of wild-type LPL (WT-LPL) and S447X-LPL to bind to GPIHBP1 in both cell-based and cell-free binding assays. In the cell-based assay, we compared the binding of WT-LPL and S447X-LPL to GPIHBP1 on the surface of cultured cells. This assay revealed no differences in the binding of WT-LPL and S447X-LPL to GPIHBP1. In the cell-free assay, we compared the binding of internally tagged WT-LPL and S447X-LPL to soluble GPIHBP1 immobilized on agarose beads. Again, no differences in the binding of WT-LPL and S447X-LPL to GPIHBP1 were observed. We conclude that increased binding of S447X-LPL to GPIHBP1 is unlikely to be the explanation for more efficient lipolysis and lower plasma triglyceride levels in S447X carriers.
doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.03.011
PMCID: PMC4212522  PMID: 24704550
4.  A new monoclonal antibody, 4-1a, that binds to the amino terminus of human lipoprotein lipase 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2014;1841(7):970-976.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) has been highly conserved through vertebrate evolution, making it challenging to generate useful antibodies. Some polyclonal antibodies against LPL have turned out to be nonspecific, and the available monoclonal antibodies (Mab) against LPL, all of which bind to LPL’s carboxyl terminus, have drawbacks for some purposes. We report a new LPL-specific monoclonal antibody, Mab 4-1a, which binds to the amino terminus of LPL (residues 5–25). Mab 4-1a binds human and bovine LPL avidly; it does not inhibit LPL catalytic activity nor does it interfere with the binding of LPL to heparin. Mab 4-1a does not bind to human hepatic lipase. Mab 4-1a binds to GPIHBP1-bound LPL and does not interfere with the ability of the LPL–GPIHBP1 complex to bind triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mab 4-1a will be a useful reagent for both biochemists and clinical laboratories.
doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.03.008
PMCID: PMC4222086  PMID: 24681165
5.  Palmoplantar keratoderma along with neuromuscular and metabolic phenotypes in Slurp1-deficient mice 
Mutations in SLURP1 cause mal de Meleda, a rare palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK). SLURP1 is a secreted protein that is expressed highly in keratinocytes but has also been identified elsewhere (e.g., spinal cord neurons). Here, we examined Slurp1-deficient mice (Slurp1−/−) created by replacing exon 2 with β-gal and neo cassettes. Slurp1−/− mice developed severe PPK characterized by increased keratinocyte proliferation, an accumulation of lipid droplets in the stratum corneum, and a water barrier defect. In addition, Slurp1−/− mice exhibited reduced adiposity, protection from obesity on a high-fat diet, low plasma lipid levels, and a neuromuscular abnormality (hind limb clasping). Initially, it was unclear whether the metabolic and neuromuscular phenotypes were due to Slurp1 deficiency because we found that the targeted Slurp1 mutation reduced the expression of several neighboring genes (e.g., Slurp2, Lypd2). We therefore created a new line of knockout mice (Slurp1X−/− mice) with a simple nonsense mutation in exon 2. The Slurp1X mutation did not reduce the expression of adjacent genes, but Slurp1X−/− mice exhibited all of the phenotypes observed in the original line of knockout mice. Thus, Slurp1 deficiency in mice elicits metabolic and neuromuscular abnormalities in addition to PPK.
doi:10.1038/jid.2014.19
PMCID: PMC4214150  PMID: 24499735
6.  The GPIHBP1–LPL complex is responsible for the margination of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in capillaries 
Cell metabolism  2014;19(5):849-860.
Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) undergo lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme that is transported to the capillary lumen by an endothelial cell protein, GPIHBP1. For LPL-mediated lipolysis to occur, TRLs must bind to the lumen of capillaries. This process is often assumed to involve heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), but we suspected that TRL margination might instead require GPIHBP1. Indeed, TRLs marginate along the heart capillaries of wild-type but not Gpihbp1−/− mice, as judged by fluorescence microscopy, quantitative assays with infrared-dye–labeled lipoproteins, and EM tomography. Both cell culture and in vivo studies showed that TRL margination depends on LPL bound to GPIHBP1. Of note, the expression of LPL by endothelial cells in Gpihbp1−/− mice did not restore defective TRL margination, implying that the binding of LPL to HSPGs is ineffective in promoting TRL margination. Our studies show that GPIHBP1-bound LPL is the main determinant of TRL margination.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.01.017
PMCID: PMC4143151  PMID: 24726386
7.  GPIHBP1 and the intravascular processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins 
Journal of internal medicine  2012;272(6):528-540.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is produced by parenchymal cells, mainly adipocytes and myocytes, but its role in hydrolyzing triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins occurs at the capillary lumen. For decades, the mechanism by which LPL reached its site of action in capillaries was unclear, but this mystery was recently solved. GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, picks up LPL from the interstitial spaces and shuttles it across endothelial cells to the capillary lumen. When GPIHBP1 is absent, LPL is mislocalized to the interstitial spaces, leading to severe hypertriglyceridemia. Some cases of hypertriglyceridemia in humans are caused by GPIHBP1 mutations that interfere with GPIHBP1's ability to bind LPL, and some are caused by LPL mutations that impair LPL's ability to bind to GPIHBP1. This review will cover recent progress in understanding GPIHBP1's role in health and disease and will discuss some remaining mysteries surrounding the processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
doi:10.1111/joim.12003
PMCID: PMC3940157  PMID: 23020258
hypertriglyceridemia; chylomicronemia; GPIHBP1; lipoprotein lipase; endothelial cells; lymphocyte antigen 6 proteins
8.  Binding Preferences for GPIHBP1, a GPI-Anchored Protein of Capillary Endothelial Cells 
Objective
GPIHBP1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Ly6 protein of capillary endothelial cells, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) avidly, but its ability to bind related lipase family members has never been evaluated. We sought to define the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind other lipase family members as well as other apolipoproteins and lipoproteins.
Methods and Results
As judged by cell-based and cell-free binding assays, LPL binds to GPIHBP1 but other members of the lipase family do not. We also examined the binding of apoAV–phospholipid disks to GPIHBP1. ApoAV binds avidly to GPIHBP1-transfected cells; this binding requires GPIHBP1’s amino-terminal acidic domain and is independent of its cysteine-rich Ly6 domain (the latter domain is essential for LPL binding). GPIHBP1-transfected cells did not bind HDL. Chylomicrons binds avidly to GPIHBP1-transfected CHO cells, but this binding is dependent on GPIHBP1’s ability to bind LPL within the cell culture medium.
Conclusions
GPIHBP1 binds LPL but does not bind other lipase family members. GPIHBP1 binds apoAV but did not bind apoAI or HDL. The ability of GPIHBP1-transfected CHO cells to bind chylomicrons is mediated by LPL; chylomicron binding does not occur unless GPIHBP1 first captures LPL from the cell culture medium.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.214718
PMCID: PMC3004026  PMID: 20966398
lipoprotein lipase; chylomicronemia; hypertriglyceridemia; GPIHBP1
9.  Agpat6—a Novel Lipid Biosynthetic Gene Required for Triacylglycerol Production in Mammary Epithelium 
Journal of lipid research  2006;47(4):734-744.
In analyzing the sequence tags for mutant mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines in BayGenomics (a mouse gene-trapping resource), we identified a novel gene, Agpat6, with sequence similarities to previously characterized glycerolipid acyltransferases. Agpat6’s closest family member is another novel gene that we have provisionally designated Agpat8. Both Agpat6 and Agpat8 are conserved from plants, nematodes, and flies to mammals. AGPAT6, which is predicted to contain multiple membrane-spanning helices, is found exclusively within the endoplasmic reticulum in mammalian cells. To gain insights into the in vivo importance of Agpat6, we used the Agpat6 ES cell line from BayGenomics to create Agpat6-deficient (Agpat6−/−) mice. Agpat6−/− mice lacked full-length Agpat6 transcripts, as judged by northern blots. One of the most striking phenotypes of Agpat6−/− mice was a defect in lactation. Pups nursed by Agpat6−/− mothers die perinatally. Normally, Agpat6 is expressed at high levels in the mammary epithelium of breast tissue, but not in the surrounding adipose tissue. Histological studies revealed that the aveoli and ducts of Agpat6−/− lactating mammary glands were underdeveloped, and there was a dramatic decrease in size and number of lipid droplets within mammary epithelial cells and ducts. Also, the milk from Agpat6−/− mice was markedly depleted in diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols. Thus, we identified a novel glycerolipid acyltransferase of the endoplasmic reticulum, AGPAT6, which is crucial for the production of milk fat by the mammary gland.
doi:10.1194/jlr.M500556-JLR200
PMCID: PMC3196597  PMID: 16449762
LPAAT; acyltransferase; transacylase; milk fat
10.  Chylomicronemia mutations yield new insights into interactions between lipoprotein lipase and GPIHBP1 
Human Molecular Genetics  2012;21(13):2961-2972.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a 448-amino-acid head-to-tail dimeric enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides within capillaries. LPL is secreted by parenchymal cells into the interstitial spaces; it then binds to GPIHBP1 (glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein-binding protein 1) on the basolateral face of endothelial cells and is transported to the capillary lumen. A pair of amino acid substitutions, C418Y and E421K, abolish LPL binding to GPIHBP1, suggesting that the C-terminal portion of LPL is important for GPIHBP1 binding. However, a role for LPL's N terminus has not been excluded, and published evidence has suggested that only full-length homodimers are capable of binding GPIHBP1. Here, we show that LPL's C-terminal domain is sufficient for GPIHBP1 binding. We found, serendipitously, that two LPL missense mutations, G409R and E410V, render LPL susceptible to cleavage at residue 297 (a known furin cleavage site). The C terminus of these mutants (residues 298–448), bound to GPIHBP1 avidly, independent of the N-terminal fragment. We also generated an LPL construct with an in-frame deletion of the N-terminal catalytic domain (residues 50–289); this mutant was secreted but also was cleaved at residue 297. Once again, the C-terminal domain (residues 298–448) bound GPIHBP1 avidly. The binding of the C-terminal fragment to GPIHBP1 was eliminated by C418Y or E421K mutations. After exposure to denaturing conditions, the C-terminal fragment of LPL refolds and binds GPIHBP1 avidly. Thus, the binding of LPL to GPIHBP1 requires only the C-terminal portion of LPL and does not depend on full-length LPL homodimers.
doi:10.1093/hmg/dds127
PMCID: PMC3373243  PMID: 22493000
11.  Chylomicronemia Elicits Atherosclerosis in Mice 
Objective
The risk of atherosclerosis in the setting of chylomicronemia has been a topic of debate. In this study, we examined susceptibility to atherosclerosis in Gpihbp1-deficient mice (Gpihbp1−/−), which manifest severe chylomicronemia as a result of defective lipolysis.
Methods and Results
Gpihbp1−/− mice on a chow diet have plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels of 2812 ± 209 and 319 ± 27 mg/dl, respectively. Even though nearly all of the lipids were contained in large lipoproteins (50–135 nm), the mice developed progressive aortic atherosclerosis. In other experiments, we found that both Gpihbp1-deficient “apo-B48–only” mice and Gpihbp1-deficient “apo-B100–only” mice manifest severe chylomicronemia. Thus, GPIHBP1 is required for the processing of both apo-B48– and apo-B100–containing lipoproteins.
Conclusions
Chylomicronemia causes atherosclerosis in mice. Also, we found that GPIHBP1 is required for the lipolytic processing of both apo-B48– and apo-B100–containing lipoproteins.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.196329
PMCID: PMC2796285  PMID: 19815815
lipoprotein lipase; chylomicronemia; lipolysis; GPIHBP1
12.  GPIHBP1 and the processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins 
Clinical lipidology  2010;5(4):575-582.
Summary
GPIHBP1 is a new addition to a group of proteins required for the lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. GPIHBP1 contains an acidic domain and an Ly6 domain with ten cysteines. GPIHBP1 binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) avidly and likely tethers LPL to the luminal surface of capillaries.
Inactivation of Gpihbp1 in mice is associated with milky plasma and severe chylomicronemia, even on a low-fat chow diet. Recently, four missense mutations in GPIHBP1 were identified in humans with severe chylomicronemia (C65Y, C65S, C68G, and Q115P). All four mutations involve highly conserved residues within GPIHBP1’s Ly6 domain.
This review will provide an update on GPIHBP1’s role in the processing of chylomicrons and the pathogenesis of chylomicronemia.
doi:10.2217/clp.10.43
PMCID: PMC2953813  PMID: 20953295
chylomicronemia; lipoprotein lipase; endothelium; mutation; hypertriglyceridemia
13.  Chylomicronemia with Low Postheparin Lipoprotein Lipase Levels in the Setting of GPIHBP1 Defects 
Background
Recent studies in mice have established that an endothelial cell protein, GPIHBP1, is essential for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
Methods and Results
We report the discovery of a homozygous missense mutation in GPIHBP1 in a young boy with severe chylomicronemia. The mutation, p.C65Y, replaces a conserved cysteine in the GPIHBP1’s Ly6 domain with a tyrosine and is predicted to perturb protein structure by interfering with the formation of a disulfide bond. Studies with transfected CHO cells showed that GPIHBP1-C65Y reaches the cell surface but has lost the ability to bind LPL. When the GPIHBP1-C65Y homozygote was given an intravenous bolus of heparin, only trace amounts of LPL entered the plasma. We also observed very low levels of LPL in the postheparin plasma of a chylomicronemic subject who was homozygous for a different GPIHBP1 mutation (p.Q115P). When the GPIHBP1-Q115P homozygote was given a 6-h infusion of heparin, significant amounts of LPL appeared in the plasma, resulting in a fall in the plasma triglyceride levels from 1780 mg/dl to 120 mg/dl.
Conclusions
We identified a novel GPIHBP1 missense mutation (p.C65Y) associated with defective LPL binding in a young boy with severe chylomicronemia. We also show that homozygosity for the C65Y or Q115P mutations is associated with low levels of LPL in the postheparin plasma, demonstrating that GPIHBP1 is important for plasma triglyceride metabolism in humans.
doi:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.109.908905
PMCID: PMC2858258  PMID: 20124439
lipoprotein lipase; GPIHBP1; triglycerides
14.  Reciprocal Metabolic Perturbations in the Adipose Tissue and Liver of GPIHBP1-deficient Mice 
Objective
Gpihbp1-deficient mice (Gpihbp1−/−) lack the ability to transport lipoprotein lipase to the capillary lumen, resulting in mislocalization of LPL within tissues, defective lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and chylomicronemia. We asked whether GPIHBP1 deficiency and mislocalization of catalytically active LPL would alter the composition of triglycerides in adipose tissue or perturb the expression of lipid biosynthetic genes. We also asked whether perturbations in adipose tissue composition and gene expression, if they occur, would be accompanied by reciprocal metabolic changes in the liver.
Methods and Results
The chylomicronemia in Gpihbp1−/− mice was associated with reduced levels of essential fatty acids in adipose tissue triglycerides and increased expression of lipid biosynthetic genes. The liver exhibited the opposite changes—increased levels of essential fatty acids in triglycerides and reduced expression of lipid biosynthetic genes.
Conclusions
Defective lipolysis in Gpihbp1−/− mice causes reciprocal metabolic perturbations in adipose tissue and liver. In adipose tissue, the essential fatty acid content of triglycerides is reduced and lipid biosynthetic gene expression is increased, while the opposite changes occur in the liver.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.241406
PMCID: PMC3281771  PMID: 22173228
lipoprotein lipase; hypertriglyceridemia; lipolysis; essential fatty acids; lipid biosynthetic genes
15.  Chylomicronemia With a Mutant GPIHBP1 (Q115P) That Cannot Bind Lipoprotein Lipase 
Objective
GPIHBP1 is an endothelial cell protein that binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and chylomicrons. Because GPIHBP1 deficiency causes chylomicronemia in mice, we sought to determine whether some cases of chylomicronemia in humans could be attributable to defective GPIHBP1 proteins.
Methods and Results
Patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (n=60, with plasma triglycerides above the 95th percentile for age and gender) were screened for mutations in GPIHBP1. A homozygous GPIHBP1 mutation (c.344A>C) that changed a highly conserved glutamine at residue 115 to a proline (p.Q115P) was identified in a 33-year-old male with lifelong chylomicronemia. The patient had failure-to-thrive as a child but had no history of pancreatitis. He had no mutations in LPL, APOA5, or APOC2. The Q115P substitution did not affect the ability of GPIHBP1 to reach the cell surface. However, unlike wild-type GPIHBP1, GPIHBP1-Q115P lacked the ability to bind LPL or chylomicrons (d <1.006 g/mL lipoproteins from Gpihbp1−/− mice). Mouse GPIHBP1 with the corresponding mutation (Q114P) also could not bind LPL.
Conclusions
A homozygous missense mutation in GPIHBP1 (Q115P) was identified in a patient with chylomicronemia. The mutation eliminated the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind LPL and chylomicrons, strongly suggesting that it caused the patient’s chylomicronemia.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.186577
PMCID: PMC2811263  PMID: 19304573
lipoprotein; lipase; human; chylomicronemia; hypertriglyceridemia; GPIHBP1
16.  GPIHBP1 and lipolysis: an update 
Current opinion in lipidology  2009;20(3):211-216.
Purpose of review
This review will provide an update on the structure of GPIHBP1, a 28-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, and its role in the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
Recent findings
Gpihbp1 knockout mice on a chow diet have milky plasma and plasma triglyceride levels of more than 3000 mg/dl. GPIHBP1 is located on the luminal surface of endothelial cells in tissues where lipolysis occurs: heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. The pattern of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) release into the plasma after an intravenous injection of heparin is abnormal in Gpihbp1-deficient mice, suggesting that GPIHBP1 plays a direct role in binding LPL within the tissues of mice. Transfection of CHO cells with a GPIHBP1 expression vector confers on cells the ability to bind both LPL and chylomicrons. Two regions of GPIHBP1 are required for the binding of LPL – an amino-terminal acidic domain and the cysteine-rich Ly6 domain. GPIHBP1 expression in mice changes with fasting and refeeding and is regulated in part by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.
Summary
GPIHBP1, an endothelial cell-surface glycoprotein, binds LPL and is required for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32832ac026
PMCID: PMC2810420  PMID: 19369870
chylomicrons; endothelial; lipoprotein lipase; PPARγ
17.  Normal binding of lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apo-AV to GPIHBP1 containing a G56R amino acid substitution 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2007;1771(12):1464-1468.
Summary
GPIHBP1 is an endothelial cell protein that serves as a platform for lipoprotein lipase–mediated processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins within the capillaries of heart, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. The absence of GPIHBP1 causes severe chylomicronemia. A hallmark of GPIHBP1 is the ability to bind lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apolipoprotein (apo-) AV. A homozygous G56R mutation in GPIHBP1 was recently identified in two brothers with chylomicronemia, and the authors of that study suggested that the G56R substitution was responsible for the hyperlipidemia. In this study, we created a human GPIHBP1 expression vector, introduced the G56R mutation, and tested the ability of the mutant GPIHBP1 to reach the cell surface and bind lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apo-AV. Our studies revealed that the G56R substitution did not affect the ability of GPIHBP1 to reach the cell surface, nor did the amino acid substitution have any discernible effect on the binding of lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, or apo-AV.
doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2007.10.005
PMCID: PMC2266775  PMID: 17997385
chylomicronemia; GPIHBP1; hypertriglyceridemia; apolipoprotein AV; lipoprotein lipase
18.  New wrinkles in lipoprotein lipase biology 
Current Opinion in Lipidology  2012;23(1):35-42.
Purpose of review
We summarize recent progress on GPIHBP1, a molecule that transports lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to the capillary lumen, and discuss several newly studied molecules that appear important for the regulation of LPL activity.
Recent findings
LPL, the enzyme responsible for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, interacts with multiple proteins and is regulated at multiple levels. Several regulators of LPL activity have been known for years and have been investigated thoroughly, but several have been identified only recently, including an endothelial cell protein that transports LPL to the capillary lumen, a microRNA that reduces LPL transcript levels, a sorting protein that targets LPL for uptake and degradation, and a transcription factor that increases the expression of apolipoproteins that regulate LPL activity.
Summary
Proper regulation of LPL is important for controlling the delivery of lipid nutrients to tissues. Recent studies have identified GPIHBP1 as the molecule that transports LPL to the capillary lumen, and have also identified other molecules that are potentially important for regulating LPL activity. These new discoveries open new doors for understanding basic mechanisms of lipolysis and hyperlipidemia.
doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32834d0b33
PMCID: PMC3383841  PMID: 22123668
diabetes mellitus; gene regulation; lipoproteins; triglyceride metabolism
19.  Cholesterol Intake Modulates Plasma Triglyceride Levels in GPIHBP1-deficient Mice 
Objective
Adult GPIHBP1-deficient mice (Gpihbp1−/−) have severe hypertriglyceridemia; however, the plasma triglyceride levels are only mildly elevated during the suckling phase when lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) is expressed at high levels in the liver. Lpl expression in the liver can be induced in adult mice with dietary cholesterol. We therefore hypothesized that plasma triglyceride levels in adult Gpihbp1−/− mice would be sensitive to cholesterol intake.
Methods and Results
After 4–8 weeks on a western diet containing 0.15% cholesterol, plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1−/− mice were 10,000–12,000 mg/dl. When 0.005% ezetimibe was added to the diet to block cholesterol absorption, Lpl expression in the liver was reduced significantly, and the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher (>15,000 mg/dl). We also assessed plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1−/− mice fed western diets containing either high (1.3%) or low (0.05%) amounts of cholesterol. The high-cholesterol diet significantly increased Lpl expression in the liver and lowered plasma triglyceride levels.
Conclusions
Treatment of Gpihbp1−/− mice with ezetimibe lowers Lpl expression in the liver and increases plasma triglyceride levels. A high-cholesterol diet had the opposite effects. Thus, cholesterol intake modulates plasma triglyceride levels in Gpihbp1−/− mice.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.214403
PMCID: PMC2959134  PMID: 20814015
lipoprotein lipase; chylomicronemia; hypertriglyceridemia; GPIHBP1
20.  GPIHBP1 Is Responsible for the Entry of Lipoprotein Lipase into Capillaries 
Cell metabolism  2010;12(1):42-52.
SUMMARY
The lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the central event in plasma lipid metabolism, providing lipids for storage in adipose tissue and fuel for vital organs such as the heart. LPL is synthesized and secreted by myocytes and adipocytes but then finds its way into the lumen of capillaries, where it hydrolyzes lipoprotein triglycerides. The mechanism by which LPL reaches the lumen of capillaries represents one of the most persistent mysteries of plasma lipid metabolism. Here, we show that GPIHBP1 is responsible for the transport of LPL into capillaries. In Gpihbp1-deficient mice, LPL is mislocalized to the interstitial spaces surrounding myocytes and adipocytes. Also, we show that GPIHBP1 is located at the basolateral surface of capillary endothelial cells and actively transports LPL across endothelial cells. Our experiments define the function of GPIHBP1 in triglyceride metabolism and provide a mechanism for the transport of LPL into capillaries.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.04.016
PMCID: PMC2913606  PMID: 20620994
22.  Agpat6 deficiency causes subdermal lipodystrophy and resistance to obesityS 
Journal of lipid research  2006;47(4):745-754.
Triglyceride synthesis in most mammalian tissues involves the sequential addition of fatty acids to a glycerol backbone, with unique enzymes required to catalyze each acylation step. Acylation at the sn-2 position requires 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) activity. To date, seven Agpat genes have been identified based on activity and/or sequence similarity, but their physiological functions have not been well established. We have generated a mouse model deficient in AGPAT6, which is normally expressed at high levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose tissue (WAT), and liver. Agpat6-deficient mice exhibit a 25% reduction in body weight and resistance to both diet-induced and genetically induced obesity. The reduced body weight is associated with increased energy expenditure, reduced triglyceride accumulation in BAT and WAT, reduced white adipocyte size, and lack of adipose tissue in the subdermal region. In addition, the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and phospholipid is altered, with proportionally greater polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids. Thus, Agpat6 plays a unique role in determining triglyceride content and composition in adipose tissue and liver that cannot be compensated by other members of the Agpat family.
doi:10.1194/jlr.M500553-JLR200
PMCID: PMC2901549  PMID: 16436371
acyltransferase; gene-trap; adipose tissue; energy expenditure; 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase
23.  ATP-Citrate Lyase Deficiency in the Mouse* 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2003;279(10):9557-9564.
ATP-citrate lyase (Acly) is one of two cytosolic enzymes that synthesize acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Because acetyl-CoA is an essential building block for cholesterol and triglycerides, Acly has been considered a therapeutic target for hyperlipidemias and obesity. To define the phenotype of Acly-deficient mice, we created Acly knockout mice in which a β-galactosidase marker is expressed from Acly regulatory sequences. We also sought to define the cell type-specific expression patterns of Acly to further elucidate the in vivo roles of the enzyme. Homozygous Acly knockout mice died early in development. Heterozygous mice were healthy, fertile, and normolipidemic on both chow and high fat diets, despite expressing half-normal amounts of Acly mRNA and protein. Fibroblasts and hepatocytes from heterozygous Acly mice contained half-normal amounts of Acly mRNA and protein, but this did not perturb triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis or the expression of lipid biosynthetic genes regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. The expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase 1, another cytosolic enzyme for producing acetyl-CoA, was not up-regulated. As judged by β-galactosidase staining, Acly was expressed ubiquitously but was expressed particularly highly in tissues with high levels of lipogenesis, such as in the livers of mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet. β-Galactosidase staining was intense in the developing brain, in keeping with the high levels of de novo lipogenesis of the tissue. In the adult brain, β-galactosidase staining was in general much lower, consistent with reduced levels of lipogenesis; however, β-galactosidase expression remained very high in cholinergic neurons, likely reflecting the importance of Acly in generating acetyl-CoA for acetylcholine synthesis. The Acly knockout allele is useful for identifying cell types with a high demand for acetyl-CoA synthesis.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M310512200
PMCID: PMC2888281  PMID: 14662765
24.  GPIHBP1—an endothelial cell molecule important for the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons 
Current opinion in lipidology  2007;18(4):389-396.
Purpose of review
This review summarizes recent data indicating that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein–binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) plays a key role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons.
Recent findings
Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in chylomicrons at the luminal surface of the capillaries in heart, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. However, the endothelial cell molecule that facilitates the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons has never been clearly defined. Mice lacking GPIHBP1 manifest chylomicronemia, with plasma triglyceride levels as high as 5,000 mg/dl. In wild-type mice, GPIHBP1 is expressed on the luminal surface of capillaries in heart, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Cells transfected with GPIHBP1 bind both chylomicrons and LpL avidly.
Summary
The chylomicronemia in Gpihbp1-deficient mice, the fact that GPIHBP1 is located within the lumen of capillaries, and the fact that GPIHBP1 binds LpL and chylomicrons suggest that GPIHBP1 is a key platform for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e3281527914
PMCID: PMC2888298  PMID: 17620854
Chylomicronemia; lipoprotein lipase; hypertriglyceridemia; GPI-anchored proteins
25.  Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein–binding protein 1 plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons 
Cell metabolism  2007;5(4):279-291.
Summary
The triglycerides in chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) along the luminal surface of the capillaries. However, the endothelial cell molecule that facilitates chylomicron processing by LpL has not yet been defined. Here, we show that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein–binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons. Gpihbp1-deficient mice exhibit a striking accumulation of chylomicrons in the plasma, even on a low-fat diet, resulting in milky plasma and plasma triglyceride levels as high as 5,000 mg/dl. Normally, Gpihbp1 is expressed highly in heart and adipose tissue, the same tissues that express high levels of LpL. In these tissues, GPIHBP1 is located on the luminal face of the capillary endothelium. Expression of GPIHBP1 in cultured cells confers the ability to bind both LpL and chylomicrons. These studies strongly suggest that GPIHBP1 is an important platform for the LpL-mediated processing of chylomicrons in capillaries.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2007.02.002
PMCID: PMC1913910  PMID: 17403372

Results 1-25 (26)