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1.  C-Peptide Levels Are Associated With Mortality and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients Undergoing Angiography 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(3):708-714.
OBJECTIVE
C-peptide is a proinsulin cleavage product released from the pancreas in amounts equimolar to insulin, and elevated levels of C-peptide have been found in patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that C-peptide could play a causal role in the pathophysiology of vascular disease, but nothing is known about the prognostic value of C-peptide concentrations in the circulation.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We examined whether C-peptide is associated with cardiovascular and total mortality in 2,306 patients from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study who underwent coronary angiography at baseline (1997–2000).
RESULTS
During a mean follow-up of 7.6 years, 440 deaths (19.1%) occurred, 252 (10.9%) of which were due to cardiovascular causes. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in the third compared with the first tertile of C-peptide were 1.46 (95% CI 1.15–1.85; P = 0.002) for all cause and 1.58 (1.15–2.18; P = 0.005) for cardiovascular mortality. After further adjustment for common risk factors as well as markers of glucose metabolism, these HRs remained significant at 1.46 (1.10–1.93; P = 0.008) and 1.55 (1.07–2.24; P = 0.022), respectively. Moreover, patients in higher tertiles of C-peptide exhibited higher levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis as well as a more severe extent of coronary lesions.
CONCLUSIONS
In patients undergoing coronary angiography, C-peptide levels are independently associated with all cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as presence and severity of coronary artery disease. Further studies are needed to examine a potential causal role of C-peptide in atherogenesis in humans.
doi:10.2337/dc12-1211
PMCID: PMC3579368  PMID: 23204248
2.  Immune Activation and Inflammation in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Are Associated with Higher Phenylalanine to Tyrosine Ratios: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study 
Journal of Amino Acids  2014;2014:783730.
Higher serum neopterin is associated with increased mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Preferentially Th1-type cytokine interferon-γ stimulates neopterin production by GTP cychlohydrolase I (GCH-I) in parallel in monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. In other cells, activation of GCH-I leads to the formation of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the necessary cofactor of amino acid hydroxylases like phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase (PAH). Serum concentrations of phenylalanine, tyrosine, neopterin, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured in 1196 patients derived from the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study, a cohort study among patients referred for coronary angiography. The phenylalanine to tyrosine ratio (Phe/Tyr) served as an estimate of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) enzyme activity. Serum concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine and of Phe/Tyr did not differ between individuals with or without CAD (Welch's t-test: P = n.s.). Higher neopterin and hsCRP concentrations were observed in CAD patients compared to controls (P < 0.0001) and they correlated with Phe/Tyr (Spearman's rank correlation for neopterin: rs = 0.216 and hsCRP: rs = 0.122; both of P < 0.0001) concentrations. In conclusion, immune activation is associated with higher Phe/Tyr in CAD patients. Data indicates subnormal PAH activity which might be involved in the precipitation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/783730
PMCID: PMC3934657  PMID: 24660059
3.  Vitamin D Levels Predict All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Subjects With the Metabolic Syndrome 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(5):1158-1164.
OBJECTIVE
Optimal vitamin D levels are associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We investigated whether optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is protective in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study is a cohort study of subjects referred for coronary angiography between 1997 and 2000, from which 1,801 with the metabolic syndrome were investigated. Mortality was tracked for a median of 7.7 years. Multivariable survival analysis was used to estimate the association between 25(OH)D levels and mortality.
RESULTS
Most subjects (92%) had suboptimal levels of 25(OH)D (<75 nmol/L), with 22.2% being severely deficient (<25 nmol/L). During follow-up, 462 deaths were recorded, 267 (57.8%) of which were cardiovascular in origin. After full adjustment, including the metabolic syndrome components, those with optimal 25(OH)D levels showed a substantial reduction in all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] 0.25 [95% CI 0.13–0.46]) and cardiovascular disease mortality (0.33 [0.16–0.66]) compared with those with severe vitamin D deficiency. For specific cardiovascular disease mortality, there was a strong reduction for sudden death (0.15 [0.04–0.63]) and congestive heart failure (0.24 [0.06–1.04]), but not for myocardial infarction. The reduction in mortality was dose-dependent for each of these causes.
CONCLUSIONS
Optimal 25(OH)D levels substantially lowered all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. These observations call for interventional studies that test whether vitamin D supplementation provides a useful adjunct in reducing mortality in these subjects.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1714
PMCID: PMC3329808  PMID: 22399697
4.  A Variant In the Abo Gene Explains the Variation in Soluble E-Selectin Levels—Results from Dense Genotyping in Two Independent Populations 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51441.
Background
Elevated soluble (s) E-selectin levels have been associated with various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, genetic variants in the ABO blood group have been related to E-selectin levels in a small cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes. We evaluated whether this association is reproducible in two large samples of Caucasians.
Methodology/ Principal Findings
Data of the present study was drawn from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg study (n = 1,482) and the patients-based LURIC study (n = 1,546). A high-density genotyping array (50K IBC Chip) containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from E-selectin candidate genes selected on known biology of E-selectin metabolism, mouse genetic studies, and human genetic association studies, was used for genotyping. Linear regression analyses with adjustment for age and sex (and survey in KORA) were applied to assess associations between gene variants and sE-selectin concentrations. A number of 12 SNPs (in KORA) and 13 SNPs (in LURIC), all from the ABO blood group gene, were significantly associated with the log-transformed concentration of E-selectin. The strongest association was observed for rs651007 with a change of log-transformed sE-selectin per one copy of the minor allele of −0.37 ng/ml (p = 1.87×10−103) in KORA and −0.35 ng/ml (p = 5.11×10−84) in LURIC. Inclusion of rs651007 increased the explained sE-selectin variance by 0.256 in KORA and 0.213 in LURIC. All SNPs had minor allele frequencies above 20% showing a substantial gene variation.
Conclusions/ Significance
Our findings in two independent samples indicate that the genetic variants at the ABO locus affect sE-selectin levels. Since distinct genome-wide association studies linked the ABO gene with myocardial infarction (MI) in the presence of coronary atherosclerosis and with coronary artery disease, these findings may not only enhance our understanding of adhesion molecule biology, but may also provide a focus for several novel research avenues.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051441
PMCID: PMC3532506  PMID: 23300549
5.  Additional Use of Glycated Hemoglobin for Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes in People Undergoing Coronary Angiography Reveals a Subgroup at Increased Cardiovascular Risk 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(11):2471-2473.
OBJECTIVE
To study the prognosis of people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes as per the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2010 definition but without diabetes as per the ADA 2009 definition.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 2,002 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study without a history of diabetes were studied.
RESULTS
During the follow-up of a mean duration ± SD of 7.7 ± 2.0 years, 346 people died (202 cardiovascular deaths). Subjects with type 2 diabetes as per the ADA 2009 definition (n = 468) had significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with people without diabetes as per the ADA 2010 definition (both P ≤ 0.003). Subjects with type 2 diabetes as per the ADA 2010 definition but without diabetes as per the ADA 2009 definition (n = 150) were at significantly increased risk to die of cardiovascular diseases (P = 0.029).
CONCLUSIONS
Use of the ADA 2010 diabetes definition may be instrumental in improving cardiovascular risk stratification in people undergoing coronary angiography.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1046
PMCID: PMC3198301  PMID: 21911772
6.  Low Free Testosterone Levels Are Associated With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Postmenopausal Diabetic Women 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(8):1771-1777.
OBJECTIVE
Hyperandrogenemia is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in women but evidence about the relationship of testosterone levels with mortality is sparse. We aimed to evaluate whether total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We measured TT and SHBG levels in 875 postmenopausal women who were referred for coronary angiography (during 1997–2000). FT was calculated according to the Vermeulen method. The main outcome measures were Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular causes.
RESULTS
After a median follow-up time of 7.7 years, 179 women (20.5%) had died. There were 101 deaths due to cardiovascular disease (56.4% of all deaths). We found no association of FT, TT, and SHBG levels with mortality in all postmenopausal women. In postmenopausal diabetic women, multivariable-adjusted HRs (with 95% CIs) in the fourth compared with the first FT quartile for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 0.38 (0.08–0.90), P = 0.025, and 0.28 (0.08–0.90), P = 0.032, respectively. We found no association of TT and SHBG with mortality in diabetic postmenopausal women.
CONCLUSIONS
In postmenopausal diabetic women referred for coronary angiography, low FT levels are independently associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
doi:10.2337/dc11-0596
PMCID: PMC3142041  PMID: 21715525
7.  Glycated Hemoglobin Predicts All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality in People Without a History of Diabetes Undergoing Coronary Angiography 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(6):1355-1361.
OBJECTIVE
Glycated hemoglobin has been suggested to be superior to fasting glucose for the prediction of vascular disease and death from any cause. The aim of the present work was to analyze and compare the predictive value of glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in subjects who underwent coronary angiography.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We studied 2,686 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular health study without a history of diabetes. The majority of this cohort had coronary artery disease. Glycated hemoglobin was measured at the baseline examination. The mean (± SD) duration of the follow-up for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality was 7.54 ± 2.1 years.
RESULTS
A total of 508 deaths occurred during the follow-up. Of those, 299 were accounted for by cardiovascular diseases and 79 by cancer. Baseline glycated hemoglobin was predictive of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) (95% CI) for glycated hemoglobin values of <5.0, 5.0–5.4, 5.5–5.9, 6.0–6.4, 6.5–7.4, and ≥7.5% for all-cause mortality were 1.36 (0.85–2.18), 1.00 (0.76–1.32), 1.00 (reference), 1.11 (0.88–1.41), 1.39 (1.07–1.82), and 2.15 (1.32–3.53), respectively. Similar J-shaped relationships were found between glycated hemoglobin and cardiovascular and cancer mortality. The associations of glycated hemoglobin with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality remained significant after inclusion of fasting glucose as a covariate. However, fasting glucose was not significantly related to mortality when adjusting for glycated hemoglobin.
CONCLUSIONS
Glycated hemoglobin significantly and independently of fasting glucose predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in whites at intermediate to high cardiovascular risk.
doi:10.2337/dc10-2010
PMCID: PMC3114349  PMID: 21515847
8.  Effect of the rs2259816 polymorphism in the HNF1A gene on circulating levels of c-reactive protein and coronary artery disease (the ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study) 
BMC Medical Genetics  2010;11:157.
Background
C-reactive protein is a well established marker of inflammation and has been used to predict future cardiovascular disease. It is still controversial if it plays an active role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Recently, polymorphisms in the gene for HNF1α have been linked to the levels of C-reactive protein and coronary artery disease.
Methods
We investigated the association of the rs2259816 polymorphism in the HNF1A gene with the circulating level of C-reactive protein and the hazard of coronary artery disease in the LURIC Study cohort.
Results
Compared to CC homozygotes, the level of C-reactive protein was decreased in carriers of at least one A-allele. Each A-allele decreased CRP by approximately 15%. The odds ratio for coronary artery disease was only very slightly increased in carriers of the A-allele and this association did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions
In the LURIC Study cohort the A-allele of rs2259816 is associated with decreased CRP but not with coronary artery disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-157
PMCID: PMC2994837  PMID: 21062467

Results 1-8 (8)