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1.  Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Using a Novel Δ5-Desaturase from Paramecium tetraurelia▿  
Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have well-documented importance in human health and nutrition. Sustainable production in robust host organisms that do not synthesize them naturally requires the coordinated expression of several heterologous desaturases and elongases. In the present study we show production of EPA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using glucose as the sole carbon source through expression of five heterologous fatty acid desaturases and an elongase. Novel Δ5-desaturases from the ciliate protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia and from the microalgae Ostreococcus tauri and Ostreococcus lucimarinus were identified via a BLAST search, and their substrate preferences and desaturation efficiencies were assayed in a yeast strain producing the ω6 and ω3 fatty acid substrates for Δ5-desaturation. The Δ5-desaturase from P. tetraurelia was up-to-2-fold more efficient than the microalgal desaturases and was also more efficient than Δ5-desaturases from Mortierella alpina and Leishmania major. In vivo investigation of acyl carrier substrate specificities showed that the Δ5-desaturases from P. tetraurelia, O. lucimarinus, O. tauri, and M. alpina are promiscuous toward the acyl carrier substrate but prefer phospholipid-bound substrates. In contrast, the Δ5-desaturase from L. major showed no activity on phospholipid-bound substrate and thus appears to be an exclusively acyl coenzyme A-dependent desaturase.
PMCID: PMC3067290  PMID: 21193673
2.  Phosphate-Controlled Regulator for the Biosynthesis of the Dalbavancin Precursor A40926▿ † 
Journal of Bacteriology  2007;189(22):8120-8129.
The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide A40926, the precursor of the novel antibiotic dalbavancin. Previous studies have shown that phosphate limitation results in enhanced A40926 production. The A40926 biosynthetic gene (dbv) cluster, which consists of 37 genes, encodes two putative regulators, Dbv3 and Dbv4, as well as the response regulator (Dbv6) and the sensor-kinase (Dbv22) of a putative two-component system. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the dbv14-dbv8 and the dbv30-dbv35 operons, as well as dbv4, were negatively influenced by phosphate. Dbv4 shows a putative helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and shares sequence similarity with StrR, the transcriptional activator of streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus. Dbv4 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal His6-tagged protein. The purified protein bound the dbv14 and dbv30 upstream regions but not the region preceding dbv4. Bbr, a Dbv4 ortholog from the gene cluster for the synthesis of the glycopeptide balhimycin, also bound to the dbv14 and dbv30 upstream regions, while Dbv4 bound appropriate regions from the balhimycin cluster. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of glycopeptide antibiotics, indicating that the phosphate-controlled regulator Dbv4 governs two key steps in A40926 biosynthesis: the biosynthesis of the nonproteinogenic amino acid 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine and critical tailoring reactions on the heptapeptide backbone.
PMCID: PMC2168674  PMID: 17873036

Results 1-2 (2)