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1.  Performance of Serum Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Febrile, Neutropenic Patients: A Multi-State Model 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e65776.
Background
The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis expectedly depends on the timing of test results relative to the empirical administration of antifungal therapy during neutropenia, although a dynamic evaluation framework is lacking.
Methods
We developed a multi-state model describing simultaneously the likelihood of empirical antifungal therapy and the risk of invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia. We evaluated whether the first positive test result with a biomarker is an independent predictor of invasive aspergillosis when both diagnostic information used to treat and risk factors of developing invasive aspergillosis are taken into account over time. We applied the multi-state model to a homogeneous cohort of 185 high-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Patients were prospectively screened for galactomannan antigenemia twice a week for immediate treatment decision; 2,214 serum samples were collected on the same days and blindly assessed for (1->3)- β-D-glucan antigenemia and a quantitative PCR assay targeting a mitochondrial locus.
Results
The usual evaluation framework of biomarker performance was unable to distinguish clinical benefits of β-glucan or PCR assays. The multi-state model evidenced that the risk of invasive aspergillosis is a complex time function of neutropenia duration and risk management. The quantitative PCR assay accelerated the early detection of invasive aspergillosis (P = .010), independently of other diagnostic information used to treat, while β-glucan assay did not (P = .53).
Conclusions
The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis is better apprehended by the evaluation of time-varying predictors in a multi-state model. Our results provide strong rationale for prospective studies testing a preemptive antifungal therapy, guided by clinical, radiological, and bi-weekly blood screening with galactomannan antigenemia and a standardized quantitative PCR assay.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065776
PMCID: PMC3683047  PMID: 23799048
2.  High Prevalence of Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Adults with Cystic Fibrosis Exposed to Itraconazole 
Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent fungus found in the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. Itraconazole is prescribed for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) or Aspergillus bronchitis in CF subjects. We hypothesized that A. fumigatus isolates in the sputum of CF subjects with previous exposure to itraconazole was associated with higher prevalence of azole resistance. From June 2010 to April 2011, sputum samples from adult CF subjects at Cochin University Hospital (France) were examined systematically for the detection of A. fumigatus. MICs of A. fumigatus isolates against azoles were screened using Etest, and reduced susceptibility to azoles was confirmed using the CLSI broth microdilution method. A. fumigatus was isolated from the sputum of 131/249 (52.6%) adult CF subjects, and 47/131 (35.9%) subjects had received previous treatment with itraconazole. Reduced A. fumigatus susceptibility to itraconazole (MIC, ≥2 mg/liter) was confirmed in 6/131 (4.6%) subjects. All 6 isolates also had reduced susceptibility to posaconazole (MIC, ≥0.5 mg/liter), and 3/6 isolates had reduced susceptibility to voriconazole (MIC, ≥2 mg/liter). Mutations in the cyp51A gene were detected at positions previously implicated to cause resistance in 5 isolates. Azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates were found in 5/25 (20%) subjects exposed to itraconazole within the previous 3 years. High rates of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates were present in adult CF subjects and were associated with recent itraconazole exposure. Although the clinical implications of these findings will require further studies, the cautious use of itraconazole in adult CF subjects can be recommended.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05077-11
PMCID: PMC3264284  PMID: 22123701
4.  In Vitro Susceptibility to Posaconazole of 1,903 Yeast Isolates Recovered in France from 2003 to 2006 and Tested by the Method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing▿  
The posaconazole MIC90 for 1,903 yeast isolates from France was 1 μg/ml (range, ≤0.015 to 8 μg/ml). Ninety percent of isolates with fluconazole MICs of ≥8 μg/ml (n = 509) and 90% of those with voriconazole MICs of ≥2 μg/ml (n = 80) were inhibited by 2 and 8 μg/ml of posaconazole, respectively.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00496-07
PMCID: PMC2043210  PMID: 17576839

Results 1-4 (4)