Aberrant histone acetylation plays an essential role in the neoplastic process via the epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs); therefore, the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) has become a promising target in cancer therapeutics. To investigate the correlation of histone acetylation with clinicopathological features and TSG expression, we examined the expression of acetylated H3 (AcH3), RARβ2, E-cadherin, and β-catenin by immunohistochemistry in 65 cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. The results revealed that the absence of AcH3 was directly associated with poor histological differentiation and nodal metastasis as well as reduced/negative expression of RARβ2, E-cadherin, and β-catenin in clinical tumour samples. We further demonstrated that the clinically available HDAC inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), can overcome the epigenetic barriers to transcription of RARβ2 in human cervical cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the combination treatment increased the enrichment of acetylated histone in the RARβ2-RARE promoter region. In view of these findings, we evaluated the antitumor effects induced by combined VPA and ATRA treatment in a xenograft model implanted with poorly differentiated human squamous cell carcinoma. Notably, VPA restored RARβ2 expression via epigenetic modulation. Additive antitumour effects were produced in tumour xenografts by combining VPA with ATRA treatment. Mechanistically, the combination treatment reactivated the expression of TSGs RARβ2, E-cadherin, P21CIP1, and P53 and reduced the level of p-Stat3. Sequentially, upregulation of involucrin and loricrin, which indicate terminal differentiation, strongly contributed to tumour growth inhibition along with partial apoptosis. In conclusion, targeted therapy with HDAC inhibitors and RARβ2 agonists may represent a novel therapeutic approach for patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions.
Climate change is generally predicted to increase net primary production, which could lead to additional C input to soil. In arid central Asia, precipitation has increased and is predicted to increase further. To assess the combined effects of these changes on soil CO2 efflux in arid land, a two factorial manipulation experiment in the shrubland of an arid region in northwest China was conducted. The experiment used a nested design with fresh organic matter and water as the two controlled parameters. It was found that both fresh organic matter and water enhanced soil respiration, and there was a synergistic effect of these two treatments on soil respiration increase. Water addition not only enhanced soil C emission, but also regulated soil C sequestration by fresh organic matter addition. The results indicated that the soil CO2 flux of the shrubland is likely to increase with climate change, and precipitation played a dominant role in regulating soil C balance in the shrubland of an arid region.
Strains of Staphylococcus aureus with an intermediate level of resistance to vancomycin (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, or VISA) or which contain subpopulations of mixed susceptibility (heterogeneous VISA, or hVISA) have been reported worldwide. However, the prevalence of VISA and hVISA infections in Northeast China is unknown. From 2007 through 2010, we surveyed the vancomycin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA, respectively) clinical isolates in Northeast China.
S. aureus clinical isolates (369 MRSA and 388 MSSA) were screened for hVISA and VISA on brain heart infusion agar containing 3 μg/mL vancomycin, and their identity confirmed using a modified population analysis profile-area under the curve method and broth microdilution. All hVISA and VISA isolates were characterized genotypically and phenotypically.
Ten percent and 0.5 percent of the isolates were hVISA and VISA, respectively. The proportion of hVISA among MSSA isolates for the entire study period was 4.1%, but increased significantly year-by-year, from 1.2% in 2007 to 7.2% in 2010. The predominant sources of hVISA and VISA isolates were sputum (56.3%), pus (18.8%), and blood (8.8%). Molecular typing of hVISA and VISA strains revealed that, taken together, 80% contained the accessory gene regulator (agr) group II, and of these, 85.7% of the MR-hVISA and MR-VISA strains were staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type II. The adherence ability of all hVISA and VISA strains was reduced compared with that of vancomycin-susceptible strains, shown by biofilm assay.
The percentage of hVISA strains was high and increased each year. The proportion of hVISA among MSSA specifically also increased significantly each year. In isolates collected from diverse infection sites, hVISA and VISA strains were found predominantly in sputum, pus, and blood, in descending order. Testing for vancomycin susceptibility should include both MRSA and MSSA isolates collected from different clinical sites.
Over the past few years, mass spectrometry has emerged as a technology to complement and potentially replace standard immunoassays in routine clinical core laboratories. Application of mass spectrometry to protein and peptide measurement can provide advantages including high sensitivity, the ability to multiplex analytes, and high specificity at the amino acid sequence level. In our previous study, we demonstrated excellent reproducibility of mass spectrometry-selective reaction monitoring (MS-SRM) assays when applying standardized standard operating procedures (SOPs) to measure synthetic peptides in a complex sample, as lack of reproducibility has been a frequent criticism leveled at the use of mass spectrometers in the clinical laboratory compared to immunoassays. Furthermore, an important caveat of SRM-based assays for proteins is that many low-abundance analytes require some type of enrichment before detection with MS. This adds a level of complexity to the procedure and the potential for irreproducibility increases, especially across different laboratories with different operators. The purpose of this study was to test the interlaboratory reproducibility of SRM assays with various upfront enrichment strategies and different types of clinical samples (representing real-world body fluids commonly encountered in routine clinical laboratories). Three different, previously published enrichment strategies for low-abundance analytes and a no-enrichment strategy for high-abundance analytes were tested across four different laboratories using different liquid chromatography-SRM (LC-SRM) platforms and previously developed SOPs. The results demonstrated that these assays were indeed reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 30% for the measurement of important clinical proteins across all four laboratories in real world samples.
SRM assay; mass spectrometry; proteomics; clinical assay
Mouse p202 containing two HIN domains antagonizes AIM2 inflammasome signaling and potentially modifies lupus susceptibility. We found only HIN1 of p202 binds dsDNA, while HIN2 forms a homo-tetramer. Crystal structures of HIN1 revealed that dsDNA is bound on the opposite face to the site used in AIM2 and IFI16. The structure of HIN2 revealed a dimer of dimers, with the face analogous to the HIN1 dsDNA binding site being a dimerization interface. Electron microscopy imaging showed that HIN1 is flexibly linked to HIN2 in p202, and tetramerization provided enhanced avidity for dsDNA. Surprisingly, HIN2 of p202 interacts with AIM HIN domain. We propose this results in spatial separation of AIM2 pyrin domains, and indeed p202 prevented dsDNA-dependent clustering of ASC and AIM2 inflammasome activation. We hypothesize that while p202 was evolutionarily selected to limit AIM2-mediated inflammation in some mouse strains, the same mechanism contributes to increased interferon production and lupus susceptibility.
Lutein is selectively taken up by the primate retina and plays an important role as a filter for harmful blue light and as an antioxidant. Recent studies have shown that lutein has systemic anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary lutein has been associated with reduced circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as CRP and sICAM. Whether lutein also affects activation of the complement system has not yet been addressed and was the purpose of the study described here. Seventy-two subjects with signs of early macular degeneration were randomly assigned to receive either a 10 mg lutein supplement or a placebo during one year. EDTA blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months. Complement factor D (CFD), a rate limiting component of the alternative pathway of complement activation and the complement activation products C5a and C3d were determined in the plasma samples by ELISA. A significant 0.11 µg/ml monthly decrease in plasma CFD concentration was observed in the lutein group (p<0.001), resulting in a 51% decrease from 2.3 µg/ml at baseline to 1.0 µg/ml at 12 months. The C5a concentration showed a significant 0.063ng/ml monthly decrease in the lutein group (p<0.001) resulting in a 36% decrease from 2.2ng/ml at baseline to 1.6ng/ml at 12 months. The C3d concentration showed a significant 0.19µg/ml monthly decrease in the lutein group (p=0.004) that gave rise to a 9% decrease from 15.4µg/ml at baseline to 14.4µg/ml at 12 months. In the placebo group we found a significant 0.04 µg/ml monthly decrease in plasma CFD concentration, whereas no changes were observed for C5a and C3d. Lutein supplementation markedly decreases circulating levels of the complement factors CFD, C5a and C3d levels, which might allow a simple method to control this inflammatory pathway of the innate immune system.
N-linked glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes, including cell-to-cell recognition, growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. Specific N-linked glycoprotein changes are associated with disease progression and identification of these N-linked glycoproteins has potential for use in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatments. In this review, we summarize common strategies for N-linked glycoprotein characterization and applications of these strategies to identification of glycoprotein changes associated with disease states. We also review the N-linked glycoproteins altered in diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Although assays for these glycoproteins have potential clinical utility, research is needed to translate these glycoproteins to clinical biomarkers.
Disease association; Glycoproteomics; N-linked glycoproteins
It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM) and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%–29.7%), FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region.
This study compared the effects of ten types of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and six different antibiotics on E. coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin gene (stx2) mRNA expression level based on real-time PCR and the expression level of Stx toxin using an ELISA quantitative assay. We also compared their effects on the induction of the SOS response. The results clearly indicated that all ten TCMs had negative results in the SOS response induction test, while most TCMs did not increase the levels of stx2 mRNA and the Stx toxin. Some TCMs did increase the mRNA levels of the stx2 gene and the Stx toxin level, but their increases were much lower than those caused by antibiotics. With the exception of cefotaxime, the six antibiotics increased the Stx toxin level and increased the stx2 gene mRNA level. With the exceptions of cefotaxime and tetracycline, the antibiotics increased the SOS induction response. These results suggest that TCMs may have advantages compared with antibiotics, when treating E. coli O157:H7; TCMs did not greatly increase Stx toxin production and release.
Detection of foreign materials is the first step of successful immune responses. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was shown to directly bind cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger, and to elicit strong interferon responses. Here we elucidate the structural features of the cytosolic c-di-GMP binding domain (CBD) of STING and its complex with c-di-GMP. The CBD exhibits an α + β fold and is a dimer in the crystal and in solution. Surprisingly, one c-di-GMP molecule binds to the central crevice of a STING dimer, using a series of stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. We show that STING is autoinhibited by an intramolecular interaction between the CBD and the C-terminal tail (CTT) and that c-di-GMP releases STING from this autoinhibition by displacing the CTT. The structures provide a remarkable example of pathogen-host interactions in which a unique microbial molecule directly engages the innate immune system.
APOE4 allele is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). The mechanism of action of APOE in AD remains unclear. To study the effects of APOE alleles on gene expression in AD, we have analyzed the gene transcription patterns of human hippocampus from APOE3/3, APOE3/4, APOE4/4 AD patients and normal control using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). Using SAGE, we found gene expression patterns in hippocampus of APOE3/4 and APOE4/4 AD patients differ substantially from those of APOE3/3 AD patients. APOE3/4 and APOE4/4 allele expression may activate similar genes or gene pools with associated functions. APOE4 AD alleles activate multiple tumor suppressors, tumor inducers and negative regulator of cell growth or repressors that may lead to increased cell arrest, senescence and apoptosis. In contrast, there is decreased expression of large clusters of genes associated with synaptic plasticity, synaptic vesicle docking and fusing and axonal/neuronal outgrowth. In addition, reduction of neurotransmitter receptors and Ca++ homeostasis, disruption of multiple signal transduction pathways, loss of cell protection, and perhaps most notably, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation/energy metabolism are associated with APOE3/4 and APOE4/4 AD alleles. These findings may help define the mechanisms that APOE4 contribute increased risk for AD and identify new candidate genes conferring susceptibility to AD.
Apolipoprotein E; Alzheimer disease; Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE); apoptosis; signal pathways
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common, highly heritable neuro-developmental condition characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity1–3. Thus, a fundamental question is whether autism represents an etiologically heterogeneous disorder in which the myriad genetic or environmental risk factors perturb common underlying molecular pathways in the brain4. Here, we demonstrate consistent differences in transcriptome organization between autistic and normal brain by gene co-expression network analysis. Remarkably, regional patterns of gene expression that typically distinguish frontal and temporal cortex are significantly attenuated in the ASD brain, suggesting abnormalities in cortical patterning. We further identify discrete modules of co-expressed genes associated with autism: a neuronal module enriched for known autism susceptibility genes, including the neuronal specific splicing factor A2BP1/FOX1, and a module enriched for immune genes and glial markers. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing we demonstrate dysregulated splicing of A2BP1-dependent alternative exons in ASD brain. Moreover, using a published autism GWAS dataset, we show that the neuronal module is enriched for genetically associated variants, providing independent support for the causal involvement of these genes in autism. In contrast, the immune-glial module showed no enrichment for autism GWAS signals, indicating a non-genetic etiology for this process. Collectively, our results provide strong evidence for convergent molecular abnormalities in ASD, and implicate transcriptional and splicing dysregulation as underlying mechanisms of neuronal dysfunction in this disorder.
The pancreatic islet is mainly composed of beta-, alpha- and delta-cells with small numbers of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and epsilon cells. It is known that there is a region in the head of the pancreas that is rich in PP-cells. In the present study, we examined the distribution of PP-cells, and assessed the influence of the PP-cell rich region to quantify the total islet mass. Pancreatic tissues were collected from donors with no history of diabetes or pancreatic diseases (n = 12). A stereological approach with a computer-assisted large-scale analysis of whole pancreatic sections was applied to quantify the entire distribution of endocrine cells within a given section. The initial whole pancreas analysis showed that a PP-cell rich region was largely restricted to the uncinate process with a clear boundary. The distinct distribution of PP-cells includes irregularly shaped clusters composed solely of PP-cells. Furthermore, in the PP-cell rich region, beta- and alpha-cell mass is significantly reduced compared to surrounding PP-cell poor regions. The results suggest that the analysis of the head region should distinguish the PP-cell rich region, which is best examined separately. This study presents an important implication for the regional selection and interpretation of the results.
Phase cancellation in ultrasound due to large receiver size has been proposed as a contributing factor to the inaccuracy of estimating broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), which is used to characterize bone quality. Transducers with aperture size ranging from 2 to 5 mm have been used in previous attempts to study the effect of phase cancellation. However, these receivers themselves are susceptible to phase cancellation because aperture size is close to one center wavelength (about 3 mm at 500 KHz in water). This study uses an ultra small receiver (aperture size: 0.2mm) in conjunction with a newly developed 2-D synthetic array system to investigate the effects of phase cancellation and receiver aperture size on BUA estimations of bone tissue. In vitro ultrasound measurements were conducted on 54 trabecular bone samples (harvested from sheep femurs) in a confocal configuration with a focused transmitter and synthesized focused receivers of different aperture sizes. Phase sensitive (PS) and phase insensitive (PI) detections were performed. The results show that phase cancellation does have a significant effect on BUA. The normalized BUA (nBUA) with PS is 8.1% higher than PI nBUA while PI BUA is well correlated with PS BUA. Receiver aperture size also influences the BUA reading for both PI and PS detection and smaller receiver aperture tends to result in higher BUA readings. The results also indicate that the receiver aperture size used in the confocal configuration with PI detection should at least equal the aperture of the transmitter to capture most of the energy redistributed by the interference and diffraction from the trabecular bone.
Phase cancellation; Broadband ultrasound attenuation; Synthetic array; Trabecular bone; Bone quality assessment; Osteoporosis; Osteopenia
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in adult women. The origin of epithelial ovarian tumors is both morphologically and biologically heterogeneous, and different subtypes of ovarian tumors have different clinical outcomes. In spite of the heterogeneous nature of ovarian carcinoma, the current biomarkers and treatments for this disease are not subtype-specific. To discover the molecular basis of the ovarian tumor subtypes, we analyzed extracellular glycoproteins of seven common subtypes and normal ovary tissues using quantitative glycoproteomic analysis. Glycoproteins for different ovarian tumor subtypes were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and quantitated by spectral counting and then verified by iTRAQ labeling and Western blotting. Glycoproteins uniquely expressed in different subtypes of ovarian tumors or commonly expressed in most subtypes were identified. Using Western blots, we verified that mesothelin was overexpressed in serous carcinoma and transitional-cell carcinoma, CEA5 and CEA6 were overexpressed only in mucinous carcinoma, while versican and periostin were overexpressed in most subtypes of ovarian tumors. This study represents the first proteomic characterization of different ovarian tumor subtypes. The identified glycoproteins for histological subtypes of ovarian tumors will facilitate the understanding of the molecular basis, diagnosis of ovarian tumor subtypes, and predictions for treatment responses to therapeutic agents.
ovarian tumor; histological subtypes; quantitative glycoproteomics; mass spectrometry; Western blot
Traditional radiography is limited in its ability to give reliable information on the number and morphology of root canals. The application of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a non-invasive three-dimensional confirmatory diagnosis as a complement to conventional radiography. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root and canal morphology of mandibular premolars in a western Chinese population using CBCT scanning.
The sample included 149 CBCT images comprising 178 mandibular first premolars and 178 second premolars. The tooth position, number of roots and canals, and canal configuration according to Vertucci’s classification were recorded.
The results showed that 98% of mandibular first premolars had one root and 2% had two roots; 87.1% had one canal, 11.2% had two canals and 0.6% had three canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 1.1%. All mandibular second premolars had one root; 97.2% had one canal and 2.2% had two canals. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 0.6%.
The prevalence of multiple canals in mandibular first premolars was mainly of Type V, and mandibular second premolars had a low rate of canal variation in this western Chinese population. Root canal bifurcation occurred at the middle or apical third in most bicanal mandibular premolars. CBCT scanning can be used in the management of mandibular premolars with complex canal morphology.
Cone-beam computed tomography; Mandibular premolar; Morphology; Root canal configuration
This letter presents an experimental study that shows that a 3rd physical dimension may be used to further increase information packing density in magnetic storage devices. We demonstrate the feasibility of at least quadrupling the magnetic states of magnetic-based data storage devices by recording and reading information from nanopillars with three magnetically-decoupled layers. Magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy and magnetic force microscopy analysis show that both continuous (thin film) and patterned triple-stack magnetic media can generate eight magnetically-stable states. This is in comparison to only two states in conventional magnetic recording. Our work further reveals that ferromagnetic interaction between magnetic layers can be reduced by combining Co/Pt and Co/Pd multilayers media. Finally, we are showing for the first time an MFM image of multilevel-3D bit patterned media with 8 discrete signal levels.
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a model organism to study the mechanisms and pathways of human disorders. Many dysfunctions in neurological, development and neuromuscular systems are due to glycosylation deficiencies, but the glycoproteins involved in zebrafish embryonic development have not been established. In this study, a mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomic characterization of zebrafish embryos was performed to identify the N-linked glycoproteins and N-linked glycosylation sites. To increase the number of glycopeptides, proteins from zebrafish were digested with two different proteases, chymotrypsin and trypsin, into peptides of different length. The N-glycosylated peptides of zebrafish were then captured by the solid phase extraction of N-linked glycopeptides (SPEG) method and the peptides were identified with an LTQ OrbiTrap Velos mass spectrometer. From 265 unique glycopeptides, including 269 consensus NXT/S glycosites, we identified 169 different N-glycosylated proteins. The identified glycoproteins were highly abundant in proteins belonging to the transporter, cell adhesion, and ion channel/ion binding categories which are important to embryonic, organ, and central nervous system development. This proteomics data will expand our knowledge about glycoproteins in zebrafish and may be used to elucidate the role glycosylation plays in cellular processes and disease. The glycoprotein data are available through the GlycoFish database (http://betenbaugh.jhu.edu/GlycoFish) introduced in this paper.
N-linked glycoproteins; glycosylation; glycomics; glycoproteomics; proteomics; zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos; Solid Phase Extraction of N-linked glycopeptides (SPEG); Mass spectrometry (MS); GlycoFish
Living cells respond to changing environments by regulating their genes and activities. In unicellular organisms such as yeasts, the cell division cycle is coupled to the nutrient availability. However, it is unclear how tight this coupling is and how the intrinsic time scales of the different cell cycle processes respond to varying nutrient conditions. Here we study the cell cycle behavior of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to periodically modulated nutrient availability, using a microfluidic platform which allows for longtime cultivation, programmed medium switching, and automated time-lapse image acquisition. We observe that the division cycle of the yeast cells can follow a periodically modulated medium so that the whole population can be driven into synchrony. When the period of the nutrient modulation is optimized, as many as 80% of the cells in a population are continuously synchronized. The degree of synchronization as a function of the nutrient modulation period can be qualitatively captured by a stochastic phenomenological model. Our work may shed light on the coupling between the cell growth and cell division as well as provide a nontoxic and non-invasive method to continuously synchronize the cell cycle.
The Beclin 1 gene is a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor and plays an
essential role in autophagy. However, the molecular mechanism by which Beclin 1
functions remains largely unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the
evolutionarily conserved domain (ECD) of Beclin 1 at 1.6 Å
resolution. Beclin 1 ECD exhibits a previously unreported fold, with three
structural repeats arranged symmetrically around a central axis. Beclin 1 ECD
defines a novel class of membrane-binding domain, with a strong preference for
lipid membrane enriched with cardiolipin. The tip of a surface loop in Beclin 1
ECD, comprising three aromatic amino acids, acts as a hydrophobic finger to
associate with lipid membrane, consequently resulting in the deformation of
membrane and liposomes. Mutation of these aromatic residues rendered Beclin 1
unable to stably associate with lipid membrane in vitro and unable to
fully rescue autophagy in Beclin 1-knockdown cells in vivo. These
observations form an important framework for deciphering the biological
functions of Beclin 1.
Beclin 1; autophagy; crystal structure; membrane binding; membrane deformation; omegasome
Aberrant protein glycosylation has been shown to be associated with disease progression and can be potentially useful as a biomarker if disease-specific glycosylation can be identified. However, high-throughput quantitative analysis of protein glycosylation derived from clinical specimens presents technical challenges due to the typically high complexity of biological samples. In this study, a mass spectrometry-based analytical method was developed to measure different glycosylated forms of glycoproteins from complex biological samples by coupling glycopeptide extraction strategy for specific glycosylation with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Using this method, we monitored glycosylated and sialylated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer and non-cancer tissues. Results of this study demonstrated that the relative abundance of glycosylated PSA isoforms were not correlated with total PSA protein levels measured in the same prostate cancer tissue samples by clinical immunoassay. Furthermore, the sialylated PSA was differentially distributed in cancer and non-cancer tissues. These data suggest that differently glycosylated isoforms of glycoproteins can be quantitatively analyzed and may provide unique information for clinically relevant studies.
Kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) inhibitors have been proved to be very effective anticancer agents. Molecular docking, 3D-QSAR methods, CoMFA and CoMSIA were performed on pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives as non-ATP competitive KDR inhibitors (type II). The bioactive conformation was explored by docking one potent compound 20 into the active site of KDR in its DFG-out inactive conformation. The constructed CoMFA and CoMSIA models produced statistically significant results with the cross-validated correlation coefficients q2 of 0.542 and 0.552, non-cross-validated correlation coefficients r2 of 0.912 and 0.955, and predicted correction coefficients r2pred of 0.913 and 0.897, respectively. These results ensure the CoMFA and CoMSIA models as a tool to guide the design of a series of new potent KDR inhibitors.
CoMFA; CoMSIA; KDR inhibitor; pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives; Surflex-Dock
The microRNA miR-451 is downregulated in gliomas, this has been suggested by several different research groups and is consistent with our data. Our previous study also confirmed that miR-451 has a repressive role in glioma by inhibiting cell growth, proliferation and by inducing cell apoptosis. In the present study, we identified a target gene of miR-451 in human glioma and investigated the mechanism for the glioma suppressive effect of miR-451 functions. Expression of miR-451 in gliomas was identified by quantitative real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Human glioma cell lines (U251, U87, LN229 and A172) were transfected with miR-451 mimics to restore miR-451 expression. The tumor suppressive effects of miR-451 were further verified by subcutaneous assays in nude mice, in addition to our previous in vitro data. A candidate target gene was tested by Western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. Some PI3K/AKT pathway factors were tested by Western blotting. We found that miR-451 expression was downregulated in glioma samples and was inversely correlated with WHO grades of gliomas. In vivo assays confirmed that miR-451 had tumor suppressive traits. CAB39-3′UTR luciferase reporter assay confirmed CAB39 as a direct target gene of miR-451. Significant alterations in the expression of PI3K/AKT pathway factors were observed by Western blot assays. We conclude that miR-451 represses glioma in vitro and in vivo, likely through targeting CAB39 directly and inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway indirectly.
glioma; microRNA-451; target gene; calcium binding protein 39
Trax/Translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated Translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length Translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the Translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO’s endoribonuclease activity and interacts extensively with Translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length, exhibits endoribonuclease activity leaving 3′ hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave near stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.