Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with early atherosclerosis and enhanced cardiovascular mortality. The relationship between carotid IMT (cIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and left ventricular (LV) mass, an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity has not been previously studied in type 1 diabetics.
The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study is a multicenter observational study designed to follow up the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. LV mass was measured with cardiac MRI at EDIC year 15 and common cIMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasound at EDIC year 12. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between cIMT at year 12 and LV mass at year 15.
A total of 889 participants had both cardiac MRI and cIMT measures available for these analyses. At EDIC year 15, the mean age of the participants was 49 (±7) years; mean diabetes duration was 28 (±5) years and 52% were males. Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between LV mass and cIMT was 0.33 (p<0.0001). After adjusting for basic covariates (machine, reader, age and gender), a significant association between LV mass and cIMT (estimate 2.0 g/m2 per 0.1 mm cIMT increment, p < 0.0001) was observed. This association was diminished by the addition of systolic blood pressure in particular 1.15 g/m2 per 0.1 mm cIMT increment, p<0.0001) and to a lessor extent other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The relationship observed between LV mass and cIMT was stronger (HOW MUCH) in patients with shorter diabetes duration.
In a well characterized population with type 1 diabetes, cIMT was an independent predictor of higher LV mass. These findings suggest a common pathway, possibly mediated by blood pressure dependent mechanisms, for vascular and myocardial structural change in T1DM.
Interpretation of clinical trials to alter the decline in β-cell function after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes depends on a robust understanding of the natural history of disease. Combining data from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet studies, we describe the natural history of β-cell function from shortly after diagnosis through 2 years post study randomization, assess the degree of variability between patients, and investigate factors that may be related to C-peptide preservation or loss. We found that 93% of individuals have detectable C-peptide 2 years from diagnosis. In 11% of subjects, there was no significant fall from baseline by 2 years. There was a biphasic decline in C-peptide; the C-peptide slope was −0.0245 pmol/mL/month (95% CI −0.0271 to −0.0215) through the first 12 months and −0.0079 (−0.0113 to −0.0050) from 12 to 24 months (P < 0.001). This pattern of fall in C-peptide over time has implications for understanding trial results in which effects of therapy are most pronounced early and raises the possibility that there are time-dependent differences in pathophysiology. The robust data on the C-peptide obtained under clinical trial conditions should be used in planning and interpretation of clinical trials.
B-lymphocyte depletion with rituximab has been shown to benefit patients with various autoimmune diseases. We have previously demonstrated that this benefit is also apparent in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.
The effect of rituximab on in vivo antibody responses, particularly during the period of B-lymphocyte depletion, is incompletely determined. This study was designed to assess this knowledge void.
In patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes treated with rituximab (n = 46) or placebo (n = 29), antibody responses to neoantigen phiX174 during B-lymphocyte depletion and with hepatitis A (as a second neoantigen) and tetanus/diphtheria (as recall antigens) after B-lymphocyte recovery were studied. Anti- tetanus, diphtheria, mumps, measles, and rubella titers were measured before and after treatment by means of ELISA. Antibody titers and percentage IgM versus percentage IgG to phiX174 were measured by means of phage neutralization. B-lymphocyte subsets were determined by means of flow cytometry.
No change occurred in preexisting antibody titers. Tetanus/diphtheria and hepatitis A immunization responses were protective in the rituximab-treated subjects, although significantly blunted compared with those seen in the controls subjects, when immunized at the time of B-lymphocyte recovery. Anti-phiX174 responses were severely reduced during the period of B-lymphocyte depletion, but with B-lymphocyte recovery, anti-phiX174 responses were within the normal range.
During the time of B-lymphocyte depletion, rituximab recipients had a decreased antibody response to neoantigens and significantly lower titers after recall immunization with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. With recovery, immune responses return toward normal. Immunization during the time of B-lymphocyte depletion, although ineffective, does not preclude a subsequent response to the antigen.
B lymphocytes; human; diabetes; antibodies; immunization; CD20
The conditional logistic regression model (Breslow NE. Covariance adjustment of relative-risk estimates in matched studies. Biometrics, 1982; 38:661-672) provides a convenient method for the assessment of qualitative or quantitative covariate effects on risk in a study with matched sets, each containing a possibly different numbers of cases and controls. The conditional logistic likelihood is identical to the stratified Cox proportional hazards model likelihood with an adjustment for ties (Regression models and life-tables (with discussion). J. Roy. Statist. Soc., B, 1972; 34:187-220). This likelihood also applies to a nested case control study with multiply matched cases and controls selected from those at risk at selected event times. Herein the distribution of the score test for the effect of a covariate in the model is used to derive simple equations to describe the power of the test to detect a coefficient θ (log odds ratio or log hazard ratio), or the number of cases (or matched sets) and controls required to provide a desired level of power. Additional expressions are derived for a quantitative covariate as a function of the difference in the assumed mean covariate values among cases and controls, and for a qualitative covariate in terms of the difference in the probabilities of exposure for cases and controls. Examples are presented for a nested case-control study and a multiply matched case-control study.
Sample size; power; conditional logistic model; Cox Proportional Hazards Model; multiple matching; case-control study; nested case-control study
We report relationships of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with myocardial structure, function and scar in patients with type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study.
METHODS and RESULTS
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was obtained in 1017 patients with type 1 diabetes. Gadolinium CMR was also obtained in 741 patients. The mean age was 49 ± 7 years, 52% were men, and mean diabetes duration was 28± 5 years. Associations of CVD risk factors with CMR parameters were examined using linear and logistic regression models. History of macroalbuminuria was positively associated with LV mass (by +14.8 g) leading to a significantly higher LV mass/EDV ratio (by 8%). Mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels over the preceding 22 years were inversely associated with end-diastolic volume (−3.0 ml per unit mean HbA1c %) and stroke volume (−2.3 ml per unit mean HbA1c %) and positively related to elevated LV mass/EDV ratio (0.02 g/ml per unit). The overall prevalence of myocardial scar was 4.3% by CMR and 1.4% by clinical adjudication of myocardial infarction. Both mean HbA1c (Odds ratio (O.R.) 1.5 [1.0–2.2] per unit) and macroalbuminuria (OR 3.5 [1.2–9.9]) were significantly associated with myocardial scar as well as traditional CVD risk factors.
In addition to traditional CVD risk factors, elevated mean HbA1c and macroalbuminuria were significantly associated with alterations in LV structure and function. The prevalence of myocardial scar was 4.3% in this subcohort of DCCT/EDIC participants with relatively preserved renal function.
Myocardial function; myocardial scar; type 1 diabetes; delayed enhancement; CMR
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is believed to be due to the autoimmune destruction of β-cells by T lymphocytes, but a single course of rituximab, a monoclonal anti-CD20 B lymphocyte antibody can attenuate C-peptide loss over the first year of disease. The effects of B cell depletion on disease associated T cell responses have not been studied. We compare changes in lymphocyte subsets, T cell proliferative responses to disease- associated target antigens, and C-peptide levels of participants that did (responders) or did not (non-responders) show signs of β-cell preservation one year after rituximab therapy in a placebo-controlled TrialNet trial. Rituximab decreased B lymphocyte levels after 4 weekly doses of mAb. T cell proliferative responses to diabetes –associated antigens were present at baseline in 75% of anti-CD20- and 82% of placebo-treated subjects and were not different over time. However, in rituximab-treated subjects with significant C-peptide preservation at 6 months (58%), the proliferative responses to diabetes associated total (p=0.032), islet-specific (p=0.048), and neuronal auto-antigens (p=0.005) increased over the 12 month observation period. This relationship was not seen in placebo treated patients. We conclude that in patients with T1DM, anti-B cell mAb causes increased proliferative responses to diabetes antigens and attenuated β cell loss. The way in which these responses affect the disease course remains unknown.
type 1 diabetes; biomarker; B lymphocyte; cellular immunology; T lymphocyte
ADOPT (A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial) demonstrated that initial monotherapy with rosiglitazone provided superior durability of glycemic control compared with metformin and glyburide in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Herein, we examine measures of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) over a 4-year period among the three treatments.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Recently diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (4,360 total) were treated for a median of 4.0 years with rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide and were examined with periodic metabolic testing using an OGTT.
Measures of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity from an OGTT showed more favorable changes over time with rosiglitazone versus metformin or glyburide. Persistent improvements were seen in those who completed 4 years of monotherapy and marked deterioration of β-cell function in those who failed to maintain adequate glucose control with initial monotherapy.
The favorable combined changes in β-cell function and insulin sensitivity over time with rosiglitazone appear to be responsible for its superior glycemic durability over metformin and glyburide as initial monotherapy in type 2 diabetes.
Microalbuminuria is a common diagnosis in the clinical care of patients with type 1 diabetes. Long-term outcomes after the development of microalbuminuria are variable.
We quantified the incidence of and risk factors for long-term renal outcomes after the development of microalbuminuria in the DCCT/EDIC Study. The DCCT randomly assigned 1441 persons with type 1 diabetes to intensive or conventional diabetes therapy, and participants were subsequently followed during the observational EDIC Study. During DCCT/EDIC, 325 participants developed incident persistent microalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate [AER] ≥ 30 mg/24hr on two consecutive study visits). We assessed their subsequent renal outcomes, including progression to macroalbuminuria (AER ≥ 300 mg/24hr x2), impaired glomerular filtration rate (estimated GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 x2), and end stage renal disease (ESRD), and regression to normoalbuminuria (AER < 30 mg/24hr x2).
Median follow-up after persistent microalbuminuria diagnosis was 13 years (maximum 23 years). 10-year cumulative incidences of progression to macroalbuminuria, impaired GFR, and ESRD and regression to normoalbuminuria were 28%, 15%, 3%, and 40%, respectively. Albuminuria outcomes were more favorable with intensive diabetes therapy, lower hemoglobin A1c, lack of retinopathy, female gender, lower blood pressure, and lower concentrations of LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. Lower hemoglobin A1c, lack of retinopathy, and lower blood pressure were also associated with decreased risk of impaired GFR.
After the development of persistent microalbuminuria, progression and regression of kidney disease each occur commonly. Intensive glycemic control, lower blood pressure, and a more favorable lipid profile are associated with improved outcomes.
We assessed whether differing autoantibody screening criteria for type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention trials result in different baseline metabolic profiles of those who screen positive.
Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) participants were screened for islet cell autoantibodies (ICA), whereas TrialNet Natural History Study (TNNHS) participants were screened for biochemical autoantibodies. In both studies, those determined to be autoantibody positive underwent baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in which glucose and C-peptide were measured.
The percentage of those with an OGTT in the diabetic range was higher among the DPT-1 participants (10.0% of 956 vs. 6.4% of 645, p<0.01). In a logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age and gender, the difference persisted (p<0.01). Among those in the non-diabetic range (n=860 for DPT-1 and n=604 for the TNNHS), glucose levels were similar at all time points, except for higher fasting glucose levels in the TNNHS participants (p<0.001). There was a higher percentage of impaired fasting glucose in the TNNHS participants (10.9% vs. 6.7%, p<0.01); however, with adjustments for age and gender, there was no longer a significant difference. There was no significant difference in the percentages with IGT. C-peptide levels were much lower in the DPT-1 cohort at all OGTT time points (p<0.001 for all).
Differing criteria for autoantibody screening can result in marked differences in the baseline metabolic profiles of prospective participants of T1D prevention trials.
Type 1 Diabetes; Prevention; Trials; Glucose; C-peptide
This study investigated the long-term effects of intensive diabetic treatment on the progression of atherosclerosis, measured as common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 1,116 participants (52% men) in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) trial, a long-term follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), had carotid IMT measurements at EDIC years 1, 6, and 12. Mean age was 46 years, with diabetes duration of 24.5 years at EDIC year 12. Differences in IMT progression between DCCT intensive and conventional treatment groups were examined, controlling for clinical characteristics, IMT reader, and imaging device.
Common carotid IMT progression from EDIC years 1 to 6 was 0.019 mm less in intensive than in conventional (P < 0.0001), and from years 1 to 12 was 0.014 mm less (P = 0.048); but change from years 6 to 12 was similar (intensive − conventional = 0.005 mm, P = 0.379). Mean A1C levels during DCCT and DCCT/EDIC were strongly associated with progression of IMT, explaining most of the differences in IMT progression between DCCT treatment groups. Albuminuria, older age, male sex, smoking, and higher systolic blood pressure were significant predictors of IMT progression.
Intensive treatment slowed IMT progression for 6 years after the end of DCCT but did not affect IMT progression thereafter (6–12 years). A beneficial effect of prior intensive treatment was still evident 13 years after DCCT ended. These differences were attenuated but not negated after adjusting for blood pressure. These results support the early initiation and continued maintenance of intensive diabetes management in type 1 diabetes to retard atherosclerosis.
To determine whether intensive glycemic therapy reduces the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with type 1 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
DCCT randomized 761 males with type 1 diabetes to intensive or conventional glycemic therapy in 28 sites between 1983–1989, of whom 366 had diabetes for 1–5 years and no microvascular complications (primary prevention cohort) and 395 for 1–15 years with non-proliferative retinopathy or microablbuminuria (secondary intervention cohort). Subjects were treated until 1993 and followed in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. In 2003, we conducted an ancillary study using a validated assessment of ED in 571 men (80% participation rate); 291 in the primary cohort and 280 in the secondary cohort.
Twenty-three percent of participants reported ED. The prevalence was significantly lower in the intensive versus conventional treatment group in the secondary cohort (12.8% versus 30.8%, p=0.001); but not the primary cohort (17% versus 20.3%, p=0.49). The risk of ED in both primary and secondary cohorts was directly associated with mean HbA1c during DCCT and EDIC combined. Age, peripheral neuropathy, and lower urinary tract symptoms were other risk factors.
A period of intensive therapy significantly reduced the prevalence of ED ten years later among those in the secondary intervention cohort, but not the primary prevention cohort; higher HbA1c was significantly associated with risk in both cohorts. These findings provide further support for early implementation of intensive insulin therapy in young men with type 1 diabetes.
Glycemic Control; Diabetes; Erectile Dysfunction; Risk
Preservation of -cell function as measured by stimulated C-peptide has recently been accepted as a therapeutic target for subjects with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. In recently completed studies conducted by the Type 1 Diabetes Trial Network (TrialNet), repeated 2-hour Mixed Meal Tolerance Tests (MMTT) were obtained for up to 24 months from 156 subjects with up to 3 months duration of type 1 diabetes at the time of study enrollment. These data provide the information needed to more accurately determine the sample size needed for future studies of the effects of new agents on the 2-hour area under the curve (AUC) of the C-peptide values. The natural log(), log(+1) and square-root transformations of the AUC were assessed. In general, a transformation of the data is needed to better satisfy the normality assumptions for commonly used statistical tests. Statistical analysis of the raw and transformed data are provided to estimate the mean levels over time and the residual variation in untreated subjects that allow sample size calculations for future studies at either 12 or 24 months of follow-up and among children 8–12 years of age, adolescents (13–17 years) and adults (18+ years). The sample size needed to detect a given relative (percentage) difference with treatment versus control is greater at 24 months than at 12 months of follow-up, and differs among age categories. Owing to greater residual variation among those 13–17 years of age, a larger sample size is required for this age group. Methods are also described for assessment of sample size for mixtures of subjects among the age categories. Statistical expressions are presented for the presentation of analyses of log(+1) and transformed values in terms of the original units of measurement (pmol/ml). Analyses using different transformations are described for the TrialNet study of masked anti-CD20 (rituximab) versus masked placebo. These results provide the information needed to accurately evaluate the sample size for studies of new agents to preserve C-peptide levels in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.
To evaluate the impact of former intensive versus conventional insulin treatment on neuropathy in Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) intensive and conventional treatment subjects with type 1 diabetes 13–14 years after DCCT closeout, during which time the two groups had achieved similar A1C levels.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Clinical and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) performed during the DCCT were repeated during the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study by examiners masked to treatment status on 603 former intensive and 583 former conventional treatment subjects. Clinical neuropathy was defined by symptoms, sensory signs, or reflex changes consistent with distal polyneuropathy and confirmed with NCS abnormalities involving two or more nerves among the median, peroneal, and sural nerves.
The prevalence of neuropathy increased 13–14 years after DCCT closeout from 9 to 25% in former intensive and from 17 to 35% in former conventional treatment groups, but the difference between groups remained significant (P < 0.001), and the incidence of neuropathy remained lower among former intensive (22%) than former conventional (28%) treatment subjects (P = 0.0125). Analytic models of incident neuropathy that adjusted for differences in NCS results at DCCT closeout showed no significant risk reduction associated with former intensive treatment during follow-up (odds ratio 1.17 [95% CI 0.84–1.63]). However, a significant persistent treatment group effect was observed for several NCS measures. Longitudinal analyses of overall glycemic control showed a significant association between mean A1C and measures of incident and prevalent neuropathy.
The benefits of former intensive insulin treatment persisted for 13–14 years after DCCT closeout and provide evidence of a durable effect of prior intensive treatment on neuropathy.
This trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) alone or with daclizumab (DZB) could arrest the loss of insulin-producing β-cells in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial was initiated by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet at 13 sites in North America and Europe. Subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and with sufficient C-peptide within 3 months of diagnosis were randomized to either MMF alone, MMF plus DZB, or placebo, and then followed for 2 years. The primary outcome was the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide from the 2-h mixed meal tolerance test.
One hundred and twenty-six subjects were randomized and treated during the trial. The geometric mean C-peptide AUC at 2 years was unaffected by MMF alone or MMF plus DZB versus placebo. Adverse events were more frequent in the active therapy groups relative to the control group, but not significantly.
Neither MMF alone nor MMF in combination with DZB had an effect on the loss of C-peptide in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Higher doses or more targeted immunotherapies may be needed to affect the autoimmune process.
Glycemia is a major risk factor for the development of long-term complications in type 1 diabetes; however, no specific genetic loci have been identified for glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes. To identify such loci in type 1 diabetes, we analyzed longitudinal repeated measures of A1C from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We performed a genome-wide association study using the mean of quarterly A1C values measured over 6.5 years, separately in the conventional (n = 667) and intensive (n = 637) treatment groups of the DCCT. At loci of interest, linear mixed models were used to take advantage of all the repeated measures. We then assessed the association of these loci with capillary glucose and repeated measures of multiple complications of diabetes.
We identified a major locus for A1C levels in the conventional treatment group near SORCS1 (10q25.1, P = 7 × 10−10), which was also associated with mean glucose (P = 2 × 10−5). This was confirmed using A1C in the intensive treatment group (P = 0.01). Other loci achieved evidence close to genome-wide significance: 14q32.13 (GSC) and 9p22 (BNC2) in the combined treatment groups and 15q21.3 (WDR72) in the intensive group. Further, these loci gave evidence for association with diabetic complications, specifically SORCS1 with hypoglycemia and BNC2 with renal and retinal complications. We replicated the SORCS1 association in Genetics of Diabetes in Kidneys (GoKinD) study control subjects (P = 0.01) and the BNC2 association with A1C in nondiabetic individuals.
A major locus for A1C and glucose in individuals with diabetes is near SORCS1. This may influence the design and analysis of genetic studies attempting to identify risk factors for long-term diabetic complications.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is closely associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease in both diabetic and nondiabetic populations. In the short term, commonly prescribed antidiabetic agents have different effects on CRP; however, the long-term effects of those agents are unknown.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
In A Diabetes Outcome Progression Trial (ADOPT), we examined the long-term effects of rosiglitazone, glyburide, and metformin on CRP and the relationship among CRP, weight, and glycemic variables in 904 subjects over 4 years.
Baseline CRP was significantly correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), A1C, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. CRP reduction was greater in the rosiglitazone group by −47.6% relative to glyburide and by −30.5% relative to metformin at 48 months. Mean weight gain from baseline (at 48 months) was 5.6 kg with rosiglitazone, 1.8 kg with glyburide, and −2.8 kg with metformin. The change in CRP from baseline to 12 months was correlated positively with change in BMI in glyburide (r = 0.18) and metformin (r = 0.20) groups but not in the rosiglitazone (r = −0.05, NS) group. However, there was no longer a significant correlation between change in CRP and change in HOMA-IR, A1C, or waist-to-hip ratio in any of the three treatment groups.
Rosiglitazone treatment was associated with durable reductions in CRP independent of changes in insulin sensitivity, A1C, and weight gain. CRP in the glyburide and metformin groups was positively associated with changes in weight, but this was not the case with rosiglitazone.
Type 1 diabetes results from an immunemediated destruction of β-cells, likely to be mediated by T lymphocytes, but the sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of validity of existing assays for islet autoreactive T-cells are not well established. Such assays are vital for monitoring responses to interventions that may modulate disease progression.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We studied the ability of cellular assays to discriminate responses in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal control subjects in a randomized blinded study in the U.S. and U.K. We evaluated the reproducibility of these measurements overall and to individual analytes from repeat collections.
Responses in the cellular immunoblot, U.K.-ELISPOT, and T-cell proliferation assays could differentiate patients from control subjects with odds ratios of 21.7, 3.44, and 3.36, respectively, with sensitivity and specificity as high as 74 and 88%. The class II tetramer and U.S. ELISPOT assays performed less well. Despite the significant association of the responses with type 1 diabetes, the reproducibility of the measured responses, both overall and individual analytes, was relatively low. Positive samples from normal control subjects (i.e., false positives) were generally isolated to single assays.
The cellular immunoblot, U.K.-ELISPOT, and T-cell proliferation assays can distinguish responses from patients with type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. The limited reproducibility of the measurements overall and of responses to individual analytes may reflect the difficulty in detection of low frequency of antigen-specific T-cells or variability in their appearance in peripheral blood.
The DCCT/EDIC (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/ Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications) provides a comprehensive characterization of the natural history of diabetic neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes and provides insight into the impact of intensive insulin therapy in disease progression. The lessons learned about the natural history of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and the impact of glycemic control on neuropathy are discussed in this review.
Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy; Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; Nerve conduction studies; Heart rate variability studies; Glycemic control
OBJECTIVE—β-Cell function in type 1 diabetes clinical trials is commonly measured by C-peptide response to a secretagogue in either a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) or a glucagon stimulation test (GST). The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Research Group and the European C-peptide Trial (ECPT) Study Group conducted parallel randomized studies to compare the sensitivity, reproducibility, and tolerability of these procedures.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In randomized sequences, 148 TrialNet subjects completed 549 tests with up to 2 MMTT and 2 GST tests on separate days, and 118 ECPT subjects completed 348 tests (up to 3 each) with either two MMTTs or two GSTs.
RESULTS—Among individuals with up to 4 years’ duration of type 1 diabetes, >85% had measurable stimulated C-peptide values. The MMTT stimulus produced significantly higher concentrations of C-peptide than the GST. Whereas both tests were highly reproducible, the MMTT was significantly more so (R2 = 0.96 for peak C-peptide response). Overall, the majority of subjects preferred the MMTT, and there were few adverse events. Some older subjects preferred the shorter duration of the GST. Nausea was reported in the majority of GST studies, particularly in the young age-group.
CONCLUSIONS—The MMTT is preferred for the assessment of β-cell function in therapeutic trials in type 1 diabetes.
The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, an observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) type 1 diabetes cohort, measured coronary artery calcification (CAC), an index of atherosclerosis, with computed tomography (CT) in 1,205 EDIC patients at ~7–9 years after the end of the DCCT. We examined the influence of the 6.5 years of prior conventional versus intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT, as well as the effects of cardiovascular disease risk factors, on CAC. The prevalences of CAC >0 and >200 Agatston units were 31.0 and 8.5%, respectively. Compared with the conventional treatment group, the intensive group had significantly lower geometric mean CAC scores and a lower prevalence of CAC >0 in the primary retinopathy prevention cohort, but not in the secondary intervention cohort, and a lower prevalence of CAC >200 in the combined cohorts. Waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, before or at the time of CT, were significantly associated with CAC in univariate and multivariate analyses. CAC was associated with mean HbA1c (A1C) levels before enrollment, during the DCCT, and during the EDIC study. Prior intensive diabetes treatment during the DCCT was associated with less atherosclerosis, largely because of reduced levels of A1C during the DCCT.
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are closely linked, but the long-term blood pressure effects of glucose-lowering therapy and hyperglycemia are not clear.
We examined the effects of intensive insulin therapy and hyperglycemia on the development of hypertension in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and its observational follow-up, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC) study. Incident hypertension was defined as 2 consecutive study visits with a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or higher, a diastolic blood pressure of 90mmHg or higher, or use of antihypertensive medications to treat high blood pressure.
Participants were enrolled from August 23, 1983, through June 30, 1989. During a 15.8-year median follow-up, 630 of 1441 participants developed hypertension. During the DCCT, the incidence of hypertension was similar comparing participants assigned to intensive vs conventional therapy. However, intensive therapy during the DCCT reduced the risk of incident hypertension by 24% during EDIC study follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.92). A higher hemoglobin A1c level, measured at baseline or throughout follow-up, was associated with increased risk for incident hypertension (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.06–1.17] and 1.25 [95% CI, 1.14–1.37], respectively, for each 1% higher hemoglobin A1c level), and glycemic control appeared to mediate the antihypertensive benefit of intensive therapy. Older age, male sex, family history of hypertension, greater baseline body mass index, weight gain, and greater albumin excretion rate were independently associated with increased risk of hypertension.
Hyperglycemia is a risk factor for incident hypertension in type 1 diabetes, and intensive insulin therapy reduces the long-term risk of developing hypertension.
Despite familial clustering of nephropathy and retinopathy severity in type 1 diabetes, few gene variants have been consistently associated with these outcomes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We performed an individual-based genetic association study with time to renal and retinal outcomes in 1,362 white probands with type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study. Specifically, we genotyped 1,411 SNPs that capture common variations in 212 candidate genes for long-term complications and analyzed them for association with the time from DCCT baseline to event for renal and retinal outcomes using multivariate Cox proportion hazards models. To address multiple testing and assist interpretation of the results, false discovery rate q values were calculated separately for each outcome.
We observed association between rs17880135 in the 3′ region of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and the incidence of both severe nephropathy (hazard ratio [HR] 2.62 [95% CI 1.64– 4.18], P = 5.6 × 10−5, q = 0.06) and persistent microalbuminuria (1.82 [1.29 –2.57], P = 6.4 × 10−4, q = 0.46). Sequencing and fine-mapping identified additional SOD1 variants, including rs202446, rs9974610, and rs204732, which were also associated (P < 10−3) with persistent microalbuminuria, whereas rs17880135 and rs17881180 were similarly associated with the development of severe nephropathy. Attempts to replicate the findings in three cross-sectional case-control studies produced equivocal results. We observed no striking differences between risk genotypes in serum SOD activity, serum SOD1 mass, or SOD1 mRNA expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines.
Multiple variations in SOD1 are significantly associated with persistent microalbuminuria and severe nephropathy in the DCCT/EDIC study.
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Resting heart rate (RHR) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the general population, and case-control studies have reported a higher RHR in individuals with type 1 diabetes. In individuals with type 1 diabetes, there is a positive correlation between A1C and RHR; however, no prospective studies have examined whether a causal relationship exists between A1C and RHR. We hypothesized that intensive diabetes treatment aimed to achieve normal A1C levels has an effect on RHR in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 1,441 individuals with type 1 diabetes who participated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) had their RHR measured biennially by an electrocardiogram during the DCCT and annually for 10 years during the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) follow-up study.
During the DCCT, intensive treatment was associated with lower mean RHR than conventional treatment, both in adolescents (69.0 vs. 72.0 bpm [95% CI 62.8–75.7 and 65.7–78.9, respectively], P = 0.013) and adults (66.8 vs. 68.2 [65.3– 68.4 and 66.6–69.8, respectively], P = 0.0014). During follow-up in the EDIC, the difference in RHR between the treatment groups persisted for at least 10 years (P < 0.0001).
Compared with conventional therapy, intensive diabetes management is associated with lower RHR in type 1 diabetes. The lower RHR with intensive therapy may explain, in part, its effect in reducing cardiovascular disease, recently demonstrated in type 1 diabetes.