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1.  Targeting of Pancreatic Cancer with Magneto-Fluorescent Theranostic Gold Nanoshells 
Nanomedicine (London, England)  2013;9(8):1209-1222.
Aim
We report a magneto-fluorescent theranostic nanocomplex targeted to neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) for imaging and therapy of pancreatic cancer.
Materials and Methods
Gold nanoshells resonant at 810 nm were encapsulated in silica epilayers doped with iron oxide and the NIR dye ICG, resulting in theranostic gold nanoshells (TGNS), which were subsequently conjugated with antibodies targeting NGAL in AsPC-1-derived xenografts in nude mice.
Results
AntiNGAL-conjugated TGNS specifically targeted pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo providing contrast for both NIR fluorescence and T2 weighted MR imaging with higher tumor contrast than can be obtained using long-circulating but non-targeted PEGylated nanoparticles. The nanocomplexes also enabled highly specific cancer cell death via NIR photothermal therapy in vitro.
Conclusions
Theranostic gold nanoshells with embedded NIR and MR contrasts can be specifically targeted to pancreatic cancer cells with expression of early disease marker NGAL, and enable molecularly targeted imaging and photothermal therapy.
doi:10.2217/nnm.13.84
PMCID: PMC4051872  PMID: 24063415
nanoshells; optical imaging; photothermal; pancreatic cancer; noninvasive imaging; MRI
2.  Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 33988, a Bacterium Highly Adapted to Fuel-Polluted Environments 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(6):e01113-14.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 33988 is highly adapted to grow in jet and diesel fuel, with a defined regulation of adaptive genes and metabolization of n-alkanes. The draft genome of strain ATCC 33988 is 6.4 Mb in size, with 5,975 coding sequences and 66.3% G+C content, and it is highly similar to that of the clinical strain P. aeruginosa PAO1.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.01113-14
PMCID: PMC4223454  PMID: 25377703
3.  Does a specialist unit improve outcomes for hospitalized patients with Parkinson's disease? 
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders  2014;20(11):1242-1247.
Objective
Suboptimal management of Parkinson's disease (PD) medication in hospital may lead to avoidable complications. We introduced an in-patient PD unit for those admitted urgently with general medical problems. We explored the effect of the unit on medication management, length of stay and patient experience.
Methods
We conducted a single-center prospective feasibility study. The unit's core features were defined following consultation with patients and professionals: specially trained staff, ready availability of PD drugs, guidelines, and care led by a geriatrician with specialty PD training. Mandatory staff training comprised four 1 h sessions: PD symptoms; medications; therapy; communication and swallowing. Most medication was prescribed using an electronic Prescribing and Administration system (iSOFT) which provided accurate data on time of administration. We compared patient outcomes before and after introduction of the unit.
Results
The general ward care (n = 20) and the Specialist Parkinson's Unit care (n = 24) groups had similar baseline characteristics. On the specialist unit: less Parkinson's medication was omitted (13% vs 20%, p < 0.001); of the medication that was given, more was given on time (64% vs 50%, p < 0.001); median length of stay was shorter (9 days vs 13 days, p = 0.043) and patients' experience of care was better (p = 0.01).
Discussion
If replicated and generalizable to other hospitals, reductions in length of stay would lead to significant cost savings. The apparent improved outcomes with Parkinson's unit care merit further investigation. We hope to test the hypothesis that specialized units are cost-effective and improve patient care using a randomized controlled trial design.
Highlights
•We prospectively evaluated a specialist Parkinson's unit for in-patients.•Patients who received Parkinson's unit care had shorter length of stay.•Patients who received Parkinson's unit care had better experience of care.•More Parkinson's medication was given on time.•Less Parkinson's medication was omitted.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.09.015
PMCID: PMC4228081  PMID: 25264022
Parkinson's disease; Hospitalization; Errors; Medication; Length of stay; Specialist unit
4.  Light-induced Release of DNA from Gold Nanoparticles: Nanoshells and Nanorods 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2011;133(31):12247-12255.
Plasmon-resonant nanoparticle complexes show highly promising potential for light-triggered, remote-controlled delivery of oligonucleotides on demand, for research and therapeutic purposes. Here we investigate the light-triggered release of DNA from two types of nanoparticle substrates: Au nanoshells and Au nanorods. Both light-triggered and thermally induced release are distinctly observable from nanoshell-based complexes, with light-triggered release occurring at an ambient solution temperature well below the DNA melting temperature. Surprisingly, no analogous measureable release was observable from nanorod-based complexes below the DNA melting temperature. These results suggest that a nonthermal mechanism may play a role in plasmon resonant, light-triggered DNA release.
doi:10.1021/ja204578e
PMCID: PMC4108302  PMID: 21736347
Plasmon; nanoshell; nanorod; hot electron; photoinduced electron transfer; enhanced local field; photothermal; DNA
5.  The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Early Maternal Feeding Behavior on Later Infant Feeding Behavior 
Adaptive maternal feeding behaviors are sensitive and responsive to the infant and support the infant’s participation in feeding. Adaptive infant behaviors help the infant to participate in the feeding within developmental capacities and to interact in a positive manner with the mother. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of the adaptiveness of early maternal feeding behavior to the adaptiveness of later infant feeding behavior, accounting for maternal depressive symptoms and neonatal health. Thirty-seven premature infants and their mothers were assessed in the special care nursery just before discharge and in their homes at 4 months postterm age. The adaptive quality of maternal and infant behavior was assessed using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Study–Depression Scale. Infant health was assessed using the Neonatal Health Index. Linear regression analyses revealed that the adaptiveness of maternal feeding behavior before special care nursery discharge contributed significantly to the adaptiveness of infant feeding behavior at 4 months postterm age, accounting for neonatal health and maternal depressive symptoms. Although further study of the relationship is needed, findings support development of interventions to enhance the adaptiveness of mothers’ early feeding behaviors.
doi:10.1053/j.nainr.2006.12.007
PMCID: PMC4051348  PMID: 24926224
Mother-infant interaction; Infant feeding; Infant behavior; Mother behavior; Infant; Premature
6.  Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer 
Current nutrition reports  2012;2(1):48-55.
Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development of colorectal cancer, but the full complexity of the association is not yet understood. Dietary pattern analysis is an important new technique that may help to elucidate the relationship. This review examines the most common techniques for extrapolating dietary patterns and reviews dietary pattern/colorectal cancer studies published between September 2011 and August 2012. The studies reviewed are consistent with prior research but include a more diverse international population. Results from investigations using a priori dietary patterns (i.e., diet quality scores) and a posteriori methods, which identify existing eating patterns (i.e., principal component analysis), continue to support the benefits of a plant-based diet with some dairy as a means to lower the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in meats, refined grains, and added sugar appears to increase risk. The association between colorectal cancer and alcohol remains unclear.
doi:10.1007/s13668-012-0031-1
PMCID: PMC3649851  PMID: 24496398
Colorectal cancer; Dietary patterns; Factor analysis; Principal component analysis; Cluster analysis; Reduced rank regression; Total diet quality; Diet score
7.  Dietary Flaxseed in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemoradiation 
Purpose
The standard of care in Locally-Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (LA-NSCLC) is chemotherapy and radiation; however, Radiation-Induced Lung Injury (RILI), which may be prevented by the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Flaxseed (FS), impedes its maximum benefit.
Materials and Methods
Patients with LA-NSCLC requiring definitive RT were randomized to one FS or control muffin daily from start to 2 weeks after RT. Blood and urine were collected to quantify plasma FS metabolites, Enterodione (ED) and Enterolactone (EL), and urinary oxidative stress biomarkers, 8, 12-iso-iPF2a-VI (isoprostane) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). Tolerability was defined as consuming ≥ 75% of the intended muffins and no ≥ grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicities.
Results
Fourteen patients (control,7; FS,7) were enrolled. The tolerability rates were 42.9 versus 71.4% (p=0.59) for FS and control, respectively. Mean percentages of intended number of muffins consumed were 37% versus 73% (p=0.12). ED and EL increased at onset of FS and decreased with discontinuation, confirming bioavailability. Isoprostane and 8-oxo-dGuo were detectable. There was a trend towards decreased rates of pneumonitis in FS.
Conclusions
This is the first study to report FS bioavailability and quantify oxidative stress markers in NSCLC patients. FS in the administered muffin formulation did not meet tolerability criteria. Given the promising mechanism of FS as a radioprotectant, further investigations should focus on the optimal method for administration of FS.
doi:10.4172/2161-105X.1000154
PMCID: PMC3932620  PMID: 24575360
Flaxseed; Lignan; Radiation; Isoprostane; 8-oxo dGuo; Non-small cell lung cancer; Radiation induced lung injury; RILI; Pneumonitis; Fibrosis; Esophagitis
8.  The Development of a Mother’s Internal Working Model of Feeding 
Purpose
The purpose of the study was to describe changes in a mother’s early internal working model (IWM) of infant feeding.
Design & Methods
In this qualitative study, 12 maternal responses to the semi-structured IWM interview were audio-recorded; once in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after infants began oral feeding and once 2 weeks post-discharge. Interviews were analyzed using directed content analysis.
Results
A change between mothers’ early and later nipple feeding experiences was identified.
Practice Implications
Nurses and other clinicians can help mothers understand the infant’s behaviors and focus on the infant’s nutritional intake while simultaneously developing a relationship with the infant.
doi:10.1111/jspn.12011
PMCID: PMC3539173  PMID: 23289455
Infant feeding; infant, premature; models. psychological; models, theoretical; mother-infant relations; qualitative research
9.  Cognitive Change Checklist (3CL): Psychometric Characteristicsin Community Dwelling Older Adults 
Objective
To extend the psychometric study of the Cognitive Change Checklist (3CL) by examining the reliability, factor structure, and external correlates of 3CL informant and self-report ratings in community dwelling adults. We also conducted ROC analyses examining rating scores from this normative sample with those of clinical samples.
Design
Scale reliability and validity study.
Setting
Community sites.
Participants
Six hundred and seventy-nine older adults.
Results
The pattern of scale relationships within and across versions, and the failure to find associations with age and education, were consistent with findings in clinic samples reported previously. Factor analysis replicated the four-factor structure of the informant ratings. All informant version scales significantly discriminated amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) cases and patients with mild dementia from normals.
Conclusion
These findings provide support for the use of the checklist as a clinical tool to facilitate identification of cases of MCI and early dementia.
doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3182702c31
PMCID: PMC3508163  PMID: 23032479
rating scales; informant; activities of daily living; cognition; aging; cognitive decline; mild cognitive impairment; dementia
10.  Bordetella avium Antibiotic Resistance, Novel Enrichment Culture, and Antigenic Characterization 
Veterinary microbiology  2012;160(1-2):189-196.
Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment culture method that was subsequently employed to gather new isolates from diseased turkeys and a healthy sawhet owl. While a healthy turkey flock was shown to seroconvert by four weeks-of-age, attempts to culture B. avium from healthy turkey poults were unsuccessful. Western blot of B. avium strains using pooled serum from diseased and healthy commercial turkey flocks revealed both antigenic similarities and differences between strains. In sum, the work documents the continued exposure of commercial turkey flocks to B. avium and the need for development of an effective, inexpensive vaccine to control spread of the disease.
doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.05.026
PMCID: PMC3469198  PMID: 22721730
Bordetellosis incidence; serology; antibiotic resistance; Bordetella avium; poultry
11.  The Impact of Forced Transitions on the Most Functionally Impaired Nursing Home Residents 
Background/Objectives
To examine the hospitalization rate and mortality associated with forced mass transfer of nursing home residents with the highest levels of functional impairment.
Design
Retrospective cohort study.
Setting
119 Texas and Louisiana nursing homes that were identified as being “at-risk” for evacuation for Hurricane Gustav.
Participants
6,464 long-stay residents residing in “at-risk” nursing homes for at least three consecutive months prior to landfall of Hurricane Gustav.
Measurements
Using Medicare claims and instrumental variable analysis, we compared the differential mortality (death at 30 and 90 days) and hospitalization rates (at 30 and 90 days) of the most functionally-impaired long-stay residents who evacuated for Hurricane Gustav relative to the most functionally impaired residents who did not evacuate.
Results
Results suggest that the effect of evacuation was associated with an 8% increase in hospitalizations by 30 and 90 days for the most functionally impaired residents. Evacuation was not significantly related to mortality for the most functionally impaired residents.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the most functionally impaired nursing home residents experience an increase in hospitalizations but not mortality as a consequence of forced mass transfer. With the inevitability of nursing home evacuations for many different reasons, harm mitigation strategies focused on the most impaired residents are needed.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04146.x
PMCID: PMC3530394  PMID: 23002792
Nursing Home; Transitions; Hurricane
12.  Effects of Hurricane Katrina on Nursing Facility Resident Mortality, Hospitalization, and Functional Decline 
Background
The study was designed to examine the 30- and 90-day mortality and hospitalization rates among nursing facility (NF) residents in the affected areas of Louisiana and Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina and to assess the rate of significant posthurricane functional decline.
Methods
A secondary data analysis was conducted using Medicare claims merged with NF resident data from the Minimum Data Set. Thirty- and 90-day mortality and hospitalization rates for long-stay (>90 days) residents residing in 141 at-risk NFs during Hurricane Katrina were compared to rates for residents residing at the same facilities during the same time period in prior nonhurricane years (2003 and 2004). Functional decline was assessed as a 4+ drop in function using a 28-point Minimum Data Set Activities of Daily Living Scale.
Results
There were statistically significant differences (all P<.0001) in mortality, hospitalization, and functional decline among residents exposed to Hurricane Katrina. At 30 days, the mortality rate was 3.88% among the exposed cohort compared with 2.10% and 2.28% for residents in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The 90-day mortality rate was 9.27% compared with 6.71% and 6.31%, respectively. These mortality differences translated into an additional 148 deaths at 30 days and 230 deaths at 90 days. The 30-day hospitalization rate was 9.87% compared with 7.21% and 7.53%, respectively. The 90-day hospitalization rate was 20.39% compared with 18.61% and 17.82%, respectively. Finally, the rate of significant functional decline among survivors was 6.77% compared with 5.81% in 2003 and 5.10% in 2004.
Conclusions
NF residents experienced a significant increase in mortality, hospitalization, and functional decline during Hurricane Katrina.
doi:10.1001/dmp.2010.11
PMCID: PMC3773950  PMID: 23105032
nursing home; long term care; disaster preparedness; hurricanes; emergency management
13.  The Effects of Evacuation on Nursing Home Residents With Dementia 
Background
In response to the hurricane-related deaths of nursing home residents, there has been a steady increase in the number of facilities that evacuate under storm threat. This study examined the effects of evacuation during Hurricane Gustav on residents who were cognitively impaired.
Methods
Nursing homes in counties located in the path of Hurricane Gustav were identified. The Minimum Data Set resident assessment files were merged with the Centers for Medicare enrollment file to determine date of death for residents in identified facilities. Difference-in-differences analyses were conducted adjusting for residents’ demographic characteristics and acuity.
Results
The dataset included 21,255 residents living in 119 at risk nursing homes over three years of observation. Relative to the two years before the storm, there was a 2.8 percent increase in death at 30 days and a 3.9 percent increase in death at 90 days for residents with severe dementia who evacuated for Hurricane Gustav, controlling for resident demographics and acuity.
Conclusions
The findings of this research reveal the deleterious effects of evacuation on residents with severe dementia. Interventions need to be developed and tested to determine the best methods for protecting this at risk population when there are no other options than to evacuate the facility.
doi:10.1177/1533317512454709
PMCID: PMC3711109  PMID: 22930698
Alzheimer’s disease; disaster; nursing homes; evacuation; hurricane; mortality
14.  Comparison of thermodilution measured extravascular lung water with chest radiographic assessment of pulmonary oedema in patients with acute lung injury 
Background
Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are characterized by pulmonary oedema, measured as extravascular lung water (EVLW). The chest radiograph (CXR) can potentially estimate the quantity of lung oedema while the transpulmonary thermodilution method measures the amount of EVLW. This study was designed to determine whether EVLW as estimated by a CXR score predicts EVLW measured by the thermodilution method and whether changes in EVLW by either approach predict mortality in ALI/ARDS.
Methods
Clinical data were collected within 48 hours of ALI/ARDS diagnosis and daily up to 14 days on 59 patients with ALI/ARDS. Two clinicians scored each CXR for the degree of pulmonary oedema, using a validated method. EVLW indexed to body weight was measured using the single indicator transpulmonary thermodilution technique.
Results
The CXR score had a modest, positive correlation with the EVLWI measurements (r = 0.35, p < 0.001). There was a 1.6 ml/kg increase in EVLWI per 10-point increase in the CXR score (p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval 0.92-2.35). The sensitivity of a high CXR score for predicting a high EVLWI was 93%; similarly the negative predictive value was high at 94%; the specificity (51%) and positive predictive value (50%) were lower. The CXR scores did not predict mortality but the EVLW thermodilution did predict mortality.
Conclusion
EVLW measured by CXR was modestly correlated with thermodilution measured EVLW. Unlike CXR findings, transpulmonary thermodilution EVLWI measurements over time predicted mortality in patients with ALI/ARDS.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-3-25
PMCID: PMC3846630  PMID: 23937970
Extravascular lung water; Chest radiograph; Acute lung injury; Acute respiratory distress syndrome
15.  To Evacuate or Shelter in Place: Implications of Universal Hurricane Evacuation Policies on Nursing Home Residents 
Objective
To examine the differential morbidity/mortality associated with evacuation versus sheltering in place for nursing home (NH) residents exposed to the 4 most recent Gulf-hurricanes
Methods
Observational study using Medicare claims, and NH data sources. We compared the differential mortality/morbidity for long-stay residents exposed to 4 recent hurricanes (Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike) relative to those residing at the same NHs over the same time periods during the prior 2 non-hurricane years as a control. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we then evaluated the independent effect of evacuation on outcomes at 90 days.
Results
Among 36,389 NH residents exposed to a storm, the 30 and 90 day mortality/hospitalization rates increased compared to non-hurricane control years. There were a cumulative total of 277 extra deaths and 872 extra hospitalizations at 30 days. At 90 days, 579 extra deaths and 544 extra hospitalizations were observed. Using the instrumental variable analysis, evacuation increased the probability of death at 90 days from 2.7-5.3% and hospitalization by 1.8-8.3%, independent of other factors.
Conclusion
Among residents exposed to hurricanes, evacuation significantly exacerbated subsequent morbidity/mortality.
doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2011.07.011
PMCID: PMC3264770  PMID: 21885350
16.  A simple classification model for hospital mortality in patients with acute lung injury managed with lung protective ventilation 
Critical care medicine  2011;39(12):2645-2651.
Objective
Despite improvements in the care of critically-ill patients, hospital mortality for acute lung injury remains high at approximately 40%. We developed a classification rule to stratify mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury according to hospital mortality and compared this rule to the APACHE III prediction.
Patients
We used data of 2022 participants in ARDS Network trials to build a classification rule based on 54 variables collected prior to randomization.
Design
We used a classification tree approach to stratify patients according to hospital mortality using a training subset of 1800 participants, and estimated expected prediction errors using tenfold cross validation. We validated our classification tree using a subset of 222 participants not included in model building, and calculated areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs).
Measurements and Main Results
We identified combinations of age (>63 years), BUN (>15 mg/dl), shock, respiratory rate (>21 breaths/minute), and minute ventilation (>13.9 L/minute) as important predictors of hospital mortality at 90 days. The classification tree had a similar expected prediction error in the training set (28% versus 26%; p=0.18) and AUC in the validation set (0.71 versus 0.73; p=0.71) as did a model based on APACHE III.
Conclusions
Our tree-based classification rule performed similarly to APACHE III in stratifying patients according to hospital mortality, is simpler to use, contains risk factors that may be specific to acute lung injury, and identified minute ventilation as a potential novel predictor of death in patients with acute lung injury.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182266779
PMCID: PMC3227537  PMID: 21725235
17.  Cost-Effective Treatment of Patients with Symptomatic Cholelithiasis and Possible Common Bile Duct Stones 
Journal of the American College of Surgeons  2011;212(6):1049-1060.e1-7.
Background
Clinicians must choose a treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis without knowing whether common bile duct (CBD) stones are present. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis and possible CBD stones.
Study Design
Our decision model included five treatment strategies: (1) laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) alone followed by expectant management, (2) preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by LC, (3) LC with intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) ± common bile duct exploration (CBDE), (4) LC followed by postoperative ERCP, and (5) LC with IOC ± postoperative ERCP. The rates of successful completion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic intervention, test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity), morbidity, and mortality for all procedures are from current literature. Hospitalization costs and lengths of stay are from the 2006 National CMS data. The probability of CBD stones was varied from 0% to 100% and the most cost-effective strategy was determined at each probability.
Results
Across the CBD stone probability range of 4% to 100%, LC with IOC ± ERCP was the most cost-effective. If the probability was 0%, LC alone was the most cost-effective. Our model was sensitive to one health input: specificity of IOC, and three costs: cost of hospitalization for LC with CBDE, cost of hospitalization for LC without CBDE, and cost of LC with IOC.
Conclusions
The most cost-effective treatment strategy for the majority of patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis is LC with routine IOC. If stones are detected, CBDE should be forgone and the patient referred for ERCP.
doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2011.02.017
PMCID: PMC3163150  PMID: 21444220
18.  Insulin Sensitivity, Food Intake, and Cravings with Premenstrual Syndrome: A Pilot Study 
Journal of Women's Health  2008;17(4):657-665.
Objective
The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate possible differences in insulin sensitivity, food intake, and cravings between the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Methods
Subjects were screened for PMS using the Penn Daily Symptom Rating (DSR) scale. Each subject had two overnight admissions (once in each cycle phase) to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. They performed 3-day diet histories prior to each hospitalization. After admission, subjects received dinner and a snack, then were fasted until morning, when they underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). Insulin sensitivity was determined by Minimal Model analysis. Blinded analysis of diet histories and inpatient food intake was performed by a registered dietitian.
Results
There was no difference found in insulin sensitivity between cycle phases (n = 7). There were also no differences in proportions of macronutrients or total kilocalories by cycle phase, despite a marked difference in food cravings between cycle phase, with increased food cravings noted in the luteal phase (p = 0.002). Total DSR symptom scores decreased from a mean of 186 (± 29.0) in the luteal phase to 16.6 (± 14.2) in the follicular phase. Women in this study consumed relatively high proportions of carbohydrates (55%–64%) in both cycle phases measured.
Conclusions
These findings reinforce the suggestion that although the symptom complaints of PMS are primarily confined to the luteal phase, the neuroendocrine background for this disorder may be consistent across menstrual cycle phases.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2007.0594
PMCID: PMC3319142  PMID: 18447765
19.  The Influence of Race on the Development of Acute Lung Injury In Trauma Patients 
American journal of surgery  2010;201(4):486-491.
Background
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are sequelae of severe trauma. It is unknown if certain races are at greater risk of developing ALI/ARDS, and once established, if there are racial differences in the severity of lung injury or mortality.
Methods
Retrospective cohort study of 4,397 trauma patients (1,831 Caucasians, 871 African-Americans, 886 Hispanics, and 809 Asian/Pacific Islanders) requiring ICU admission between 1996-2007 at an urban level I trauma center.
Results
African-American patients were most likely to present in shock with penetrating trauma and receive a massive transfusion. The incidence of ALI/ARDS was similar by race (p=0.99). Among patients who developed ALI/ARDS, there was no evidence to support a difference in initial PaO2/FiO2 (p=0.33), lung injury score (p=0.67) or mortality (p=0.78) by race.
Conclusions
Despite differences in baseline characteristics, the incidence of ALI/ARDS, severity of lung injury, and mortality were similar by race.
doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2010.02.003
PMCID: PMC3006033  PMID: 20832050
acute respiratory distress syndrome; acute lung injury; trauma; race; epidemiology; adult
20.  Associations of Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) With Risk Factors and Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease 
Objective
The goal of this study was to compare internal carotid artery (ICA) intima-media thickness (IMT) with common carotid artery (CCA) IMT as global markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Methods
Cross-sectional measurements of the mean CCA IMT and maximum ICA IMT were made on ultrasound images acquired from the Framingham Offspring cohort (n = 3316; mean age, 58 years; 52.7% women). Linear regression models were used to study the associations of the Framingham risk factors with CCA and ICA IMT. Multivariate logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to compare the associations of prevalent CVD with CCA and ICA IMT and determine sensitivity and specificity.
Results
The association between age and the mean CCA IMT corresponded to an increase of 0.007 mm/y; the increase was 0.037 mm/y for the ICA IMT. Framingham risk factors accounted for 28.6% and 27.5% of the variability in the CCA and ICA IMT, respectively. Age and gender contributed 23.5% to the variability of the CCA IMT and 22.5% to that of the ICA IMT, with the next most important factor being systolic blood pressure (1.9%) for the CCA IMT and smoking (1.6%) for the ICA IMT. The CCA IMT and ICA IMT were statistically significant predictors of prevalent CVD, with the ICA IMT having a larger area under the ROC curve (0.756 versus 0.695).
Conclusions
Associations of risk factors with CCA and ICA IMT are slightly different, and both are independently associated with prevalent CVD. Their value for predicting incident cardiovascular events needs to be compared in outcome studies.
PMCID: PMC3186063  PMID: 21098848
atherosclerosis; carotid artery; disease prevalence; intima-media thickness; risk factors
21.  Assessing the quantity of pulmonary edema in critically ill children 
Critical Care  2010;14(4):189.
Measuring extravascular lung water may be useful for predicting outcome in adults with acute lung injury. The present commentary briefly reviews the potential role and limitations of extravascular lung water measurement in critically ill children.
doi:10.1186/cc9199
PMCID: PMC2945115  PMID: 20804574
22.  A Safe and Reproducible Anastomotic Technique for Minimally Invasive Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy: The Circular Stapled Anastomosis with the Transoral Anvil 
Objectives
In expert hands, the intra-thoracic esophago-gastric anastamosis usually provides a low rate of strictures and leaks. However, anastomoses can be technically challenging and time consuming when minimally invasive techniques are used. We present our preliminary results of a standardized 25mm/4.8mm circular stapled anastomosis using a trans-orally placed anvil.
Materials and Methods
We evaluated a prospective cohort of 37 consecutive patients offered minimally invasive Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy at a tertiary referral center. The esophagogastric anastomosis was created using a 25mm anvil (Orvil, Autosuture, Norwalk, CT) passed trans-orally, in a tilted position, and connected to a 90cm long PVC delivery tube through an opening in the esophageal stump. The anastomosis was completed by joining the anvil to a circular stapler (EEA XL 25mm with 4.8mm Staples, Autosuture, Norwalk, CT) inserted into the gastric conduit. Primary outcomes were leak and stricture rates.
Results
Thirty-seven patients (mean age 65 yrs) with distal esophageal adenocarcinoma (n=29), squamous cell cancer (n=5), or high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's Esophagus (n=3) underwent an Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy between October 2007 and August 2009. The abdominal portion of the operation was completed laparoscopically in 30 patients (81.1%). The thoracic portion was done using a muscle sparing mini-thoracotomy in 23 patients (62.2%) and thoracoscopic techniques in 14 patients (37.8%). There were no intra-operative technical failures of the anastomosis or deaths. Five patients had strictures (13.5%) and all were successfully treated with endoscopic dilations. One patient had an anastomotic leak (2.7%) that was successfully treated by re-operation and endoscopic stenting of the anastomosis.
Discussion
The circular stapled anastomosis with the transoral anvil allows for an efficient, safe and reproducible anastomosis. This straightforward technique is particularly suited to the completely minimally invasive Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy.
doi:10.1016/j.ejcts.2010.01.010
PMCID: PMC2878854  PMID: 20153660
Esophagectomy; Esophageal Cancer; Minimally Invasive; Anastomose; Stapler; Complications
23.  A Pilot Study Evaluating the Feasibility of Psychological First Aid for Nursing Home Residents 
Clinical gerontologist  2009;32(3):293-308.
Objectives
The objectives of the pilot study were to modify existing psychological first aid (PFA) materials so they would be appropriate for use with institutionalized elders, evaluate the feasibility of using nursing home staff to deliver the intervention to residents, and solicit feedback from residents about the intervention. The STORM Study, an acronym for “services for treating older residents’ mental health”, is the first step in the development of an evidence-based disaster mental health intervention for this vulnerable and underserved population.
Method
Demographic characteristics were collected on participating residents and staff. Program evaluation forms were completed by staff participants during the pilot test and nurse training session. Staff and resident discussion groups were conducted during the pilot test to collect qualitative data on the use of PFA in nursing homes.
Results
Results demonstrate the feasibility of the PFA program to train staff to provide residents with PFA during disasters.
Conclusions
Future research should focus on whether PFA improves coping and reduces stress in disaster exposed nursing home residents.
doi:10.1080/07317110902895317
PMCID: PMC2893575  PMID: 20592947
psychological first aid; disaster mental health; nursing homes; older adults; trauma; training; intervention
24.  FIRST Things First: A Practice-Academic Collaboration to Develop and Deliver a Competency-Based Series of Applied Epidemiology Trainings 
Public Health Reports  2008;123(Suppl 1):53-58.
SYNOPSIS
The Florida Center for Public Health Preparedness in the University of South Florida College of Public Health and the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) collaborated to design, develop, and deliver two competency-based epidemiology training programs aimed at increasing the epidemiologic preparedness and response capability of the FDOH workforce. They were also designed to meet the requirements of the National Incident Management System and recommendations or needs identified in national studies. The basis for the trainings is an epidemiology competency set developed by the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice at the University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine. The target audiences for the two trainings are non-epidemiologists or practicing epidemiologists who have relatively little formal education in epidemiology. Both courses have online as well as onsite modules. Alternate tabletop exercises have been completed and delivered for anthrax and plague. Both trainings require participant demonstration of skills. The trainings have been well received, appear to be effective, and are used to credential members of Florida's epidemiology strike teams.
PMCID: PMC2233726  PMID: 18497019
25.  Ca2+ sparks and T tubule reorganization in dedifferentiating adult mouse skeletal muscle fibers 
Ca+ sparks are rare in healthy adult mammalian skeletal muscle but may appear when adult fiber integrity is compromised, and occur in embryonic muscle but decline as the animal develops. Here we used cultured adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers to monitor occurrence of Ca2+ sparks during maintenance of adult fiber morphology and during eventual fiber morphological dedifferentiation after various times in culture. Fibers cultured for up to 3 days retain normal morphology and striated appearance. Ca2+ sparks were rare in these fibers. At 5–7 days in culture, many of the original muscle fibers exhibit sprouting and loss of striations, as well as the occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks. The average rate of occurrence of Ca2+ sparks is >10-fold higher after 5–7 days in culture than in days 1–3. With the use of fibers cultured for 7 days, application of the Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+ or nifedipine almost completely suppressed the occurrence of Ca2+ sparks, as previously shown in embryonic fibers, suggesting that Ca2+ sparks may be generated by similar mechanisms in dedifferentiating cultured adult fibers and in embryonic fibers before final differentiation. The sarcomeric disruption observed under transmitted light microscopy in dedifferentiating fibers was accompanied by morphological changes in the transverse (T) tubular system, as observed by fluorescence confocal imaging of both an extracellular marker dye and membrane staining dyes. Changes in T tubule morphology coincided with the appearance of Ca2+ sparks, suggesting that Ca2+ sparks may either be a signal for, or the result of, disruption of DHPR-ryanodine receptor 1 coupling.
doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00397.2006
PMCID: PMC2654399  PMID: 17065203
calcium ion signaling; muscle remodeling; fluo 4; calcium ion imaging

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