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1.  Occupational gradients in smoking behavior and exposure to workplace environmental tobacco smoke: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Objectives
This study examines associations of occupation with smoking status, amount smoked among current- and former-smokers (number of cigarettes/day and lifetime cigarette consumption (pack-years)), and workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) independent from income and education.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a community sample (n=6355, age range: 45–84) using logistic and multinomial regression. All analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for socio-demographic variables.
Results
Male blue-collar and sales/office workers had higher odds of having consumed >20 pack-years of cigarettes than managers/professionals. For both male and female current- or former-smokers, exposure to workplace ETS was consistently and strongly associated with heavy smoking and greater pack-years.
Conclusions
Blue-collar workplaces are associated with intense smoking and ETS exposure. Smoking must be addressed at both the individual- and workplace-levels especially in blue-collar workplaces.
doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e318244501e
PMCID: PMC3275688  PMID: 22261926
2.  Associations of occupation, job control and job demands with intima-media thickness: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Objectives
Occupation has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality, but few studies have investigated occupation in relation to early atherosclerotic disease. This study examined associations between various occupational characteristics and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in a multi-ethnic sample.
Methods
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) recruited 6814 adults aged 45e84 years and free of clinical CVD (response rate 60%, 51% female). Questionnaire data were used to determine occupational group (managerial/professional, sales/office, service, blue-collar), psychosocial job characteristics (ie, job demands, job control) and other sociodemographic information.
Results
Common carotid artery (CCA)-IMT was greater for blue-collar jobs than for management/professional jobs (mean difference=0.012 mm, p=0.049) after adjustment for age, sex, race, place of birth (US or foreign born) and CVD risk factors. Compared to management/professional jobs, internal carotid artery (ICA)-IMT was greater for sales/office, service and blue-collar jobs (mean difference=0.071 mm, p<0.001; 0.057 mm, p=0.009; and 0.110 mm, p<0.001, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex, race and place of birth. The difference between blue-collar jobs and management/professional jobs remained significant after additional adjustment for CVD risk factors, income and education (mean difference=0.048 mm, p=0.045). Higher levels of control at work were associated with thinner CCA-IMT (mean difference=‒0.009 mm, p=0.016, adjusted for age, sex, race and place of birth) but not with ICA-IMT. Job demands had no significant association with IMT.
Conclusions
Blue-collar jobs and low levels of job control were associated with the development of subclinical atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1136/oem.2010.055582
PMCID: PMC3073024  PMID: 20935285
3.  Associations of Workplace Aggression With Work-Related Well-Being Among Nurses in the Philippines 
American journal of public health  2010;101(5):861-867.
Objectives
We examined whether workplace aggression was associated with self-rated health and work-related injury and illness among nurses in the Philippines.
Methods
Our data came from a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n=687) in the Philippines. We assessed the associations of self-reported physical assault and verbal abuse with self-rated health, work-related injury and illness, and missed workdays with Poisson regression. Control variables included demographic and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked, work setting, shift).
Results
Verbal abuse was associated with poor general health (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.09, 3.45). Both physical assault and verbal abuse were associated with work-related injury (PR=1.48; 95% CI=1.00, 2.20; PR=1.72; 95% CI=1.34, 2.23, respectively) and work-related illness (PR=1.46; 95% CI=0.99, 2.15; PR=1.68; 95% CI=1.32, 2.14, respectively) after demographic and work characteristics were accounted for in the model. In addition, physical assault was associated with missed workdays (PR=1.56; 95% CI=1.02, 2.33).
Conclusions
Workplace aggression was associated with increased risks of poor general health and adverse work-related health outcomes among nurses in the Philippines.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.188144
PMCID: PMC3076410  PMID: 21088262
4.  Occupational Health and Safety Issues Among Nurses in the Philippines 
Nursing is a hazardous occupation in the United States, but little is known about workplace health and safety issues facing the nursing work force in the Philippines. In this article, work-related problems among a sample of nurses in the Philippines are described. Cross-sectional data were collected through a self-administered survey during the Philippine Nurses Association 2007 convention. Measures included four categories: work-related demographics, occupational injury/illness, reporting behavior, and safety concerns. Approximately 40% of nurses had experienced at least one injury or illness in the past year, and 80% had experienced back pain. Most who had an injury did not report it. The top ranking concerns were stress and overwork. Filipino nurses encounter considerable health and safety concerns that are similar to those encountered by nurses in other countries. Future research should examine the work organization factors that contribute to these concerns and strengthen policies to promote health and safety.
PMCID: PMC2797477  PMID: 19438081
5.  Workplace harassment, stress, and drinking behavior over time: Gender differences in a national sample 
Addictive behaviors  2008;33(7):964-967.
Research suggests that workplace harassment (WH) significantly predicts alcohol use and problem drinking behavior, but has generally failed to consider concurrent effects of other sources of stress. This two-wave study (n=1418) is the first to explore whether sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) predict increased drinking independently of the effects of job and life stress, and whether effects differ by gender, in a nationally representative sample. SH and GWH predicted increases in problem drinking one year later for men but not women, while life stress was associated with increased problem drinking for women but not men. This study confirms the importance of examining the associations between different types of stressors and drinking-related outcomes in gendered contexts.
doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.02.009
PMCID: PMC2442899  PMID: 18384975
Stress; Harassment; Alcohol drinking patterns; Alcohol abuse; Human sex differences

Results 1-5 (5)