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1.  Faster recovery without the use of a tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty 
Acta Orthopaedica  2014;85(4):422-426.
Background and purpose
Tourniquet application is still a common practice in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery despite being associated with several adverse effects. We evaluated the effects of tourniquet use on functional and clinical outcome and on knee range of motion (ROM).
Patients and methods
70 patients who underwent TKA were randomized into a tourniquet group (n = 35) and a non-tourniquet group (n = 35). All operations were performed by the same surgeon and follow-up was for 1 year. Primary outcomes were functional and clinical outcomes, as evaluated by KOOS and knee ROM. Secondary outcomes were intraoperative blood loss, surgical time and visibility, postoperative pain, analgesic consumption, and transfusion requirements.
Results
Patients in the non-tourniquet group showed a better outcome in all KOOS subscores and better early knee ROM from surgery to week 8. No difference was detected at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Postoperative pain and analgesic consumption were less when a tourniquet was not used. Surgical time and visibility were similar between groups. Intraoperative blood loss was greater when not using a tourniquet, but no postoperative transfusions were required.
Interpretation
This study shows that TKA without the use of a tourniquet results in faster recovery in terms of better functional outcome and improved knee ROM. Furthermore, reduced pain and analgesic use were registered and no intraoperative difficulties were encountered.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2014.931197
PMCID: PMC4105775  PMID: 24954487
2.  Thromboprophylaxis only during hospitalisation in fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty, a prospective cohort study 
BMJ Open  2013;3(12):e003965.
Objectives
International guidelines recommend thrombosis prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for up to 35 days. However, previous studies often have hospital stays (length of stay; LOS) of 8–12 days and not considering early mobilisation, which may reduce incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). We investigated the incidence of any symptomatic thromboembolic events (TEEs) with only in-hospital prophylaxis if LOS ≤5 days after fast-track THA and TKA.
Design
A prospective descriptive multicentre cohort study in fast-track THA and TKA from February 2010 to December 2011, with complete 90-day follow-up through the Danish National Patient Registry and patient files.
Setting
6 Danish high-volume centres with a similar standardised fast-track setup, including spinal anaesthesia, opioid-sparing analgesia, early mobilisation, functional discharge criteria and discharge to own home.
Participants
4924 consecutive unselected unilateral primary THA and TKAs in patients ≥18 years with no preoperative use of continuous ‘potent’ anticoagulative therapy (vitamin K antagonists).
Exposure
Prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin or factor Xa-inhibitors only during hospitalisation when LOS ≤5 days.
Outcomes
Incidence of symptomatic TEE-related, VTE-related and VTE-related mortality ≤90 days postoperatively.
Results
LOS ≤5 days and thromboprophylaxis only during hospitalisation occurred in 4659 procedures (94.6% of total). Median LOS and prophylaxis duration was 2 days (IQR 2–3) with 0.84% (95% CI 0.62% to 1.15%) TEE and 0.41% (0.26% to 0.64%) VTE during 90-day follow-up. VTE consisted of five pulmonary embolisms (0.11% (0.05% to 0.25%)) and 14 deep venous thrombosis (0.30% (0.18% to 0.50%)). There were four (0.09% (0.04% to 0.23%)) surgery-related deaths, of which 1 (0.02% (0.00% to 0.12%)) was due to pulmonary embolism, and 6 (0.13% (0.06% to 0.28%)) deaths of unknown causes after discharge.
Conclusions
The low incidence of TEE and VTE suggests that in-hospital prophylaxis only, is safe in fast-track THA and TKA patients with LOS of ≤5 days. Guidelines on thromboprophylaxis may need reconsideration in fast-track elective surgery.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01557725
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003965
PMCID: PMC3863129  PMID: 24334158
3.  No superior performance of hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups over porous-coated cups 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(6):544-548.
Background and purpose
Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating is believed to improve bone-implant ingrowth and long-term survival of prostheses. Recent studies, however, have challenged this view. Furthermore, HA particles may produce third-body wear and initiate aseptic loosening of implants. We report the performance of HA- and porous-coated acetabular cups in a prospective randomized trial.
Methods
This was an 8-year follow-up study of our previously published prospective randomized study to compare clinical outcomes, survival, periprosthetic bone mineral density, migration, and wear rates of HA- and porous-coated acetabular cups. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and Ein Bild Roentgen Analyse (EBRA) measurements were used. 100 patients who underwent unilateral cementless total hip arthroplasty were randomized to either porous-coated cups or HA-coated cups. Patients were examined preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 9 months, and also 1, 3, and 8 years after surgery. 81 patients were available for 8-year follow-up, 40 with porous-coated cups and 41 with HA-coated cups.
Results
Age, sex, bone mineral density, and clinical results (Harris hip score) were similar in the 2 groups. The survival, wear, and migration patterns of the cups were also similar in both groups. The results of periprosthetic bone mineral density scans in region of interest 2 was in favor of the porous-coated cups, but there were no differences between the 2 groups in all the remaining regions of interest.
Interpretation
HA coating had no statistically significant effect on clinical results, survival, wear, or migration at the 8-year follow-up.
doi:10.3109/17453674.2013.854665
PMCID: PMC3851667  PMID: 24171680
4.  Total knee replacement plus physical and medical therapy or treatment with physical and medical therapy alone: a randomised controlled trial in patients with knee osteoarthritis (the MEDIC-study) 
Background
There is a lack of high quality evidence concerning the efficacy of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to international evidence-based guidelines, treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should include patient education, exercise and weight loss. Insoles and pharmacological treatment can be included as supplementary treatments. If the combination of these non-surgical treatment modalities is ineffective, TKA may be indicated. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial is to examine whether TKA provides further improvement in pain, function and quality of life in addition to optimised non-surgical treatment in patients with KOA defined as definite radiographic OA and up to moderate pain.
Methods/Design
The study will be conducted in The North Denmark Region. 100 participants with radiographic KOA (K-L grade ≥2) and mean pain during the previous week of ≤ 60 mm (0–100, best to worst scale) who are considered eligible for TKA by an orthopaedic surgeon will be included. The treatment will consist of 12 weeks of optimised non-surgical treatment consisting of patient education, exercise, diet, insoles, analgesics and/or NSAIDs. Patients will be randomised to either receiving or not receiving a TKA in addition to the optimised non-surgical treatment. The primary outcome will be the change from baseline to 12 months on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)4 defined as the average score for the subscale scores for pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include the five individual KOOS subscale scores, EQ-5D, pain on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale, self-efficacy, pain pressure thresholds, and isometric knee flexion and knee extension strength.
Discussion
This is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of TKA as an adjunct treatment to optimised non-surgical treatment in patients with KOA. The results will significantly contribute to evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of patients with KOA.
Trial registration
Clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT01410409
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-67
PMCID: PMC3461437  PMID: 22571284

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