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1.  Deletion of the signalling molecule synthase ScbA has pleiotropic effects on secondary metabolite biosynthesis, morphological differentiation and primary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) 
Microbial Biotechnology  2011;4(2):239-251.
Summary
Streptomycetes have high biotechnological relevance as producers of diverse metabolites widely used in medical and agricultural applications. The biosynthesis of these metabolites is controlled by signalling molecules, γ‐butyrolactones, that act as bacterial hormones. In Streptomyces coelicolor, a group of signalling molecules called SCBs (S. coelicolorbutanolides) regulates production of the pigmented antibiotics coelicolor polyketide (CPK), actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin. The γ‐butyrolactone synthase ScbA is responsible for the biosynthesis of SCBs. Here we show the results of a genome‐wide transcriptome analysis of a scbA deletion mutant prior to and during the transition to antibiotic production. We report a strong perturbation in the expression of three pigmented antibiotic clusters in the mutant throughout the growth curve, thus providing a molecular explanation for the antibiotic phenotype observed previously. Our study also revealed, for the first time, that the secondary metabolite cluster responsible for synthesis of the siderophore desferrioxamine is under the control of SCB signalling. Moreover, expression of the genes encoding enzymes for primary metabolism pathways, which supply antibiotic precursors and genes for morphological differentiation, was found shifted earlier in time in the mutant. In conclusion, our time series analysis demonstrates new details of the regulatory effects of the γ‐butyrolactone system in Streptomyces.
doi:10.1111/j.1751-7915.2010.00232.x
PMCID: PMC3818864  PMID: 21342469
2.  Noncoding RNA of Glutamine Synthetase I Modulates Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)▿ ‡ 
Journal of Bacteriology  2009;192(4):1160-1164.
Overexpression of antisense chromosomal cis-encoded noncoding RNAss (ncRNAs) in glutamine synthetase I resulted in a decrease in growth, protein synthesis, and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. In addition, we predicted 3,597 cis-encoded ncRNAs and validated 13 of them experimentally, including several ncRNAs that are differentially expressed in bacterial hormone-defective mutants.
doi:10.1128/JB.01374-09
PMCID: PMC2812974  PMID: 19966003
3.  Phosphate-Controlled Regulator for the Biosynthesis of the Dalbavancin Precursor A40926▿ † 
Journal of Bacteriology  2007;189(22):8120-8129.
The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide A40926, the precursor of the novel antibiotic dalbavancin. Previous studies have shown that phosphate limitation results in enhanced A40926 production. The A40926 biosynthetic gene (dbv) cluster, which consists of 37 genes, encodes two putative regulators, Dbv3 and Dbv4, as well as the response regulator (Dbv6) and the sensor-kinase (Dbv22) of a putative two-component system. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the dbv14-dbv8 and the dbv30-dbv35 operons, as well as dbv4, were negatively influenced by phosphate. Dbv4 shows a putative helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and shares sequence similarity with StrR, the transcriptional activator of streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus. Dbv4 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal His6-tagged protein. The purified protein bound the dbv14 and dbv30 upstream regions but not the region preceding dbv4. Bbr, a Dbv4 ortholog from the gene cluster for the synthesis of the glycopeptide balhimycin, also bound to the dbv14 and dbv30 upstream regions, while Dbv4 bound appropriate regions from the balhimycin cluster. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of glycopeptide antibiotics, indicating that the phosphate-controlled regulator Dbv4 governs two key steps in A40926 biosynthesis: the biosynthesis of the nonproteinogenic amino acid 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine and critical tailoring reactions on the heptapeptide backbone.
doi:10.1128/JB.01247-07
PMCID: PMC2168674  PMID: 17873036

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