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1.  Regulation of translation is required for dendritic cell function and survival during activation 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2007;179(7):1427-1439.
In response to inflammatory stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) have a remarkable pattern of differentiation (maturation) that exhibits specific mechanisms to control antigen processing and presentation. Here, we show that in response to lipopolysaccharides, protein synthesis is rapidly enhanced in DCs. This enhancement occurs via a PI3K-dependent signaling pathway and is key for DC activation. In addition, we show that later on, in a manner similar to viral or apoptotic stress, DC activation leads to the phosphorylation and proteolysis of important translation initiation factors, thus inhibiting cap-dependent translation. This inhibition correlates with major changes in the origin of the peptides presented by MHC class I and the ability of mature DCs to prevent cell death. Our observations have important implications in linking translation regulation with DC function and survival during the immune response.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200707166
PMCID: PMC2373495  PMID: 18166652
2.  Brucella Control of Dendritic Cell Maturation Is Dependent on the TIR-Containing Protein Btp1 
PLoS Pathogens  2008;4(2):e21.
Brucella is an intracellular pathogen able to persist for long periods of time within the host and establish a chronic disease. We show that soon after Brucella inoculation in intestinal loops, dendritic cells from ileal Peyer's patches become infected and constitute a cell target for this pathogen. In vitro, we found that Brucella replicates within dendritic cells and hinders their functional activation. In addition, we identified a new Brucella protein Btp1, which down-modulates maturation of infected dendritic cells by interfering with the TLR2 signaling pathway. These results show that intracellular Brucella is able to control dendritic cell function, which may have important consequences in the development of chronic brucellosis.
Author Summary
A key determinant for intracellular pathogenic bacteria to induce infectious diseases is their ability to avoid recognition by the host immune system. Although most microorganisms internalized by host cells are efficiently cleared, Brucella behave as a Trojan horse causing a zoonosis called brucellosis that affects both humans and animals. Here we show that pathogenic Brucella are able to target host cell defense mechanisms by controlling the function of the sentinels of the immune system, the dendritic cells. In particular, the Brucella TIR-containing protein (Btp1) targets the Toll-like receptor 2 activation pathway, which is a major host response system involved in bacterial recognition. Btp1 is involved in the inhibition of dendritic cell maturation. The direct consequence is a control of inflammatory cytokine secretion and antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. These bacterial proteins are not specific for Brucella and have been identified in other pathogens and may be part of a general virulence mechanism used by several intracellular pathogens to induce disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0040021
PMCID: PMC2233671  PMID: 18266466
3.  Dendritic cell aggresome-like induced structures are dedicated areas for ubiquitination and storage of newly synthesized defective proteins 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2004;164(5):667-675.
In response to inflammatory stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) have a remarkable pattern of differentiation (maturation) that exhibits specific mechanisms to control antigen processing and presentation. One of these mechanisms is the sorting of polyubiquitinated proteins in large cytosolic aggregates called dendritic cell aggresome-like induced structures (DALIS). DALIS formation and maintenance are tightly linked to protein synthesis. Here, we took advantage of an antibody recognizing the antibiotic puromycin to follow the fate of improperly translated proteins, also called defective ribosomal products (DRiPs). We demonstrate that DRiPs are rapidly stored and protected from degradation in DALIS. In addition, we show that DALIS contain the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E225K, and the COOH terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein ubiquitin ligase. The accumulation of these enzymes in the central area of DALIS defines specific functional sites where initial DRiP incorporation and ubiquitination occur. Therefore, DCs are able to regulate DRiP degradation in response to pathogen-associated motifs, a capacity likely to be important for their immune functions.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200312073
PMCID: PMC2172164  PMID: 14981091
DRiPs; DALIS; puromycin; dendritic cells; antigen processing
4.  Glycocalyx on Rabbit Intestinal M Cells Displays Carbohydrate Epitopes from Muc2 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(2):1061-1071.
It is essential to investigate the apical surface properties of both M cells and dome enterocytes to understand the mechanisms involved in the binding of pathogens to M cells. In rabbit appendix tissue, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) highlight differences between M cells (MAb 58) and dome enterocytes (MAb 214). Such antibodies ultimately recognized intestinal mucin-related epitopes. To further characterize these differences, the labeling patterns obtained with these MAbs were compared to those obtained with other antibodies to intestinal mucins on dissected domes from all gut-associated lymphoid tissues. A glycoprotein recognized by MAb 58 was purified on a CsCl isopycnic density gradient and microsequenced, and its mRNA expression was localized by in situ hybridization. It was identified as the rabbit homologue of human Muc2, i.e., the major mucin secreted in intestine tissue. Two other Muc2 carbohydrate epitopes were also expressed on M cells, although Muc2 mRNA was not detected. All results indicated that M cells express, on their apical membrane, glycoconjugates bearing at least three glycosidic epitopes from Muc2. MAb 214 and MAb 6G2, which recognized a partially characterized mucin expressed on dome enterocytes, were negative markers for M cells in rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissues. We propose that the presence, on the surface of M cells, of carbohydrates also expressed on Muc2, together with the absence of an enterocyte-associated mucin, could favor pathogen attachment and accessibility to the M-cell luminal membrane.
doi:10.1128/IAI.69.2.1061-1071.2001
PMCID: PMC97987  PMID: 11160003
5.  Mucin-Related Epitopes Distinguish M Cells and Enterocytes in Rabbit Appendix and Peyer’s Patches 
Infection and Immunity  1999;67(1):357-367.
The biochemical composition of the apical membranes of epithelial M cells overlying the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) is still largely unknown. We have prepared monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against carbonate-washed plasma membranes from epithelial cells detached with EDTA from rabbit appendix, a tissue particularly rich in GALT. As determined by immunofluorescence microscopy, several MAbs specifically recognized either M cells or enterocyte-like cells of the domes from rabbit appendix, sacculus rotundus, and Peyer’s patches. M cells were identified by their large ventral pocket containing lymphoid cells and by specific labeling with antivimentin. Among various characterized MAbs, MAb 104 recognized rabbit immunoglobulins and was used as an apical marker for M cells in the rabbit appendix, MAb 58 selectively stained an integral membrane glycoprotein of greater than 205 kDa located at the apex of M cells, and MAb 214 stained a smaller soluble glycoprotein associated with the apical surfaces from neighboring enterocytes. In addition, both MAbs 58 and 214 also labeled luminal mucus and secretory granules in goblet cells. The selective association of mucin-related molecules at the surfaces of either M cells or enterocyte-like cells of the follicle-associated epithelium suggests that specific carbohydrate antigens are differentially expressed by epithelial cells and could account for the differential binding properties of pathogens.
PMCID: PMC96318  PMID: 9864237

Results 1-5 (5)