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1.  Prevalence of low central venous oxygen saturation in the first hours of intensive care unit admission and associated mortality in septic shock patients: a prospective multicentre study 
Critical Care  2014;18(6):609.
Introduction
In septic shock patients, the prevalence of low (<70%) central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and its relationship to outcome are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of low ScvO2 in the first hours of ICU admission and to assess its potential association with mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.
Methods
This was a prospective, multicentre, observational study conducted over a one-year period in ten French ICUs. Clinicians were asked to include patients with severe sepsis or septic shock preferably within 6 hours of ICU admission and as soon as possible without changing routine practice. ScvO2 was measured at inclusion and 6 hours later (H6), by blood sampling.
Results
We included 363 patients. Initial ScvO2 below 70% was present in 111 patients and the pooled estimate for its prevalence was 27% (95% Confidence interval (95%CI): 18% to 37%). At time of inclusion, among 166 patients with normal lactate concentration (≤2 mmol/L), 55 (33%) had a low initial ScvO2 (<70%), and among 136 patients who had already reached the classic clinical endpoints for mean arterial pressure (≥65 mmHg), central venous pressure (≥8 mmHg), and urine output (≥0.5 mL/Kg of body weight), 43 (32%) had a low initial ScvO2 (<70%). Among them, 49% had lactate below 2 mmol/L. The day-28 mortality was higher in case of low initial ScvO2 (37.8% versus 27.4%; P = 0.049). When adjusted for confounders including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score and initial lactate concentration, a low initial ScvO2 (Odds ratio (OR) = 3.60, 95%CI: 1.76 to 7.36; P = 0.0004) and a low ScvO2 at H6 (OR = 2.18, 95%CI: 1.12 to 4.26; P = 0.022) were associated with day-28 mortality by logistic regression.
Conclusions
Low ScvO2 was common in the first hours of admission to the ICU for severe sepsis or septic shock even when clinical resuscitation endpoints were achieved and even when arterial lactate was normal. A ScvO2 below 70% in the first hours of ICU admission and six hours later was associated with day-28 mortality.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0609-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0609-7
PMCID: PMC4265332  PMID: 25529124
2.  Relation between mean arterial pressure and renal function in the early phase of shock: a prospective, explorative cohort study 
Critical Care  2011;15(3):R135.
Introduction
Because of disturbed renal autoregulation, patients experiencing hypotension-induced renal insult might need higher levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) than the 65 mmHg recommended level in order to avoid the progression of acute kidney insufficiency (AKI).
Methods
In 217 patients with sustained hypotension, enrolled and followed prospectively, we compared the evolution of the mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the first 24 hours between patients who will show AKI 72 hours after inclusion (AKIh72) and patients who will not. AKIh72 was defined as the need of renal replacement therapy or "Injury" or "Failure" classes of the 5-stage RIFLE classification (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage renal disease) for acute kidney insufficiency using the creatinine and urine output criteria. This comparison was performed in four different subgroups of patients according to the presence or not of AKI at the sixth hour after inclusion (AKIh6 as defined as a serum creatinine level above 1.5 times baseline value within the first six hours) and the presence or not of septic shock at inclusion.The ability of MAP averaged over H6 to H24 to predict AKIh72 was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and compared between groups.
Results
The MAP averaged over H6 to H24 or over H12 to H24 was significantly lower in patients who showed AKIh72 than in those who did not, only in septic shock patients with AKIh6, whereas no link was found between MAP and AKIh72 in the three others subgroups of patients. In patients with septic shock plus AKIh6, MAP averaged over H6 to H24 or over H12 to H24 had an AUC of 0.83 (0.72 to 0.92) or 0.84 (0.72 to 0.92), respectively, to predict AKIh72 . In these patients, the best level of MAP to prevent AKIh72 was between 72 and 82 mmHg.
Conclusions
MAP about 72 to 82 mmHg could be necessary to avoid acute kidney insufficiency in patients with septic shock and initial renal function impairment.
doi:10.1186/cc10253
PMCID: PMC3219004  PMID: 21645384

Results 1-3 (3)