To examine the associations between fasting serum glucose, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance and BPH in a population-based cohort of African-American men.
Using the Flint Men’s Health Study (FMHS), we examined how fasting serum glucose and insulin concentrations and calculated HOMA-IR related to burden and progression of clinical markers of BPH in African-American men aged 40–79.
Among 369 men at baseline, mean age was 56.6 years and approximately 70% were overweight/obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2). 148 men (34.4%) reported moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (AUASI≥8). There were no significant trends of metabolic disturbances as measured by serum glucose, insulin or HOMA-IR in men with indications of BPH compared to those without.
In this population-based study of African-American men aged 40–79, we did not observe any significant associations between hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance and burden and progression of BPH after adjustment for age and BMI. This may be due in part to the single measurement and glucose and insulin which may not adequately reflect average glucose metabolism. Further studies examining measures of long-term glycemic control and BPH in racially diverse populations are warranted.
diabetes; BPH; LUTS; diabetes; men; aging
Obesity is a growing worldwide epidemic among women of reproductive age, including pregnant women. The increased prevalence of obesity has been accompanied by an increase in gestational weight gain. Maternal obesity has deleterious consequences for both mother and child.
To review the recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the Institute of Medicine regarding gestational weight gain and interventions to treat obesity during pregnancy.
Guidelines on gestational weight gain from these organizations, as well as reports of gestational weight gain in the published literature, are summarized.
Many normal and overweight parturients exceed the recommendations in the guidelines, which may contribute to postpartum obesity.
Lifestyle changes, including dieting and increased activity, may help to limit excessive gestational weight gain but the optimal strategy remains unclear.
Gestational weight gain; Maternal nutrition; Obesity; Pregnancy
To examine whether estrogen use potentiates weight loss interventions via sex steroid levels and whether endogenous sex steroid levels predict response to weight loss interventions among women not using estrogen.
Design and Methods
The Diabetes Prevention Program randomized overweight or obese dysglycemic participants to lifestyle change with the goals of weight reduction of >7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of exercise; metformin; or placebo. In this secondary analysis, we examined sex steroid levels and reductions in weight and waist circumference (WC) among postmenopausal women using (n=324) and not using (n=382) oral estrogen.
Estrogen users and non-users randomized to lifestyle change and metformin both lost significant amounts of weight compared to placebo. Reductions in weight and WC over 1 year associated with randomization arm were not associated with baseline sex steroid levels among estrogen users or non-users.
Among estrogen users, baseline sex steroids were not associated with reductions in weight or WC, suggesting that exogenous estrogen does not potentiate weight loss by altering sex steroids. Among non-estrogen users, baseline sex steroids were not associated with reductions in weight or WC.
sex steroids; waist circumference; weight loss
It is unclear how lipids change in response to lifestyle modification or metformin among postmenopausal glucose intolerant women using and not using hormone therapy (HT). We examined the one-year changes in lipids among postmenopausal, prediabetic women in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), and whether changes were mediated by sex hormones.
We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 342 women who used HT at baseline and year 1 and 382 women who did not use HT at either time point. Interventions included intensive lifestyle (ILS) with goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, or metformin or placebo administered 850 mg up to twice a day. Women were not randomized to HT. Main outcome measures were changes between baseline and study year 1 in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides.
Compared to placebo, both ILS and metformin significantly reduced LDL-C and raised HDL-C among HT users, changes partially explained by change in estradiol and testosterone but independent of changes in waist circumference and 1/fasting insulin. In contrast, DPP interventions had no effect on LDL-C and HDL-C among non-HT users. ILS significantly lowered triglycerides among non-users but did not significantly change triglycerides among HT users. Metformin did not significantly change triglycerides among non-users but increased triglycerides among HT users.
The beneficial effects of ILS and metformin on lowering LDL-C and raising HDL-C differ depending upon concurrent HT use.
sex hormones; lifestyle intervention; hormone therapy; lipids; women
To determine if health-related quality-of-life and self-rated health are associated with mortality in persons with diabetes.
Survey and medical record data were obtained from 7,892 patients with diabetes in Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD), a multicenter prospective observational study of diabetes care in managed care. Vital status at follow-up was determined from the National Death Index. Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to determine if a generic measure of health-related quality-of-life (EQ-5D) and self-rated health measured at baseline were associated with 4-year all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality.
At baseline, the mean EQ-5D score for decedents was 0.73 (SD=0.20) and for survivors was 0.81 (SD=0.18) (p<0.0001). Fifty-five percent of decedents and 36% of survivors (p<0.0001) rated their health as fair or poor. Lower EQ-5D scores and fair or poor self-rated health were associated with higher rates of mortality after adjusting for the demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical risk factors for mortality.
Health-related quality-of-life and self-rated health predict mortality in persons with diabetes. Health-related quality-of-life and self-rated health may provide additional information on patient risk independent of demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical risk factors for mortality.
diabetes; mortality; QoL
To examine the associations between 2 potential facilitators of healthy behaviors (self-efficacy and social support), and both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
We surveyed 228 women with histories of GDM enrolled in a managed care plan. In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed the association between women’s social support from family and friends for physical activity and self-efficacy for physical activity with women’s physical activity levels. We also examined the association between women’s social support from family and friends for healthy diet and self-efficacy for not overeating and their dietary habits. Finally, we assessed the association between all of these psychosocial constructs and body mass index (BMI) before and after adjustment for covariates.
Participants reported low to moderate social support and self-efficacy scores, suboptimal performance of physical activity, suboptimal dietary scores, and high BMIs. Self-efficacy and social support from family and friends for physical activity were associated with physical activity. Social support from family and friends for a healthy diet was associated with better dietary scores and the association between self-efficacy for not overeating and healthy diet bordered on significance. No significant associations existed between psychosocial constructs and BMI.
Psychosocial constructs such as social support and self-efficacy are associated with physical activity and dietary habits. However, associations with BMI are weak. Further exploration of constructs associated with BMI may be needed to design effective weight-loss interventions in this population.
Guidelines for management of women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the postpregnancy period have lagged behind the recognition that this is an important time for medical intervention. However, in the past decade, the evidence-base for screening algorithms, contraceptive management, diabetes prevention strategies and implications for offspring has expanded. In this review, we discuss current recommendations for managing women with GDM in the postnatal period, with particular attention to postpartum diabetes screening, prevention of future glucose intolerance and family planning.
gestational diabetes; postpartum; women
Among postmenopausal women who do not use estrogen hormone therapy (HT) we have previously reported that intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) leads to increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and such increases were associated with reductions in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2HG). Oral HT decreases FPG and increases 2HG, while increasing both SHBG and estradiol (E2). It is unknown if ILS reduces glucose among HT users, if changes in SHBG and E2 might mediate any glucose decreases in HT users, and if these patterns differ from non-HT users.
We conducted a secondary analysis of postmenopausal women in the Diabetes Prevention Program who used HT at baseline and 1 year follow-up (n=324) and who did not use HT at either time point (n=382). Participants were randomized to ILS, metformin, or placebo administered 850 mg twice a day.
HT users were younger, more often white, and more likely to have had bilateral oophorectomy than non-HT users. Among HT users, ILS reduced FPG (p<0.01) and 2HG (p<0.01), and metformin reduced FPG (p<0.01) but not 2HG (p=0.56), compared to placebo. Associations between SHBG and total E2 with FPG and 2HG were not significant among women randomized to ILS or to metformin. These patterns differed from those observed among women who did not use HT.
We conclude that among glucose intolerant HT users, interventions to reduce glucose are effective but possibly mediated through different pathways than among women who did not use HT.
menopause; estrogen; progestogen; hormone therapy; glucose
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reflects defects in insulin secretion in response to the metabolic demands of pregnancy. While GDM is increasingly common worldwide due in large part to the obesity epidemic, its frequency is relatively low in Korean women. In this report, the prevalence and risk factors for GDM, perinatal outcomes, and postpartum course are compared in non-Korean and Korean women. While Koreans and non-Koreans with GDM share pathophysiology and complications, there may be differences in the role of obesity and thus the effectiveness of interventions targeting obesity in GDM women. Further investigations of the effectiveness of weight loss interventions and pharmacotherapy specifically among Korean women are needed. Dietary and other lifestyle data from Korean populations could inform prevention and treatment strategies in other countries which suffer from significantly higher prevalences of GDM.
Diabetes, gestational; Epidemiology; Postpartum period; Pregnancy
To examine the association between physicians’ reimbursement perceptions and outpatient test performance. Previous studies have documented an association between reimbursement perceptions and electrocardiogram performance, but not for other common outpatient procedures.
Participants were physicians (n = 766) and their managed care patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 2758) enrolled in 6 plans in 2003. Procedures measured included electrocardiograms, radiographs or x-rays, urine microalbumin measures, hemoglobin A1cs, and Pap smears for women. Hierarchical logistic regression models were adjusted for health plan and physician level clustering and for physician and patient covariates. To minimize confounding by unmeasured health plan variables, we adjusted for plan as a fixed effect. Thus, we estimated variation between physicians using only the variance within health plans.
Patients of physicians who reported reimbursement for electrocardiograms were more likely to receive electrocardiograms than patients of physicians who did not perceive reimbursement (unadjusted mean difference 4.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.1% to 8.9%)) and adjusted mean difference 3.9% (95% confidence interval, 0.21% to 7.8%)). For the other tests examined, no significant differences in procedure performance were found between patients of physicians who perceived reimbursement and patients of physicians who did not perceive reimbursement.
Our findings suggest that reimbursement perception was associated with electrocardiograms, but not with other commonly performed outpatient procedures. Future research should investigate how associations change with perceived amount of reimbursement and interactions with other influences upon test-ordering behavior such as perceived appropriateness.
managed care; reimbursement; outpatient
No longitudinal studies have examined how iron measures change over menopause. Our objectives were to examine iron measures in individual women at premenopause and at postmenopause and, secondarily, to determine if any changes contributed to insulin resistance.
In a subset of participants (n=70) in a longitudinal study of menopause, we measured ferritin, transferrin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) once in the premenopause and once in the postmenopause. We also examined associations between menopausal status and change in iron markers after adjustment for age at menopause, race/ethnicity, and waist circumference. In linear regression models, we examined associations between premenopause iron measures and changes in iron markers over menopause with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) changes over menopause, before and after adjustment for age at menopause, race/ethnicity, changes in waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels.
Women had lower ferritin (p<0.01), higher sTfR:ferritin levels (p<0.01), lower HOMA-IR (p=0.022), and lower glucose (p=0.05) in premenopause compared to postmenopause. After adjustment, lower premenopausal iron levels (sTfR:ferritin levels β=11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.017-22.0) and larger increases in iron over menopause (changes in sTfR:ferritin β=13.6, 95% CI 0.93-26.3) were associated with larger increases in HOMA-IR.
From premenopause to postmenopause, women on average have increases in measures of iron stores. Women who had the greatest changes in iron over menopause (lower measures of premenopausal iron and greater increases in iron measures over the menopause) had the strongest associations between changes in iron and changes in insulin resistance.
To determine whether, among women with gestational diabetes (GDM), referral to a telephonic nurse management program was associated with lower risk of macrosomia and increased postpartum glucose testing.
There was medical center-level variation in the percent of patients referred to a telephonic nurse management program at 12 Kaiser Permanente medical centers, allowing to examine in a quasi-experimental design the associations between referral and outcomes.
Compared with women from centers where the annual proportion of referral nurse management was <30%, women who delivered from centers with an annual referral proportion >70% were less likely to have a macrosomic infant and more likely to have postpartum glucose testing [multiple-adjusted OR (95%CI): 0.75 (0.57–0.98) and 22.96 (2.56–3.42), respectively].
Receiving care at the centers with higher referral frequency to a telephonic nurse management for GDM was associated with decreased risk of macrosomic infant and increased postpartum glucose testing.
gestational diabetes; macrosomia; nurse management; postpartum glucose screening
The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions.
The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use.
After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55).
Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk.
diabetes; impaired glucose tolerance; menopause; oophorectomy; women
Postpartum testing with a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone is often not performed among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Use of hemoglobin A1c (A1C) might increase testing. The association between A1C and glucose has not been examined in women with histories of GDM.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We assessed the association of A1C ≥5.7% with FPG ≥100 mg/dL and 2-h glucose ≥140 mg/dL among 54 women with histories of GDM between 6 weeks and 36 months postpartum.
A1C ≥5.7% had 65% sensitivity and 68% specificity for identifying elevated FPG or 2-h glucose and 75% sensitivity and 62% specificity for elevated FPG alone. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for A1C was 0.76 for elevated FPG or 2-h glucose and 0.77 for elevated FPG alone.
The agreement between A1C and glucose levels is fair for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance among women with histories of GDM.
We examined cross-sectional associations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with glucose among women recent GDM (n=55). SHBG was associated with fasting glucose levels before and after adjustment for covariates (p=0.015), but not with 2-hour glucose. We conclude SHBG should be explored in prospective studies in GDM women.
gestational diabetes; postpartum; sex hormone binding globulin
Sex differences in cardiovascular disease mortality are more pronounced among non-Hispanic whites than other racial/ethnic groups, but it is unknown whether this variation is present in the earlier subclinical stages of disease. The authors examined racial/ethnic variation in sex differences in coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intimal media thickness at baseline in 2000–2002 among participants (n = 6,726) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using binomial and linear regression. Models adjusted for risk factors in several stages: age, traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, behavioral risk factors, psychosocial factors, and adult socioeconomic position. Women had a lower prevalence of any CAC and smaller amounts of CAC when present than men in all racial/ethnic groups. Sex differences in the prevalence of CAC were more pronounced in non-Hispanic whites than in African Americans and Chinese Americans after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, and further adjustment for behavioral factors, psychosocial factors, and socioeconomic position did not modify these results (for race/sex, Pinteraction = 0.047). Similar patterns were observed for amount of CAC among adults with CAC. Racial/ethnic variation in sex differences for carotid intimal media thickness was less pronounced. In conclusion, coronary artery calcification is differentially patterned by sex across racial/ethnic groups.
calcification, physiologic; continental population groups; coronary vessels; sex; social class
To determine whether competing demands for time affect diabetes self-care behaviors, processes of care, and intermediate outcomes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used survey and medical record data from 5,478 participants in Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) and hierarchical regression models to examine the cross-sectional associations between competing demands for time and diabetes outcomes, including self-management, processes of care, and intermediate health outcomes.
Fifty-two percent of participants reported no competing demands, 7% reported caregiving responsibilities only, 36% reported employment responsibilities only, and 6% reported both caregiving and employment responsibilities. For both women and men, employment responsibilities (with or without caregiving responsibilities) were associated with lower rates of diabetes self-care behaviors, worse processes of care, and, in men, worse HbA1c.
Accommodations for competing demands for time may promote self-management and improve the processes and outcomes of care for employed adults with diabetes.
Both friends and parents may influence occurrence of adolescent sexual intercourse, but these influences have not been studied together and prospectively.
We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a nationally representative sample of adolescents aged 15 – 18 years (n=6,649), the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Baseline in-home and school interviews were conducted during 1995 and follow-up interviews in 1996. The main outcome measure was self-reported unprotected vaginal intercourse.
In models which adjusted for age, race, parental attitudes towards contraception and pregnancy, and adolescent sexual intercourse practices at baseline, having a friend who engaged in sexual intercourse at baseline, either unprotected (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6, 3.2) or protected (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4, 2.4), increased the odds of unprotected intercourse vs. never intercourse in the adolescent at follow-up (p<0.001). A distant relationship with the father (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3, 4.3) vs. a close relationship at baseline also increased the odds of unprotected intercourse at follow-up compared to never intercourse (p=0.028). Parental attitudes were not associated with the outcome after consideration of the adolescent's attitudes and baseline sexual practices.
Having a friend who engages in sexual intercourse, unprotected or protected, increases risk of unprotected intercourse. Parental attitudes are less influential after consideration of adolescent baseline attitudes and sexual practices, suggesting that parental influences are strongest before 15 years of age. Our results suggest that early intervention among both parents and adolescents may decrease risk of unprotected intercourse.
Epidemiology; adolescent; attitude; parent
Kinesin-5 proteins are essential for formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle in most, and perhaps all, eukaryotic cells. Several Kinesin-5 proteins, notably the human version, HsEg5, are targets of a constantly expanding group of small-molecule inhibitors, which hold promise both as tools to probe mechanochemical transduction and as anti-cancer agents. Although most such compounds are selective for HsEg5 and closely related Kinesin-5 proteins, some, such as NSC 622124, exhibit activity against at least one kinesin from outside the Kinesin-5 family. Here we show NSC 622124, despite identification in a screen that yielded inhibitors now known to target the HsEg5 monastrol-binding site, does not compete with 14C-monastrol for binding to HsEg5, and is able to inhibit the basal and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity of the monastrol-insensitive Kinesin-5, KLP61F. NSC 622124 competes with microtubules, but not ATP, for interaction with HsEg5, and disrupts the microtubule binding of HsEg5, KLP61F and Kinesin-1. Proteolytic degradation of an HsEg5•NSC622124 complex revealed that segments of the α3 and α5 helices map to the inhibitor-binding site. Overall, our results demonstrate that NSC 622124 targets the conserved microtubule-binding site of kinesin proteins. Further, unlike compounds previously reported to target the kinesin microtubule-binding site, NSC 622124 does not produce any enhancement of basal ATPase activity, and thus acts solely as a negative regulator through interaction with a site traditionally viewed as a binding region for positive regulators (i.e., microtubules). Our work emphasizes the concept that microtubule-dependent motor proteins may be controlled at multiple sites by both positive and negative effectors.
To evaluate national trends in hospitalizations and hospital charges associated with diabetes over a recent 14-year period.
We evaluated hospital discharges with a primary or secondary diagnosis of diabetes (250.xx)in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1993–2006). Outcomes included population-adjusted estimates of hospital discharges and hospital charges (2006 $U.S.).
Overall, discharges associated with diabetes increased 65.3% (1,384/100,000 in 1993, 2,288/100,000 in 2006) over the 14-year period (p < 0.001 test for trend). The largest increase in hospitalizations occurred among adults 30–39 years of age, representing a 102% increase. Among young adults, increases among women were ∼1.3 times greater compared with men, for the 20–29 year (63% vs. 46%) and 30–39 year (118% vs. 85%) age groups, even after excluding pregnancy-related hospitalizations. Overall, women had higher rates of hospitalizations associated with diabetes compared with men, but there was evidence of an age by sex interaction, with higher rates of hospitalizations among women in the younger age groups and among men in the older age groups. Annual inflation-adjusted total charges for hospitalizations with diabetes increased 220% over the period.
Large increases in diabetes hospitalizations occurring among adults aged 30–39 years and young women signal a shift in the hospital burden of diabetes.
Iron deficiency has been reported to elevate A1C levels apart from glycemia. We examined the influence of iron deficiency on A1C distribution among adults without diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Participants included adults without self-reported diabetes or chronic kidney disease in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006 who were aged ≥18 years of age and had complete blood counts, iron studies, and A1C levels. Iron deficiency was defined as at least two abnormalities including free erythrocyte protoporphyrin >70 μg/dl erythrocytes, transferrin saturation <16%, or serum ferritin ≤15 μg/l. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <13.5 g/dl in men and <12.0 g/dl in women.
Among women (n = 6,666), 13.7% had iron deficiency and 4.0% had iron deficiency anemia. Whereas 316 women with iron deficiency had A1C ≥5.5%, only 32 women with iron deficiency had A1C ≥6.5%. Among men (n = 3,869), only 13 had iron deficiency and A1C ≥5.5%, and only 1 had iron deficiency and A1C ≥6.5%. Among women, iron deficiency was associated with a greater odds of A1C ≥5.5% (odds ratio 1.39 [95% CI 1.11–1.73]) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and waist circumference but not with a greater odds of A1C ≥6.5% (0.79 [0.33–1.85]).
Iron deficiency is common among women and is associated with shifts in A1C distribution from <5.5 to ≥5.5%. Further research is needed to examine whether iron deficiency is associated with shifts at higher A1C levels.
To examine self-rated health and health care utilization among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (hGDM).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the 2006 National Health Interview Survey of parous women with (n = 370) and without (n = 6,695) hGDM.
Women with hGDM reported fair or poor health status and ≥10 office visits in the past year more frequently than women without hGDM. The higher prevalence of obesity in hGDM women accounted for their poorer self-rated health after adjustment for other demographic factors. Whereas the association between hGDM and more frequent office visits was reduced after adjustment for demographic factors including health insurance, hGDM was still associated with a lower odds of contact with a mental health professional.
Because of obesity, women with hGDM have poorer self-rated health than women without hGDM. Contact with mental health providers was reduced compared with women without hGDM.
To examine the associations between patterns of family histories of diabetes and a history of gestational diabetes (hGDM).
Parous women participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=4566) were classified as having hGDM only, diagnosed diabetes, or neither. Family history of diabetes was categorized as: maternal-only, paternal-only, biparental, and sibling-only. The covariate-adjusted prevalence and odds of having hGDM were estimated.
Compared to women without a family history of diabetes, women with a maternal history of diabetes (odds ratio 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3), paternal history of diabetes (odds ratio 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.2), or a sibling history of diabetes (odds ratio 7.1, 95% CI 1.6-30.9) had greater odds of hGDM, after adjustment for age and race/ethnicity.
Women with a sibling history of diabetes were more likely to have hGDM than women with other family history patterns.
gestational diabetes; family history; sibling
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is commonly defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Diagnostic criteria for GDM have changed over the decades, and several definitions are currently used; recent recommendations may increase the prevalence of GDM to as high as one of five pregnancies. Perinatal complications associated with GDM include hypertensive disorders, preterm delivery, shoulder dystocia, stillbirths, clinical neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and cesarean deliveries. Postpartum complications include obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in the offspring and diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the mothers. Management strategies increasingly emphasize optimal management of fetal growth and weight. Monitoring of glucose, fetal stress, and fetal weight through ultrasound combined with maternal weight management, medical nutritional therapy, physical activity, and pharmacotherapy can decrease comorbidities associated with GDM. Consensus is lacking on ideal glucose targets, degree of caloric restriction and content, algorithms for pharmacotherapy, and in particular, the use of oral medications and insulin analogs in lieu of human insulin. Postpartum glucose screening and initiation of healthy lifestyle behaviors, including exercise, adequate fruit and vegetable intake, breastfeeding, and contraception, are encouraged to decrease rates of future glucose intolerance in mothers and offspring.
glucose intolerance; pregnancy; perinatal complications