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1.  Role of high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy in early and locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:590.
Background
The study aimed to assess the effect of High Dose Rate (HDR) Interstitial Brachytherapy when used alone or in combination with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT), in early and locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa.
Materials and methods
Thirty three patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa received high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy either as primary treatment or as a boost from November 2008 to April 2013. Stage I patients received interstitial brachytherapy alone to a dose of 38.50 Gy, 3.5 Gy per fraction, twice daily at six hours apart for 11 fractions. Stage II patients received EBRT to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions of two Gy each followed by brachytherapy boost to 21 Gy, 3.5 Gy per fraction, twice daily at six hours apart for six fractions. Stage III patients received the same radiotherapy schedule (i.e., same EBRT & Brachytherapy schedule) and with addition of Injection Cisplatin 70 mg/m2 in three divided doses every three weeks along with EBRT.
Results
Follow up ranged from 12 to 60 months, median follow up was 26 months. Complete response was observed in 28 patients. Five patients had residual disease and were referred for surgical salvage. One patient died of disease progression. Stage I patients had 100% local control, whereas Stage II and Stage III patients had 84.6% and 80% local control respectively.
Conclusion
HDR Interstitial Brachytherapy used either as a primary treatment modality or as a boost in buccal mucosal cancers provides results comparable to that of surgery, with the advantages of organ preservation, better cosmetic and functional outcomes.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-590
PMCID: PMC4197196  PMID: 25332889
High dose rate interstitial brachytherapy; Buccal mucosal cancer; Organ preservation
2.  PREDICTING ADULT METABOLIC SYNDROME FROM CHILDHOOD BODY MASS INDEX 
Archives of disease in childhood  2008;94(10):768-774.
Objectives
To assess whether serial measurements of childhood body mass index (BMI) give clinically useful predictions of the risk of developing adult metabolic syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes.
Design/setting
Follow-up of a community-based birth cohort in Delhi, India.
Participants
1,492 men and women aged 26-32 years whose BMI was recorded 6-monthly throughout childhood.
Main outcome measures
The predictive value of childhood BMI for adult metabolic syndrome (MS) defined using waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes (DM) diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance tests.
Results
Twenty-five percent of subjects had MS and 15% had IGT/DM. Both outcomes were associated with greater childhood BMI gain (MS: OR 1.63 [95% CI 1.44 to 1.85]; IGT/DM: 1.39 [1.20 to 1.60] per unit increase in within-cohort BMI SD-score between 5-14 years). Best predictions of adult disease were obtained using a combined test comprising i) any increase in BMI SD-score between 5-14 years and ii) a BMI SD-score >0 at 14 years (MS: sensitivity 45%, specificity 78%; IGT/DM: 37%, 73%). Likelihood ratios were low (MS: 1.4-2.0; IGT/DM: 1.2-1.4). A single high BMI measurement at 14 years (overweight or obese, International Obesity Task Force criteria) was highly specific but insensitive (MS: sensitivity 7%, specificity 97%; IGT/DM: 8%, 97%). Charts for plotting BMI SD-scores through childhood were produced.
Conclusions
Serial measurements of childhood BMI give useful predictions of adult risk and could guide advice to children and parents on preventing later disease.
doi:10.1136/adc.2008.140905
PMCID: PMC2749731  PMID: 19015213
Childhood body mass index; type 2 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; predictions

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