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1.  Association of oxidative stress with mortality: the Beaver Dam Eye Study 
Epidemiological studies have shown that oxidative stress is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. However, the association of oxidative stress marker with non-CVD and CVD mortality has not been extensively evaluated. The association of baseline serum 8-isoprostane (8-ISO) with all-cause, non-CVD, and CVD mortality was examined in a random subset (n = 1,753) of a population-based study of 4,926 adults (99% non-Hispanic whites; 56% women) aged 43–86 years from the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Cause of death was ascertained by death certificate between 1987 and 2002. 8-ISO was measured by immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by one 8-ISO standard deviation. During a median follow-up of 13.1 years, 590 (33.7%) participants died (290 CVD deaths). After adjusting for socio-demographics and CVD risk factors, 8-ISO was significantly associated with all-cause (HR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.01–1.2) and non-CVD (HR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28) mortality but not with CVD mortality (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.93–1.2). When limited to participants with BMI < 25 kg/m2, individuals in the highest 8-ISO quartile had approximately 34 to 36% increased risk of all-cause, non-CVD, and CVD death compared to those at the lowest quartile. In contrast, 8-ISO was not significantly associated with mortality among those with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. These findings suggest that baseline serum 8-ISO, a marker of oxidative stress, is an independent risk factor of all-cause, non-CVD, and CVD mortality among a cohort of middle-aged adults with normal BMI.
doi:10.5455/oams.031212.or.024
PMCID: PMC4817369  PMID: 27042380
Cardiovascular disease; Isoprostane; Mortality; Oxidative stress
2.  Segment-Specific Associations of Carotid IMT with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study 
Background and Purpose
We propose to study possible differences in the associations between risk factors for cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke) and Carotid Intima-Media thickness (IMT) measurements made at three different levels of the carotid bifurcation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of Whites and African Americans of both genders with mean age 45 years. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were determined in cohort members. Carotid IMT was measured from high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images at three levels: the common carotid artery (CCA), the carotid artery bulb (Bulb) and the internal carotid artery (ICA). Associations with risk factors were evaluated by multivariate linear regression analyses.
Results
Of 3258 who underwent carotid IMT measurements, CCA, Bulb, and ICA IMT were measured at all three separate levels in 3023 (92.7%). A large proportion of the variability of CCA IMT was explained by cardiovascular risk factors (26.8%) but less so for the Bulb (11.2%) and ICA (8.0%). Carotid IMT was consistently associated with age, LDL-cholesterol, smoking and hypertension in all segments. Associations with fasting glucose and diastolic blood pressure were stronger for CCA than for the other segments. Hypertension, diabetes and current smoking had qualitatively stronger associations with Bulb IMT, and LDL cholesterol with ICA IMT. Conclusion: In our cohort of relatively young white and African-American men and women, a greater proportion of the variability in common carotid IMT can be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors than for the carotid artery bulb and internal carotid arteries.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.566596
PMCID: PMC3163306  PMID: 19910544
Carotid Intimal Medial Thickness; Risk Factors; Carotid Ultrasound

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