During animal development, gene transcription is tuned to tissue-appropriate levels. Here we uncover antagonistic regulation of transcript levels in the germline of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. The histone methyltransferase MES-4 (Maternal Effect Sterile-4) marks genes expressed in the germline with methylated lysine on histone H3 (H3K36me) and promotes their transcription; MES-4 also represses genes normally expressed in somatic cells and genes on the X chromosome. The DRM transcription factor complex, named for its Dp/E2F, Retinoblastoma-like, and MuvB subunits, affects germline gene expression and prevents excessive repression of X-chromosome genes. Using genome-scale analyses of germline tissue, we show that common germline-expressed genes are activated by MES-4 and repressed by DRM, and that MES-4 and DRM co-bind many germline-expressed genes. Reciprocally, MES-4 represses and DRM activates a set of autosomal soma-expressed genes and overall X-chromosome gene expression. Mutations in mes-4 and the DRM subunit lin-54 oppositely skew the transcript levels of their common targets and cause sterility. A double mutant restores target gene transcript levels closer to wild type, and the concomitant loss of lin-54 suppresses the severe germline proliferation defect observed in mes-4 single mutants. Together, “yin-yang” regulation by MES-4 and DRM ensures transcript levels appropriate for germ-cell function, elicits robust but not excessive dampening of X-chromosome-wide transcription, and may poise genes for future expression changes. Our study reveals that conserved transcriptional regulators implicated in development and cancer counteract each other to fine-tune transcript dosage.
gene regulation; development; chromatin; germ cells; X chromosome
Centromeres are chromosomal loci that direct segregation of the genome during cell division. The histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as CenH3) defines centromeres in monocentric organisms, which confine centromere activity to a discrete chromosomal region, and holocentric organisms, which distribute centromere activity along the chromosome length1–3. Because the highly repetitive DNA found at most centromeres is neither necessary nor sufficient for centromere function, stable inheritance of CENP-A nucleosomal chromatin is postulated to epigenetically propagate centromere identity4. Here, we show that in the holocentric nematode Caenorhabditis elegans pre-existing CENP-A nucleosomes are not necessary to guide recruitment of new CENP-A nucleosomes. This is indicated by lack of CENP-A transmission by sperm during fertilization and by removal and subsequent reloading of CENP-A during oogenic meiotic prophase. Genome-wide mapping of CENP-A location in embryos and quantification of CENP-A molecules in nuclei revealed that CENP-A is incorporated at low density in domains that cumulatively encompass half the genome. Embryonic CENP-A domains are established in a pattern inverse to regions that are transcribed in the germline and early embryo, and ectopic transcription of genes in a mutant germline altered the pattern of CENP-A incorporation in embryos. Furthermore, regions transcribed in the germline but not embryos fail to incorporate CENP-A throughout embryogenesis. We propose that germline transcription defines genomic regions that exclude CENP-A incorporation in progeny, and that zygotic transcription during early embryogenesis remodels and reinforces this basal pattern. These findings link centromere identity to transcription and shed light on the evolutionary plasticity of centromeres.
The C. elegans MES proteins are key chromatin regulators of the germline. MES-2, MES-3, and MES-6 form the C. elegans Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 and generate repressive H3K27me3. MES-4 generates H3K36me3 on germline-expressed genes. Transcript profiling of dissected mutant germlines revealed that MES-2/3/6 and MES-4 cooperate to promote expression of germline genes and silence the X chromosomes and somatic genes. Based on genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 occupy mutually exclusive domains on the autosomes and H3K27me3 is enriched on the X. Loss of MES-4 from germline genes causes H3K27me3 to spread to germline genes, resulting in reduced H3K27me3 elsewhere on the autosomes and especially on the X. Our findings support a model in which H3K36me3 repels H3K27me3 from germline genes and concentrates it on other regions of the genome. This antagonism ensures proper patterns of gene expression for germ cells, which includes silencing somatic genes and the X chromosomes.
The Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation complex (DCC) equalizes X-chromosome gene dosage between XO males and XX hermaphrodites by two-fold repression of X-linked gene expression in hermaphrodites. The DCC localizes to the X chromosomes in hermaphrodites but not in males, and some subunits form a complex homologous to condensin. The mechanism by which the DCC downregulates gene expression remains unclear. Here we show that the DCC controls the methylation state of lysine 20 of histone H4, leading to higher H4K20me1 and lower H4K20me3 levels on the X chromosomes of XX hermaphrodites relative to autosomes. We identify the PR-SET7 ortholog SET-1 and the Suv4-20 ortholog SET-4 as the major histone methyltransferases for monomethylation and di/trimethylation of H4K20, respectively, and provide evidence that X-chromosome enrichment of H4K20me1 involves inhibition of SET-4 activity on the X. RNAi knockdown of set-1 results in synthetic lethality with dosage compensation mutants and upregulation of X-linked gene expression, supporting a model whereby H4K20me1 functions with the condensin-like C. elegans DCC to repress transcription of X-linked genes. H4K20me1 is important for mitotic chromosome condensation in mammals, suggesting that increased H4K20me1 on the X may restrict access of the transcription machinery to X-linked genes via chromatin compaction.
In many animals, males have one X chromosome and females have two. However, the same amount of gene expression from X chromosomes is needed in the two sexes. The process of dosage compensation (DC) globally regulates X-chromosome gene expression to make it equal between the sexes, and it occurs in different ways in different animals. In mammals, one X chromosome in females is randomly inactivated, leaving one active X chromosome. In contrast, in the nematode worm C. elegans, the two X chromosomes in hermaphrodites are repressed two-fold to match gene expression to the single X chromosome in males. Previous work in C. elegans identified proteins required for DC that bind to the X chromosome, but their mode of action is not known. Here we show that DC proteins lead to higher levels of histone H4 lysine 20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on hermaphrodite X chromosomes and that H4K20me1 functions in repressing X-chromosome gene expression. This shows that histone modification is an important aspect of the mechanism of dosage compensation. Together with previous work linking H4K20me1 to chromatin structure regulation, our results suggest that dosage compensation might lower gene expression on hermaphrodite X chromosomes by compacting them.
Dividing cells need to coordinate the separation of chromosomes with the formation of a cleavage plane. There is evidence that microtubule bundles in the interzone region of the anaphase spindle somehow control both the location and the assembly of the cleavage furrow [1–3]. A microtubule motor that concentrates in the interzone, MKLP1, has previously been implicated in the assembly of both the metaphase spindle and the cleavage furrow [4–6]. To gain insight into mechanisms that might underlie interdependence of the spindle and the cleavage furrow, we used RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to study the effects of eliminating MKLP1 from Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Surprisingly, in MKLP1(RNAi) embryos, spindle formation appears normal until late anaphase. Microtubule bundles form in the spindle interzone and the cleavage furrow assembles; anaphase and cleavage furrow ingression initially appear normal. The interzone bundles do not gather into a stable midbody, however, and furrow contraction always fails before complete closure. This sequence of relatively normal mitosis and a late failure of cytokinesis continues for many cell cycles. These and additional results suggest that the interzone microtubule bundles need MKLP1 to encourage the advance and stable closure of the cleavage furrow.
Like the nuclear pore complex, FG repeat–containing P-granule proteins interact to help establish a size-exclusion barrier.
The immortal and totipotent properties of the germ line depend on determinants within the germ plasm. A common characteristic of germ plasm across phyla is the presence of germ granules, including P granules in Caenorhabditis elegans, which are typically associated with the nuclear periphery. In C. elegans, nuclear pore complex (NPC)–like FG repeat domains are found in the VASA-related P-granule proteins GLH-1, GLH-2, and GLH-4 and other P-granule components. We demonstrate that P granules, like NPCs, are held together by weak hydrophobic interactions and establish a size-exclusion barrier. Our analysis of intestine-expressed proteins revealed that GLH-1 and its FG domain are not sufficient to form granules, but require factors like PGL-1 to nucleate the localized concentration of GLH proteins. GLH-1 is necessary but not sufficient for the perinuclear location of granules in the intestine. Our results suggest that P granules extend the NPC environment in the germ line and provide insights into the roles of the PGL and GLH family proteins.
We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor–binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more complete and accurate gene models, including alternative splice forms and candidate noncoding RNAs. We constructed hierarchical networks of transcription factor–binding and microRNA interactions and discovered chromosomal locations bound by an unusually large number of transcription factors. Different patterns of chromatin composition and histone modification were revealed between chromosome arms and centers, with similarly prominent differences between autosomes and the X chromosome. Integrating data types, we built statistical models relating chromatin, transcription factor binding, and gene expression. Overall, our analyses ascribed putative functions to most of the conserved genome.
We report testing of the specificity and utility of over 200 antibodies raised against 57 different histone modifications, in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and human cells. While most antibodies performed well, over 25% failed specificity tests by dot blot or western blot. Among specific antibodies, over 20% failed in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. We advise rigorous testing of histone-modification antibodies before use and provide a website for posting new test results.
Although Caenorhabditis elegans was the first multicellular organism with a completely sequenced genome, how this genome is arranged within the nucleus is not known.
We determined the genomic regions associated with the nuclear transmembrane protein LEM-2 in mixed-stage C. elegans embryos via chromatin immunoprecipitation. Large regions of several megabases on the arms of each autosome were associated with LEM-2. The center of each autosome was mostly free of such interactions, suggesting that they are largely looped out from the nuclear membrane. Only the left end of the X chromosome was associated with the nuclear membrane. At a finer scale, the large membrane-associated domains consisted of smaller subdomains of LEM-2 associations. These subdomains were characterized by high repeat density, low gene density, high levels of H3K27 trimethylation, and silent genes. The subdomains were punctuated by gaps harboring highly active genes. A chromosome arm translocated to a chromosome center retained its association with LEM-2, although there was a slight decrease in association near the fusion point.
Local DNA or chromatin properties are the main determinant of interaction with the nuclear membrane, with position along the chromosome making a minor contribution. Genes in small gaps between LEM-2 associated regions tend to be highly expressed, suggesting that these small gaps are especially amenable to highly efficient transcription. Although our data are derived from an amalgamation of cell types in mixed-stage embryos, the results suggest a model for the spatial arrangement of C. elegans chromosomes within the nucleus.
Methylation of histone H3K36 in higher eukaryotes is mediated by multiple methyltransferases. Set2-related H3K36 methyltransferases are targeted to genes by association with RNA Polymerase II and are involved in preventing aberrant transcription initiation within the body of genes. The targeting and roles of the NSD family of mammalian H3K36 methyltransferases, known to be involved in human developmental disorders and oncogenesis, are not known. We used genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to investigate the targeting and roles of the Caenorhabditis elegans NSD homolog MES-4, which is maternally provided to progeny and is required for the survival of nascent germ cells. ChIP analysis in early C. elegans embryos revealed that, consistent with immunostaining results, MES-4 binding sites are concentrated on the autosomes and the leftmost ∼2% (300 kb) of the X chromosome. MES-4 overlies the coding regions of approximately 5,000 genes, with a modest elevation in the 5′ regions of gene bodies. Although MES-4 is generally found over Pol II-bound genes, analysis of gene sets with different temporal-spatial patterns of expression revealed that Pol II association with genes is neither necessary nor sufficient to recruit MES-4. In early embryos, MES-4 associates with genes that were previously expressed in the maternal germ line, an interaction that does not require continued association of Pol II with those loci. Conversely, Pol II association with genes newly expressed in embryos does not lead to recruitment of MES-4 to those genes. These and other findings suggest that MES-4, and perhaps the related mammalian NSD proteins, provide an epigenetic function for H3K36 methylation that is novel and likely to be unrelated to ongoing transcription. We propose that MES-4 transmits the memory of gene expression in the parental germ line to offspring and that this memory role is critical for the PGCs to execute a proper germline program.
Germ cells transmit the genome from one generation to the next. The identity and immortality of germ cells are crucial for the perpetuation of species, yet the mechanisms that regulate these properties remain elusive. In C.elegans, a histone methyltransferase MES-4 is required for survival of the primordial germ cells. MES-4 methylates histone H3 at lysine 36 (H3K36), a modification previously linked to transcription elongation and involved in preventing aberrant transcription initiation within the body of genes. Surprisingly, our genome-wide analysis of MES-4 binding sites in C. elegans embryos revealed that MES-4 is capable of associating with genes that were expressed in the germ line of the parent worms but are no longer being actively transcribed in embryos. To our knowledge, this is the first example of transcription-uncoupled H3K36 methylation. We suggest that MES-4-generated H3K36 methylation serves an “epigenetic role,” by marking germline-expressed genes and by carrying the memory of gene expression from one generation of germ cells to the next.
The processes through which the germline maintains its continuity across generations has long been the focus of biological research. Recent studies have suggested that germline continuity can involve epigenetic regulation, including regulation of histone modifications. However, it is not clear how histone modifications generated in one generation can influence the transcription program and development of germ cells of the next.
We show that the histone H3K36 methyltransferase maternal effect sterile (MES)-4 is an epigenetic modifier that prevents aberrant transcription activity in Caenorhabditis elegans primordial germ cells (PGCs). In mes-4 mutant PGCs, RNA Pol II activation is abnormally regulated and the PGCs degenerate. Genetic and genomewide analyses of MES-4-mediated H3K36 methylation suggest that MES-4 activity can operate independently of ongoing transcription, and may be predominantly responsible for maintenance methylation of H3K36 in germline-expressed loci.
Our data suggest a model in which MES-4 helps to maintain an 'epigenetic memory' of transcription that occurred in germ cells of previous generations, and that MES-4 and its epigenetic product are essential for normal germ cell development.
By screening C. elegans mutants for severe defects in germline proliferation, we isolated a new loss-of-function allele of cdc-25.1, bn115. bn115 and another previously identified loss-of-function allele nr2036 do not exhibit noticeable cell division defects in the somatic tissues but have reduced numbers of germ cells and are sterile, indicating that cdc-25.1 functions predominantly in the germ line during postembryonic development, and that cdc-25.1 activity is probably not required in somatic lineages during larval development. We analyzed cell division of germ cells and somatic tissues in bn115 homozygotes with germline-specific anti-PGL-1 immunofluorescence and GFP transgenes that express in intestinal cells, in distal tip cells, and in gonadal sheath cells, respectively. We also analyzed the expression pattern of cdc-25.1 with conventional and quantitative RT-PCR. In the presence of three other family members of cdc-25 in C. elegans, defects are observed only in the germ line but not in the somatic tissues in cdc-25.1 single mutants, and cdc-25.1 is expressed predominantly, if not exclusively, in the germ line during postembryonic stages. Our findings indicate that the function of cdc-25.1 is unique in the germ line but likely redundant with other members in the soma.
bn115; Caenorhabditis elegans; CDC-25.1; germline proliferation; somatic gonadal tissues
Germ granules are large, non–membrane-bound, ribonucleoprotein (RNP) organelles found in the germ line cytoplasm of most, if not all, animals. The term germ granule is synonymous with the perinuclear nuage in mouse and human germ cells. These large RNPs are complexed with germ line–specific cytoplasmic structures such as the mitochondrial cloud, intermitochondrial cement, and chromatoid bodies. The widespread presence of germ granules across species and the associated germ line defects when germ granules are compromised suggest that germ granules are key determinants of the identity and special properties of germ cells. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been a very fruitful model system for the study of germ granules, wherein they are referred to as P granules. P granules contain a heterogeneous mixture of RNAs and proteins. To date, most of the known germ granule proteins across species, and all of the known P granule components in C elegans, are associated with RNA metabolism, which suggests that a main function of germ granules is posttranscriptional regulation. Here we review P granule structure and localization, P granule composition, the genetic pathway of P granule assembly, and the consequences in the germ line when P granule components are lost. The findings in C elegans have important implications for the germ granule function during postnatal germ cell differentiation in mammals.
Germ granules; nuage; chromatoid bodies
Fertility and embryonic viability are measures of efficient germ cell growth and development. During oogenesis and spermatogenesis, new proteins are required for both mitotic expansion and differentiation. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein synthesis occur by translational control of mRNAs, mediated in part by eIF4E, which binds the mRNAs 5′ cap. IFE-1 is one of five eIF4E isoforms identified in C. elegans. IFE-1 is expressed primarily in the germ line and associates with P granules, large mRNPs that store mRNAs. We isolated a strain that lacks IFE-1 [ife-1(bn127)] and demonstrated that the translation of several maternal mRNAs (pos-1, pal-1, mex-1 and oma-1) was inefficient relative to that in wild-type worms. At 25°C, ife-1(bn127) spermatocytes failed in cytokinesis, prematurely expressed the pro-apoptotic protein CED-4/Apaf-1, and accumulated as multinucleate cells unable to mature to spermatids. A modest defect in oocyte development was also observed. Oocytes progressed normally through mitosis and meiosis, but subsequent production of competent oocytes became limiting, even in the presence of wild-type sperm. Combined gametogenesis defects decreased worm fertility by 80% at 20°C; ife-1 worms were completely sterile at 25°C. Thus, IFE-1 plays independent roles in late oogenesis and spermatogenesis through selective translation of germline-specific mRNAs.
Germ line; Protein synthesis; Maternal mRNAs; Oogenesis; Spermatogenesis; CED-4/Apaf-1; Meiosis; Polysomes
The Maternal-Effect Sterile (MES) proteins are essential for germline viability in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we report that MES-4, a SET-domain protein, binds to the autosomes but not to the X chromosomes. MES-2, MES-3, and MES-6 are required to exclude MES-4 and markers of active chromatin from the X chromosomes. These findings strengthen the emerging view that in the C. elegans germ line, the X chromosomes differ in chromatin state from the autosomes and are generally silenced. We propose that all four MES proteins participate in X-chromosome silencing, and that the role of MES-4 is to exclude repressors from the autosomes, thus enabling efficient repression of the Xs.
During Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis the primordial germ cell, P4, is generated via a series of unequal divisions. These divisions produce germline blastomeres (P1, P2, P3, P4) that differ from their somatic sisters in their size, fate and cytoplasmic content (e.g. germ granules). mes-1 mutant embryos display the striking phenotype of transformation of P4 into a muscle precursor, like its somatic sister. A loss of polarity in P2 and P3 cell-specific events underlies the Mes-1 phenotype. In mes-1 embryos, P2 and P3 undergo symmetric divisions and partition germ granules to both daughters. This paper shows that mes-1 encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like protein, though it lacks several residues conserved in all kinases and therefore is predicted not to have kinase activity. Immunolocalization analysis shows that MES-1 is present in four- to 24-cell embryos, where it is localized in a crescent at the junction between the germline cell and its neighboring gut cell. This is the region of P2 and P3 to which the spindle and P granules must move to ensure normal division asymmetry and cytoplasmic partitioning. Indeed, during early stages of mitosis in P2 and P3, one centrosome is positioned adjacent to the MES-1 crescent. Staining of isolated blastomeres demonstrated that MES-1 was present in the membrane of the germline blastomeres, consistent with a cell-autonomous function. Analysis of MES-1 distribution in various cell-fate and patterning mutants suggests that its localization is not dependent on the correct fate of either the germline or the gut blastomere but is dependent upon correct spatial organization of the embryo. Our results suggest that MES-1 directly positions the developing mitotic spindle and its associated P granules within P2 and P3, or provides an orientation signal for P2- and P3-specific events.
C. elegans; MES-1; Germline; Asymmetric division; Mitotic spindle; P granules
Germ cell development in C. elegans requires that the X chromosomes be globally silenced during mitosis and early meiosis. We previously found that the nuclear proteins MES-2, MES-3, MES-4 and MES-6 regulate the different chromatin states of autosomes versus X chromosomes and are required for germline viability. Strikingly, the SET-domain protein MES-4 is concentrated on autosomes and excluded from the X chromosomes. Here, we show that MES-4 has histone H3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity in vitro, and is required for histone H3K36 dimethylation in mitotic and early meiotic germline nuclei and early embryos. MES-4 appears unlinked to transcription elongation, thus distinguishing it from other known H3K36 HMTs. Based on microarray analysis, loss of MES-4 leads to derepression of X-linked genes in the germ line. We discuss how an autosomally associated HMT may participate in silencing genes on the X chromosome, in coordination with the direct silencing effects of the other MES proteins.
C. elegans; MES proteins; Histone methylation; Germ line; X-chromosome silencing
P granules are germ-cell-specific cytoplasmic structures containing RNA and protein, and required for proper germ cell development in C. elegans. PGL-1 and GLH-1 were previously identified as critical components of P granules. We have identified a new P-granule-associated protein, DEPS-1, the loss of which disrupts P-granule structure and function. DEPS-1 is required for the proper localization of PGL-1 to P granules, the accumulation of glh-1 mRNA and protein, and germ cell proliferation and fertility at elevated temperatures. In addition, DEPS-1 is required for RNA interference (RNAi) of germline-expressed genes, possibly because DEPS-1 promotes the accumulation of RDE-4, a dsRNA-binding protein required for RNAi. A genome wide analysis of gene expression in deps-1 mutant germ lines identified additional targets of DEPS-1 regulation, many of which are also regulated by the RNAi factor RDE-3. Our studies suggest that DEPS-1 is a key component of the P-granule assembly pathway and that its roles include promoting accumulation of some mRNAs, such as glh-1 and rde-4, and reducing accumulation of other mRNAs, perhaps by collaborating with RDE-3 to generate endogenous short interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs).
Germ granules; RNAi; Gene expression
MRG15, a mammalian protein related to the mortality factor MORF4, is required for cell proliferation and embryo survival. Our genetic analysis has revealed that the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog MRG-1 serves similar roles. Maternal MRG-1 promotes embryo survival and is required for proliferation and immortality of the primordial germ cells (PGCs). As expected of a chromodomain protein, MRG-1 associates with chromatin. Unexpectedly, it is concentrated on the autosomes and not detectable on the X chromosomes. This association is not dependent on the autosome-enriched protein MES-4. Focusing on possible roles of MRG-1 in regulating gene expression, we determined that MRG-1 is required to maintain repression in the maternal germ line of transgenes on extrachromosomal arrays, and of several X-linked genes previously shown to depend on MES-4 for repression. MRG-1 is not required for PGCs to acquire transcriptional competence or for the turn-on of expression of several PGC-expressed genes (pgl-1, glh-1, glh-4 and nos-1). By contrast to this result in PGCs, MRG-1 is required for ectopic expression of those germline genes in somatic cells lacking the NuRD complex component MEP-1. We discuss how an autosome-enriched protein might repress genes on the X chromosome, promote PGC proliferation and survival, and influence the germ versus soma distinction.
C. elegans; MRG-1; Germ line; X chromosome silencing
Control of gene expression at the translational level is crucial for many developmental processes. The mRNA cap-binding protein, eIF4E, is a key player in regulation of translation initiation; appropriate levels of eIF4E are essential for normal cell-cycle regulation and tissue differentiation. The observation that eIF4E levels are elevated during gametogenesis in several organisms suggests that eIF4E might have a specific role in gamete formation as well. We show that one of the five isoforms of C. elegans eIF4E, IFE-1, is enriched in the germline and is a component of germ granules (P granules). The association of IFE-1 with P granules requires the P-granule protein PGL-1. In vitro PGL-1 interacts directly with IFE-1, but not with the other four isoforms of eIF4E. Analysis of animals depleted of IFE-1 by RNAi shows that IFE-1 is required for spermatogenesis, specifically for efficient progression through the meiotic divisions and for the production of functional sperm, in both hermaphrodites and males. The requirement for IFE-1 is highly sensitive to temperature. IFE-1 is not required for oogenesis, as ife-1(RNAi) hermaphrodites produce viable progeny when normal sperm are supplied. Consistent with a primary role in spermatogenesis, ife-1 mRNA levels are highest in regions of the gonad undergoing spermatogenesis. Our results suggest that C. elegans spermatogenesis requires either this specific isoform of eIF4E or an elevated level of eIF4E.
eIF4E; Translation initiation; Caenorhabditis elegans; Spermatogenesis; P granules
To initiate studies on how protein-protein interaction (or “interactome”) networks relate to multicellular functions, we have mapped a large fraction of the Caenorhabditis elegans interactome network. Starting with a subset of metazoan-specific proteins, more than 4000 interactions were identified from high-throughput, yeast two-hybrid (HT=Y2H) screens. Independent coaffinity purification assays experimentally validated the overall quality of this Y2H data set. Together with already described Y2H interactions and interologs predicted in silico, the current version of the Worm Interactome (WI5) map contains ∼5500 interactions. Topological and biological features of this interactome network, as well as its integration with phenome and transcriptome data sets, lead to numerous biological hypotheses.
Holocentric chromosomes assemble kinetochores along their length instead of at a focused spot. The elongated expanse of an individual holocentric kinetochore and its potential flexibility heighten the risk of stable attachment to microtubules from both poles of the mitotic spindle (merotelic attachment), and hence aberrant segregation of chromosomes. Little is known about the mechanisms that holocentric species have evolved to avoid this type of error. Our studies of the influence of KLP-19, an essential microtubule motor, on the behavior of holocentric Caenorhabditis elegans chromosomes suggest that it has a major role in combating merotelic attachments. Depletion of KLP-19, which associates with nonkinetochore chromatin, allows aberrant poleward chromosome motion during prometaphase, misalignment of holocentric kinetochores, and multiple anaphase chromosome bridges in all mitotic divisions. Time-lapse movies of GFP-labeled mono- and bipolar spindles demonstrate that KLP-19 generates a force on relatively stiff holocentric chromosomes that pushes them away from poles. We hypothesize that this polar ejection force minimizes merotelic misattachment by maintaining a constant tension on pole-kinetochore connections throughout prometaphase, tension that compels sister kinetochores to face directly toward opposite poles.
chromokinesin; kinetochore; merotelic; congression; kinesin
The ESC-E(Z) complex of Drosophila melanogaster Polycomb group (PcG) repressors is a histone H3 methyltransferase (HMTase). This complex silences fly Hox genes, and related HMTases control germ line development in worms, flowering in plants, and X inactivation in mammals. The fly complex contains a catalytic SET domain subunit, E(Z), plus three noncatalytic subunits, SU(Z)12, ESC, and NURF-55. The four-subunit complex is >1,000-fold more active than E(Z) alone. Here we show that ESC and SU(Z)12 play key roles in potentiating E(Z) HMTase activity. We also show that loss of ESC disrupts global methylation of histone H3-lysine 27 in fly embryos. Subunit mutations identify domains required for catalytic activity and/or binding to specific partners. We describe missense mutations in surface loops of ESC, in the CXC domain of E(Z), and in the conserved VEFS domain of SU(Z)12, which each disrupt HMTase activity but preserve complex assembly. Thus, the E(Z) SET domain requires multiple partner inputs to produce active HMTase. We also find that a recombinant worm complex containing the E(Z) homolog, MES-2, has robust HMTase activity, which depends upon both MES-6, an ESC homolog, and MES-3, a pioneer protein. Thus, although the fly and mammalian PcG complexes absolutely require SU(Z)12, the worm complex generates HMTase activity from a distinct partner set.