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author:("solo, Komla")
1.  Decay-Accelerating Factor Binding Determines the Entry Route of Echovirus 11 in Polarized Epithelial Cells▿ 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(23):12376-12386.
The interaction between echovirus 11 strain 207 (EV11-207) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) at the apical surface of polarized Caco-2 cells results in rapid transport of the virus to tight junctions and in its subsequent uptake. A virus mutant (EV11-207R) which differs at 6 amino acids and whose affinity for DAF is apparently significantly lower remains at the apical surface, from where its uptake occurs. Binding of EV11-207 to DAF and its transport to tight junctions result in a loss of function of the junctions. In contrast, the mutant virus EV11-207R is not transferred to tight junctions, nor does it impair the integrity of these junctions. Cholesterol depletion from the apical membrane leads to DAF aggregation and, presumably, internalization and inhibits infection by EV11-207. However, infection by EV11-207R is significantly less sensitive to cholesterol depletion than infection by EV11-207, confirming the DAF requirement for EV11-207, but not EV11-207R, to infect cells. These data strongly indicate that in the case of infection of polarized epithelial cells by echovirus 11, DAF binding appears be a key determinant in the choice of entry pathway, at least in cell culture.
PMCID: PMC3209408  PMID: 21917947
2.  Regulation of the V-ATPase along the Endocytic Pathway Occurs through Reversible Subunit Association and Membrane Localization 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(7):e2758.
The lumen of endosomal organelles becomes increasingly acidic when going from the cell surface to lysosomes. Luminal pH thereby regulates important processes such as the release of internalized ligands from their receptor or the activation of lysosomal enzymes. The main player in endosomal acidification is the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multi-subunit transmembrane complex that pumps protons from the cytoplasm to the lumen of organelles, or to the outside of the cell. The active V-ATPase is composed of two multi-subunit domains, the transmembrane V0 and the cytoplasmic V1. Here we found that the ratio of membrane associated V1/Vo varies along the endocytic pathway, the relative abundance of V1 being higher on late endosomes than on early endosomes, providing an explanation for the higher acidity of late endosomes. We also found that all membrane-bound V-ATPase subunits were associated with detergent resistant membranes (DRM) isolated from late endosomes, raising the possibility that association with lipid-raft like domains also plays a role in regulating the activity of the proton pump. In support of this, we found that treatment of cells with U18666A, a drug that leads to the accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes, affected acidification of late endosome. Altogether our findings indicate that the activity of the vATPase in the endocytic pathway is regulated both by reversible association/dissociation and the interaction with specific lipid environments.
PMCID: PMC2447177  PMID: 18648502
3.  Late Endosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Leads to Impaired Intra-Endosomal Trafficking 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(9):e851.
Pathological accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes is observed in lysosomal storage diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C. We here analyzed the effects of cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, or as phenocopied by the drug U18666A, on late endosomes membrane organization and dynamics.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Cholesterol accumulation did not lead to an increase in the raft to non-raft membrane ratio as anticipated. Strikingly, we observed a 2–3 fold increase in the size of the compartment. Most importantly, properties and dynamics of late endosomal intralumenal vesicles were altered as revealed by reduced late endosomal vacuolation induced by the mutant pore-forming toxin ASSP, reduced intoxication by the anthrax lethal toxin and inhibition of infection by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus.
These results suggest that back fusion of intralumenal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes is dramatically perturbed upon cholesterol accumulation.
PMCID: PMC1952175  PMID: 17786222
4.  Diversity of Raft-Like Domains in Late Endosomes 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(4):e391.
Late endosomes, the last sorting station in the endocytic pathway before lysosomes, are pleiomorphic organelles composed of tubular elements as well as vesicular regions with a characteristic multivesicular appearance, which play a crucial role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we have investigated whether, in addition to these morphologically distinguishable regions, late endosomal membranes are additionally sub-compartmentalized into membrane microdomains.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Using sub-organellar fractionation techniques, both with and without detergents, combined with electron microscopy, we found that both the limiting membrane of the organel and the intraluminal vesicles contain raft-type membrane domains. Interestingly, these differentially localized domains vary in protein composition and physico-chemical properties.
In addition to the multivesicular organization, we find that late endosomes contain cholesterol rich microdomains both on their limiting membrane and their intraluminal vesicles that differ in composition and properties. Implications of these findings for late endosomal functions are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1851096  PMID: 17460758

Results 1-4 (4)