Maternal antibodies inhibit seroconversion and the generation of measles virus (MeV)-specific antibodies (both neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies) after vaccination whereas T cell responses are usually unaffected. The lack of seroconversion leaves individuals susceptible to vaccine-preventable infections. Inhibition of antibody secretion is due to the inhibition of B cells through a cross-link of the B cell receptor with the inhibitory FcγIIB receptor (CD32) by maternal antibody/vaccine complexes. Here, we demonstrate that a combination of TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonists induces synergistically higher levels of type I interferon in vitro and in vivo than either agonist alone. The synergistic action of TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonists is based on a feedback loop through the interferon receptor. Finally, we have identified CD21 as a potential receptor for interferon α on B cells which contributes to interferon α-mediated activation of B cells in the presence of maternal antibodies. The combination leads to complete restoration of B cell and antibody responses after immunization in the presence of inhibitory MeV-specific IgG. The strong stimulatory action of type I interferon is due to the fact that type I interferon uses not only the interferon receptor but also CD21 as a functional receptor for B cell activation.
Maternal antibodies provide protection against infection with pathogens early in life but also interfere with vaccination. This interference is caused by a vaccine/maternal antibody complex which links the B cell receptor to the inhibitory CD32 molecule. Here, we show that this cross-link results in impaired B cell activation and proliferation which is correlated with diminished antibody responses. We also found that induction of large amounts of type I interferon restores the neutralizing antibody response in the presence of maternal antibodies. The best induction of type I interferon was accomplished by a combination of known activators of interferon secretion (a combination of TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonists). The strong stimulation by interferon is due to the previously unappreciated role of CD21 as functional receptor for interferon alpha. Our findings demonstrate that the dual receptor usage of type I interferon receptor and CD21 is crucial for B cell activation in the presence of maternal antibodies. This study suggests that measles vaccine, and potentially other vaccines, may induce optimal antibody responses when they are reconstituted with TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonists and thus these agonists may have great potential for clinical use.
Genetic variation contributes to host responses and outcomes following infection by influenza A virus or other viral infections. Yet narrow windows of disease symptoms and confounding environmental factors have made it difficult to identify polymorphic genes that contribute to differential disease outcomes in human populations. Therefore, to control for these confounding environmental variables in a system that models the levels of genetic diversity found in outbred populations such as humans, we used incipient lines of the highly genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) recombinant inbred (RI) panel (the pre-CC population) to study how genetic variation impacts influenza associated disease across a genetically diverse population. A wide range of variation in influenza disease related phenotypes including virus replication, virus-induced inflammation, and weight loss was observed. Many of the disease associated phenotypes were correlated, with viral replication and virus-induced inflammation being predictors of virus-induced weight loss. Despite these correlations, pre-CC mice with unique and novel disease phenotype combinations were observed. We also identified sets of transcripts (modules) that were correlated with aspects of disease. In order to identify how host genetic polymorphisms contribute to the observed variation in disease, we conducted quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. We identified several QTL contributing to specific aspects of the host response including virus-induced weight loss, titer, pulmonary edema, neutrophil recruitment to the airways, and transcriptional expression. Existing whole-genome sequence data was applied to identify high priority candidate genes within QTL regions. A key host response QTL was located at the site of the known anti-influenza Mx1 gene. We sequenced the coding regions of Mx1 in the eight CC founder strains, and identified a novel Mx1 allele that showed reduced ability to inhibit viral replication, while maintaining protection from weight loss.
Host responses to an infectious agent are highly variable across the human population, however, it is not entirely clear how various factors such as pathogen dose, demography, environment and host genetic polymorphisms contribute to variable host responses and infectious outcomes. In this study, a new in vivo experimental model was used that recapitulates many of the genetic characteristics of an outbred population, such as humans. By controlling viral dose, environment and demographic variables, we were able to focus on the role that host genetic variation plays in influenza virus infection. Both the range of disease phenotypes and the combinations of sets of disease phenotypes at 4 days post infection across this population exhibited a large amount of diversity, reminiscent of the variation seen across the human population. Multiple host genome regions were identified that contributed to different aspects of the host response to influenza infection. Taken together, these results emphasize the critical role of host genetics in the response to infectious diseases. Given the breadth of host responses seen within this population, several new models for unique host responses to infection were identified.
Alphaviruses, including several emerging human pathogens, are a large family of mosquito-borne viruses with Sindbis virus being a prototypical member of the genus. The host factor requirements and receptors for entry of for this class of viruses remain obscure. Using a Drosophila system, we identified the divalent metal ion transporter Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP), as a host cell surface molecule required for Sindbis virus binding and entry into Drosophila cells. Consequently, flies mutant for dNRAMP were protected from virus infection. NRAMP2, the ubiquitously expressed vertebrate homolog, mediated binding and infection of Sindbis virus into mammalian cells, and murine cells deficient for NRAMP2 were non-permissive to infection. Alphavirus glycoprotein chimeras demonstrated that the requirement for NRAMP2 is at the level of Sindbis virus entry. Given the conserved structure of alphavirus glycoproteins, and the widespread use of transporters for viral entry, other alphaviruses may use conserved multi-pass membrane proteins for infection.
Ubiquitin (Ub) is a vital regulatory component in various cellular processes, including cellular responses to viral infection. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses have the capacity to manipulate the ubiquitin (Ub) cycle to their advantage by encoding Ub-modifying proteins including deubiquitinases (DUBs). However, how cellular DUBs modulate specific viral infections, such as norovirus, is poorly understood. To examine the role of DUBs during norovirus infection, we used WP1130, a small molecule inhibitor of a subset of cellular DUBs. Replication of murine norovirus in murine macrophages and the human norovirus Norwalk virus in a replicon system were significantly inhibited by WP1130. Chemical proteomics identified the cellular DUB USP14 as a target of WP1130 in murine macrophages, and pharmacologic inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown of USP14 inhibited murine norovirus infection. USP14 is a proteasome-associated DUB that also binds to inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), a critical mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR). WP1130 treatment of murine macrophages did not alter proteasome activity but activated the X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) through an IRE1-dependent mechanism. In addition, WP1130 treatment or induction of the UPR also reduced infection of other RNA viruses including encephalomyocarditis virus, Sindbis virus, and La Crosse virus but not vesicular stomatitis virus. Pharmacologic inhibition of the IRE1 endonuclease activity partially rescued the antiviral effect of WP1130. Taken together, our studies support a model whereby induction of the UPR through cellular DUB inhibition blocks specific viral infections, and suggest that cellular DUBs and the UPR represent novel targets for future development of broad spectrum antiviral therapies.
Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are enzymes, which are implicated in many cellular processes but their functions during virus infection are not well understood. We used WP1130, a small molecule inhibitor of a subset of DUBs, as a probe to unravel the functions of DUBs during norovirus infections. We identified USP14 as a cellular DUB target of WP1130 that is required for optimal norovirus infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that chemical induction of the unfolded protein response can significantly inhibit viral progeny production of several RNA viruses, including noroviruses. These results suggest that chemical inhibition of cellular DUBs and/or modulation of the unfolded protein response could represent novel targets for therapy against a variety of viral pathogens.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is an important emerging virus that is highly pathogenic in aged populations and is maintained with great diversity in zoonotic reservoirs. While a variety of vaccine platforms have shown efficacy in young-animal models and against homologous viral strains, vaccine efficacy has not been thoroughly evaluated using highly pathogenic variants that replicate the acute end stage lung disease phenotypes seen during the human epidemic. Using an adjuvanted and an unadjuvanted double-inactivated SARS-CoV (DIV) vaccine, we demonstrate an eosinophilic immunopathology in aged mice comparable to that seen in mice immunized with the SARS nucleocapsid protein, and poor protection against a nonlethal heterologous challenge. In young and 1-year-old animals, we demonstrate that adjuvanted DIV vaccine provides protection against lethal disease in young animals following homologous and heterologous challenge, although enhanced immune pathology and eosinophilia are evident following heterologous challenge. In the absence of alum, DIV vaccine performed poorly in young animals challenged with lethal homologous or heterologous strains. In contrast, DIV vaccines (both adjuvanted and unadjuvanted) performed poorly in aged-animal models. Importantly, aged animals displayed increased eosinophilic immune pathology in the lungs and were not protected against significant virus replication. These data raise significant concerns regarding DIV vaccine safety and highlight the need for additional studies of the molecular mechanisms governing DIV-induced eosinophilia and vaccine failure, especially in the more vulnerable aged-animal models of human disease.
Nucleic acid sensing by cells is a key feature of antiviral responses, which generally result in type-I Interferon production and tissue protection. However, detection of double-stranded RNAs in virus-infected cells promotes two concomitant and apparently conflicting events. The dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) phosphorylates translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α) and inhibits protein synthesis, whereas cytosolic DExD/H box RNA helicases induce expression of type I-IFN and other cytokines. We demonstrate that the phosphatase-1 cofactor, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34/Ppp1r15a), an important component of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is absolutely required for type I-IFN and IL-6 production by mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to dsRNA. GADD34 expression in MEFs is dependent on PKR activation, linking cytosolic microbial sensing with the ATF4 branch of the UPR. The importance of this link for anti-viral immunity is underlined by the extreme susceptibility of GADD34-deficient fibroblasts and neonate mice to Chikungunya virus infection.
Nucleic acids detection by multiple molecular sensors results in type-I interferon production, which protects cells and tissues from viral infections. At the intracellular level, the detection of double-stranded RNA by one of these sensors, the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase also leads to the profound inhibition of protein synthesis. We describe here that the inducible phosphatase 1 co-factor Ppp1r15a/GADD34, a well known player in the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated during double-stranded RNA detection and is absolutely necessary to allow cytokine production in cells exposed to poly I:C or Chikungunya virus. Our data shows that the cellular response to nucleic acids can reveal unanticipated connections between innate immunity and fundamental stress pathways, such as the ATF4 branch of the UPR.
Dengue virus causes ∼50–100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.
Dengue virus is one of the most aggressive human pathogens worldwide. It causes 50–100 million infections per year but there is no vaccine or antiviral that is currently effective against the disease. The virus is spread by Aedes aegyptii and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and viral replication within the mosquito vector is required for transmission to a new human host. During this replication cycle, the virus causes significant changes to the membrane organization of infected cells. These virus-induced membrane alterations help to assemble arrays of viral replication factories and aid the virus to evade host antiviral defense mechanisms. Previously, much effort has been placed in trying to identify viral and cellular protein effectors that aid virus replication. In this study we have explored the role of lipids in the formation of these extensive membrane platforms in mosquito cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry we have profiled the lipid composition of dengue virus infected mosquito cells and compared it to uninfected cells. Through this we have identified several lipid classes that are differentially regulated during dengue virus replication. Using inhibitors of lipid biosynthesis we have also identified a lipid repertoire that is inhibitory to viral replication. Knowledge of how dengue virus utilizes cellular lipids and downstream signaling pathways to facilitate its replication will provide novel targets that could be utilized for developing effective antivirals. This study is also a forerunner for future comparative analyses of the human host and vector membrane environments required for viral replication.
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus and Ross River virus (RRV) are emerging pathogens capable of causing large-scale epidemics of virus-induced arthritis and myositis. The pathology of RRV-induced disease in both humans and mice is associated with induction of the host inflammatory response within the muscle and joints, and prior studies have demonstrated that the host complement system contributes to development of disease. In this study, we have used a mouse model of RRV-induced disease to identify and characterize which complement activation pathways mediate disease progression after infection, and we have identified the mannose binding lectin (MBL) pathway, but not the classical or alternative complement activation pathways, as essential for development of RRV-induced disease. MBL deposition was enhanced in RRV infected muscle tissue from wild type mice and RRV infected MBL deficient mice exhibited reduced disease, tissue damage, and complement deposition compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, mice deficient for key components of the classical or alternative complement activation pathways still developed severe RRV-induced disease. Further characterization of MBL deficient mice demonstrated that similar to C3−/− mice, viral replication and inflammatory cell recruitment were equivalent to wild type animals, suggesting that RRV-mediated induction of complement dependent immune pathology is largely MBL dependent. Consistent with these findings, human patients diagnosed with RRV disease had elevated serum MBL levels compared to healthy controls, and MBL levels in the serum and synovial fluid correlated with severity of disease. These findings demonstrate a role for MBL in promoting RRV-induced disease in both mice and humans and suggest that the MBL pathway of complement activation may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for humans suffering from RRV-induced arthritis and myositis.
Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and cause epidemics of debilitating infectious arthritis and myositis in various areas around the world. Studies in humans and mice indicate that the host inflammatory response is critical for development of RRV-induced arthritis and myositis, and the host complement system, a component of the host inflammatory response, plays an essential role in the development of RRV-induced disease through activation of complement receptor 3 (CR3)-bearing inflammatory cells. Of the three main complement activation pathways, only the lectin pathway activated by mannose binding lectin (MBL) was essential for RRV-induced complement activation, tissue destruction, and disease. Furthermore, we found that levels of MBL were elevated in human patients suffering from RRV-induced polyarthritis and MBL levels correlated with disease severity. Taken together, our data implicates a role for MBL in mediating RRV-induced disease in both humans and mice, and suggests that therapeutic targeting of MBL may be an effective strategy for disease treatment in humans.
The viral determinants of Alphavirus-induced rheumatic disease have not been elucidated. We identified an RRV strain (DC5692) which, in contrast to the T48 strain, does not induce musculoskeletal inflammation in a mouse model of RRV disease. Substitution of the RRV T48 strain nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) coding sequence with that from strain DC5692 generated a virus that was attenuated in vivo despite similar viral loads in tissues. In contrast, substitution of the T48 PE2 coding region with the PE2 coding region from DC5692 resulted in attenuation in vivo and reduced viral loads in tissues. In gain of virulence experiments, substitution of the DC5692 strain nsP1 and PE2 coding regions with those from the T48 strain was sufficient to restore full virulence to the DC5692 strain. These findings indicate that determinants in both nsP1 and PE2 have critical and distinct roles in the pathogenesis of RRV-induced musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in mice.
Alphavirus; pathogenesis; virulence; inflammation; rheumatic disease
Outbreaks of influenza occur on a yearly basis, causing a wide range of symptoms across the human population. Although evidence exists that the host response to influenza infection is influenced by genetic differences in the host, this has not been studied in a system with genetic diversity mirroring that of the human population. Here we used mice from 44 influenza-infected pre-Collaborative Cross lines determined to have extreme phenotypes with regard to the host response to influenza A virus infection. Global transcriptome profiling identified 2671 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between mice that showed a severe (“high”) and mild (“low”) response to infection. Expression quantitative trait loci mapping was performed on those transcripts that were differentially expressed because of differences in host response phenotype to identify putative regulatory regions potentially controlling their expression. Twenty-one significant expression quantitative trait loci were identified, which allowed direct examination of genes associated with regulation of host response to infection. To perform initial validation of our findings, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in the infected founder strains, and we were able to confirm or partially confirm more than 70% of those tested. In addition, we explored putative causal and reactive (downstream) relationships between the significantly regulated genes and others in the high or low response groups using structural equation modeling. By using systems approaches and a genetically diverse population, we were able to develop a novel framework for identifying the underlying biological subnetworks under host genetic control during influenza virus infection.
eQTL; influenza; collaborative cross; host response; SEM; Mouse Collaborative Cross; Mouse Genetic Resource
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of a major disease of livestock (bluetongue). For over two decades, it has been widely accepted that the 10 segments of the dsRNA genome of BTV encode for 7 structural and 3 non-structural proteins. The non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/NS3a) play different key roles during the viral replication cycle. In this study we show that BTV expresses a fourth non-structural protein (that we designated NS4) encoded by an open reading frame in segment 9 overlapping the open reading frame encoding VP6. NS4 is 77–79 amino acid residues in length and highly conserved among several BTV serotypes/strains. NS4 was expressed early post-infection and localized in the nucleoli of BTV infected cells. By reverse genetics, we showed that NS4 is dispensable for BTV replication in vitro, both in mammalian and insect cells, and does not affect viral virulence in murine models of bluetongue infection. Interestingly, NS4 conferred a replication advantage to BTV-8, but not to BTV-1, in cells in an interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral state. However, the BTV-1 NS4 conferred a replication advantage both to a BTV-8 reassortant containing the entire segment 9 of BTV-1 and to a BTV-8 mutant with the NS4 identical to the homologous BTV-1 protein. Collectively, this study suggests that NS4 plays an important role in virus-host interaction and is one of the mechanisms played, at least by BTV-8, to counteract the antiviral response of the host. In addition, the distinct nucleolar localization of NS4, being expressed by a virus that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm, offers new avenues to investigate the multiple roles played by the nucleolus in the biology of the cell.
Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an “arbovirus” transmitted from infected to susceptible hosts by biting midges. Historically, bluetongue has been endemic almost exclusively in temperate and tropical areas of the world. However, in the last decade BTV has spread extensively in several geographical areas causing a serious burden to both animal health and the economy. BTV possesses a double-stranded RNA segmented genome. For over two decades, it has been widely accepted that the 10 segments of BTV genome encode for 7 structural and 3 non-structural proteins. In this study we discovered that BTV expresses a previously uncharacterized non-structural protein that we designated NS4. Although BTV replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm, we found NS4 to localize in the nucleoli of the infected cells. Our study shows that NS4 is not needed for viral replication both in mammalian and insect cells, and in mice. However, NS4 confers a replication advantage to BTV in cells in an antiviral state induced by interferon. In conclusion, we have elucidated a possible route by which BTV can counteract the defences of the host.
The adaptation of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to a new vector, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is a major factor contributing to its ongoing re-emergence in a series of large-scale epidemics of arthritic disease in many parts of the world since 2004. Although the initial step of CHIKV adaptation to A. albopictus was determined to involve an A226V amino acid substitution in the E1 envelope glycoprotein that first arose in 2005, little attention has been paid to subsequent CHIKV evolution after this adaptive mutation was convergently selected in several geographic locations. To determine whether selection of second-step adaptive mutations in CHIKV or other arthropod-borne viruses occurs in nature, we tested the effect of an additional envelope glycoprotein amino acid change identified in Kerala, India in 2009. This substitution, E2-L210Q, caused a significant increase in the ability of CHIKV to develop a disseminated infection in A. albopictus, but had no effect on CHIKV fitness in the alternative mosquito vector, A. aegypti, or in vertebrate cell lines. Using infectious viruses or virus-like replicon particles expressing the E2-210Q and E2-210L residues, we determined that E2-L210Q acts primarily at the level of infection of A. albopictus midgut epithelial cells. In addition, we observed that the initial adaptive substitution, E1-A226V, had a significantly stronger effect on CHIKV fitness in A. albopictus than E2-L210Q, thus explaining the observed time differences required for selective sweeps of these mutations in nature. These results indicate that the continuous CHIKV circulation in an A. albopictus-human cycle since 2005 has resulted in the selection of an additional, second-step mutation that may facilitate even more efficient virus circulation and persistence in endemic areas, further increasing the risk of more severe and expanded CHIK epidemics.
Since 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused a series of devastating outbreaks in Asia, Africa and Europe that resulted in up to 6.5 million cases of arthritic disease and have been associated with several thousand human deaths. Although the initial step of CHIKV adaptation to A. albopictus mosquitoes, which promoted re-emergence of the virus, was determined to involve an E1-A226V amino acid substitution, little attention has been paid to subsequent CHIKV evolution after this adaptive mutation was convergently selected in several geographic locations. Here we showed that novel substitution, E2-L210Q identified in Kerala, India in 2009, caused a significant increase in the ability of CHIKV to infect and develop a disseminated infection in A. albopictus. This may facilitate even more efficient virus circulation and persistence in endemic areas, further increasing the risk of more severe and expanded CHIK epidemics. Our findings represent some of the first evidence supporting the hypothesis that adaptation of CHIKV (and possible other arboviruses) to new niches is a sequential multistep process that involves selections of at least two adaptive mutations.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for numerous epidemics throughout Africa and Asia, causing infectious arthritis and reportedly linked with fatal infections in newborns and elderly. Previous studies in animal models indicate that humoral immunity can protect against CHIKV infection, but despite the potential efficacy of B-cell-driven intervention strategies, there are no virus-specific vaccines or therapies currently available. In addition, CHIKV has been reported to elicit long-lasting virus-specific IgM in humans, and to establish long-term persistence in non-human primates, suggesting that the virus might evade immune defenses to establish chronic infections in man. However, the mechanisms of immune evasion potentially employed by CHIKV remain uncharacterized. We previously described two human monoclonal antibodies that potently neutralize CHIKV infection. In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape antibody-dependent neutralization to identify the CHIKV E2 domain B and fusion loop “groove” as the primary determinants of CHIKV interaction with these antibodies. Furthermore, for the first time, we have also demonstrated direct CHIKV cell-to-cell transmission, as a mechanism that involves the E2 domain A and that is associated with viral resistance to antibody-dependent neutralization. Identification of CHIKV sub-domains that are associated with human protective immunity, will pave the way for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. Moreover, the clear demonstration of CHIKV cell-to-cell transmission and its possible role in the establishment of CHIKV persistence, will also inform the development of future anti-viral interventions. These data shed new light on CHIKV-host interactions that will help to combat human CHIKV infection and inform future studies of CHIKV pathogenesis.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by mosquito bites and causes a febrile disease that is often characterized by persistent joint pain. Until recently, CHIKV outbreaks were limited to tropical areas of Africa and Asia. However, since 2007, following a large CHIKV epidemic in the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia, CHIKV has also been reported in temperate European regions. As mosquito habitats expand, virus dissemination may become more prevalent, but there are currently no vaccines or CHIKV-specific treatments available. We previously described two human antibodies that potently block cellular CHIKV infection. In the current report, we have characterized CHIKV mutants that escape neutralization to identify sub-domains of the virus envelope which are involved in CHIKV interaction with these antibodies, thereby opening the door for the development of CHIKV-specific sub-domain vaccination strategies. For the first time, we have also demonstrated that CHIKV can be directly transmitted between cells, bypassing transport through the extra-cellular space. This mode of dissemination, which is associated with viral resistance to antibody neutralization, may play a critical role in the establishment of persistent CHIKV infection. Together, these findings will aid the design of new strategies to combat CHIKV infection and will inform future studies of CHIKV pathogenesis.
We previously reported widespread differential expression of long non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in response to virus infection. Here, we expanded the study through small RNA transcriptome sequencing analysis of the host response to both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and influenza virus infections across four founder mouse strains of the Collaborative Cross, a recombinant inbred mouse resource for mapping complex traits. We observed differential expression of over 200 small RNAs of diverse classes during infection. A majority of identified microRNAs (miRNAs) showed divergent changes in expression across mouse strains with respect to SARS-CoV and influenza virus infections and responded differently to a highly pathogenic reconstructed 1918 virus compared to a minimally pathogenic seasonal influenza virus isolate. Novel insights into miRNA expression changes, including the association with pathogenic outcomes and large differences between in vivo and in vitro experimental systems, were further elucidated by a survey of selected miRNAs across diverse virus infections. The small RNAs identified also included many non-miRNA small RNAs, such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), in addition to nonannotated small RNAs. An integrative sequencing analysis of both small RNAs and long transcripts from the same samples showed that the results revealing differential expression of miRNAs during infection were largely due to transcriptional regulation and that the predicted miRNA-mRNA network could modulate global host responses to virus infection in a combinatorial fashion. These findings represent the first integrated sequencing analysis of the response of host small RNAs to virus infection and show that small RNAs are an integrated component of complex networks involved in regulating the host response to infection.
Most studies examining the host transcriptional response to infection focus only on protein-coding genes. However, mammalian genomes transcribe many short and long non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). With the advent of deep-sequencing technologies, systematic transcriptome analysis of the host response, including analysis of ncRNAs of different sizes, is now possible. Using this approach, we recently discovered widespread differential expression of host long (>200 nucleotide [nt]) ncRNAs in response to virus infection. Here, the samples described in the previous report were again used, but we sequenced another fraction of the transcriptome to study very short (about 20 to 30 nt) ncRNAs. We demonstrated that virus infection also altered expression of many short ncRNAs of diverse classes. Putting the results of the two studies together, we show that small RNAs may also play an important role in regulating the host response to virus infection.
Influenza A viral infections have been identified as the etiologic agents for historic pandemics, and contribute to the annual mortality associated with acute viral pneumonia. While both innate and acquired immunity are important in combating influenza virus infection, the mechanism connecting these arms of the immune system remains unknown. Recent data have indicated that the Notch system is an important bridge between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cell communication circuits and plays a central role in driving the immune system to overcome disease. In the present study, we examine the role of Notch signaling during influenza H1N1 virus infection, focusing on APCs. We demonstrate here that macrophages, but not dendritic cells (DCs), increased Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) expression following influenza virus challenge. Dll1 expression on macrophages was dependent on retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) induced type-I IFN pathway, and not on the TLR3-TRIF pathway. We also found that IFNα-Receptor knockout mice failed to induce Dll1 expression on lung macrophages and had enhanced mortality during influenza virus infection. Our results further showed that specific neutralization of Dll1 during influenza virus challenge induced higher mortality, impaired viral clearance, and decreased levels of IFN-γ. In addition, we blocked Notch signaling by using γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), a Notch signaling inhibitor. Intranasal administration of GSI during influenza infection also led to higher mortality, and higher virus load with excessive inflammation and an impaired production of IFN-γ in lungs. Moreover, Dll1 expression on macrophages specifically regulates IFN-γ levels from CD4+and CD8+T cells, which are important for anti-viral immunity. Together, the results of this study show that Dll1 positively influences the development of anti-viral immunity, and may provide mechanistic approaches for modifying and controlling the immune response against influenza H1N1 virus infection.
Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Both innate and acquired immunity are essential for protection against influenza virus, and Notch and Notch ligands provide a key bridge between innate and acquired immunity. However, the role of Notch system during influenza virus infection is unknown. Here, we show that Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) expression was up-regulated in influenza virus H1N1 challenged macrophages, and was dependent on both retinoic-acid–inducible protein I (RIG-I) and IFNα receptor (IFNαR)-mediated pathways. IFNαR-deficient mice challenged with influenza virus in vivo also display a profoundly impaired Dll1 expression with increased mortality and abrogated IFN-γ production. Treatment of WT mice during influenza infection, with either neutralizing antibodies specific for Dll1 or a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), which blocks Notch signaling, resulted in increased mortality, impaired viral clearance, and lower IFN-γ production. In addition, Dll1 specifically regulated IFN-γ production from both CD4+and CD8+T cells in vitro. Together, these results suggest that Notch signaling through macrophage-dependent Dll1 is critical in providing an anti-viral response during influenza infection by linking innate and acquired immunity.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging mosquito-borne pathogen that has recently caused devastating urban epidemics of severe and sometimes chronic arthralgia. As with most other mosquito-borne viral diseases, control relies on reducing mosquito populations and their contact with people, which has been ineffective in most locations. Therefore, vaccines remain the best strategy to prevent most vector-borne diseases. Ideally, vaccines for diseases of resource-limited countries should combine low cost and single dose efficacy, yet induce rapid and long-lived immunity with negligible risk of serious adverse reactions. To develop such a vaccine to protect against chikungunya fever, we employed a rational attenuation mechanism that also prevents the infection of mosquito vectors. The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from encephalomyocarditis virus replaced the subgenomic promoter in a cDNA CHIKV clone, thus altering the levels and host-specific mechanism of structural protein gene expression. Testing in both normal outbred and interferon response-defective mice indicated that the new vaccine candidate is highly attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious after a single dose. Furthermore, it is incapable of replicating in mosquito cells or infecting mosquitoes in vivo. This IRES-based attenuation platform technology may be useful for the predictable attenuation of any alphavirus.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has reemerged since 2004 to cause millions of cases of severe and often persistent arthralgia. Because no licensed vaccine exists to prevent this disease, we utilized an attenuation approach to produce a live CHIKV vaccine candidate that elicits a robust, protective immune response yet causes no detectable disease in mice. It is also incapable of infecting mosquito vectors, an important safety feature for a live virus vaccine that may be used in nonendemic locations to immunize travelers or laboratory personnel. This vaccine approach, which exploits the attenuating effect of altering the expression of the alphavirus structural proteins with a picornavirus IRES, may be broadly applicable to other alphaviruses that cause important febrile diseases as well as encephalitis.
Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP3014) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP3000) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP3000-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP3014-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP3000-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP3000 vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP3014 platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.
Previous studies with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Sindbis virus (SINV) indicate that alphaviruses are capable of suppressing the cellular response to type I and type II interferons (IFNs) by disrupting Jak/STAT signaling; however, the relevance of this signaling inhibition toward pathogenesis has not been investigated. The relative abilities of neurovirulent and nonneurovirulent SINV strains to downregulate Jak/STAT signaling were compared to determine whether the ability to inhibit IFN signaling correlates with virulence potential. The adult mouse neurovirulent strain AR86 was found to rapidly and robustly inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2 in response to IFN-γ and/or IFN-β. In contrast, the closely related SINV strains Girdwood and TR339, which do not cause detectable disease in adult mice, were relatively inefficient inhibitors of STAT1/2 activation. Decreased STAT activation in AR86-infected cells was associated with decreased activation of the IFN receptor-associated tyrosine kinases Tyk2, Jak1, and Jak2. To identify the viral factor(s) involved, we infected cells with several panels of AR86/Girdwood chimeric viruses. Surprisingly, we found that a single amino acid determinant, threonine at nsP1 position 538, which is required for AR86 virulence, was also required for efficient disruption of STAT1 activation, and this determinant fully restored STAT1 inhibition when it was introduced into the avirulent Girdwood background. These data indicate that a key virulence determinant plays a critical role in downregulating the response to type I and type II IFNs, which suggests that the ability of alphaviruses to inhibit Jak/STAT signaling relates to their in vivo virulence potential.
Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause serious human and animal diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that a determinant within the nsP1/nsP2 cleavage domain of the virulent Sindbis AR86 virus played a key role in regulating adult mouse virulence without adversely affecting viral replication. Additional characterization of this determinant demonstrated that a virus with the attenuating mutation induced more type I IFN production both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, this phenotype was not specific to the Sindbis AR86 virus, as a similar mutation in a distantly related alphavirus, Ross River Virus (RRV), also led to enhanced IFN induction. This effect was independent of virus-induced host shutoff, since IRF-3 phosphorylation, which occurs independently of de novo host transcription/translation, was induced more robustly in cells infected with the mutant viruses. Altogether, these results demonstrate that critical determinants within the nsP1/nsP2 cleavage domain play an important role in regulating alphavirus induced IFN responses.
Alphaviruses; Sindbis; Ross River; nsP1 mutants; type I IFN induction
The host innate immune response to viral infections often involves the activation of parallel pattern recognition receptor (PRR) pathways that converge on the induction of type I interferons (IFNs). Several viruses have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to attenuate antiviral host signaling by directly interfering with the activation and/or downstream signaling events associated with PRR signal propagation. Here we show that the 3Cpro cysteine protease of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) cleaves the innate immune adaptor molecules mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-beta (TRIF) as a mechanism to escape host immunity. We found that MAVS and TRIF were cleaved in CVB3-infected cells in culture. CVB3-induced cleavage of MAVS and TRIF required the cysteine protease activity of 3Cpro, occurred at specific sites and within specialized domains of each molecule, and inhibited both the type I IFN and apoptotic signaling downstream of these adaptors. 3Cpro-mediated MAVS cleavage occurred within its proline-rich region, led to its relocalization from the mitochondrial membrane, and ablated its downstream signaling. We further show that 3Cpro cleaves both the N- and C-terminal domains of TRIF and localizes with TRIF to signalosome complexes within the cytoplasm. Taken together, these data show that CVB3 has evolved a mechanism to suppress host antiviral signal propagation by directly cleaving two key adaptor molecules associated with innate immune recognition.
Mammalian cells utilize a variety of defenses to protect themselves from microbial pathogens. These defenses are initiated by families of receptors termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and converge on the induction of molecules that function to suppress microbial infections. PRRs respond to essential components of microorganisms that are broadly expressed within classes of pathogens. The relative non-specificity of this detection thus allows for a rapid antimicrobial response to a variety of microorganisms. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a member of the enterovirus genus, is associated with a number of diverse syndromes including meningitis, febrile illness, diabetes, and is commonly associated with virus-induced heart disease in adults and children. Despite its significant impact on human health, there are no therapeutic interventions to treat CVB3 infections. Here we show that CVB3 has evolved an effective mechanism to suppress PRR signal propagation by utilizing a virally-encoded protein, termed 3Cpro, to directly degrade molecules that function downstream of PRR signaling. By targeting these molecules, CVB3 can evade host detection and escape antiviral defenses normally induced by mammalian cells. These findings will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms employed by CVB3 to suppress host antiviral signaling and could lead to the development of therapeutic interventions aimed at modulating CVB3 pathogenesis.
Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza infections are associated with enhanced inflammatory and cytokine responses, severe lung damage, and an overall dysregulation of innate immunity. C3, a member of the complement system of serum proteins, is a major component of the innate immune and inflammatory responses. However, the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of H5N1 infection is unknown. Here we demonstrate that H5N1 influenza virus infected mice had increased levels of C5a and C3 activation byproducts as compared to mice infected with either seasonal or pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses. We hypothesized that the increased complement was associated with the enhanced disease associated with the H5N1 infection. However, studies in knockout mice demonstrated that C3 was required for protection from influenza infection, proper viral clearance, and associated with changes in cellular infiltration. These studies suggest that although the levels of complement activation may differ depending on the influenza virus subtype, complement is an important host defense mechanism.
Studies of the host response to virus infection typically focus on protein-coding genes. However, non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are transcribed in mammalian cells, and the roles of many of these ncRNAs remain enigmas. Using next-generation sequencing, we performed a whole-transcriptome analysis of the host response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection across four founder mouse strains of the Collaborative Cross. We observed differential expression of approximately 500 annotated, long ncRNAs and 1,000 nonannotated genomic regions during infection. Moreover, studies of a subset of these ncRNAs and genomic regions showed the following. (i) Most were similarly regulated in response to influenza virus infection. (ii) They had distinctive kinetic expression profiles in type I interferon receptor and STAT1 knockout mice during SARS-CoV infection, including unique signatures of ncRNA expression associated with lethal infection. (iii) Over 40% were similarly regulated in vitro in response to both influenza virus infection and interferon treatment. These findings represent the first discovery of the widespread differential expression of long ncRNAs in response to virus infection and suggest that ncRNAs are involved in regulating the host response, including innate immunity. At the same time, virus infection models provide a unique platform for studying the biology and regulation of ncRNAs.
Most studies examining the host transcriptional response to infection focus only on protein-coding genes. However, there is growing evidence that thousands of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are transcribed from mammalian genomes. While most attention to the involvement of ncRNAs in virus-host interactions has been on small ncRNAs such as microRNAs, it is becoming apparent that many long ncRNAs (>200 nucleotides [nt]) are also biologically important. These long ncRNAs have been found to have widespread functionality, including chromatin modification and transcriptional regulation and serving as the precursors of small RNAs. With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, whole-transcriptome analysis of the host response, including long ncRNAs, is now possible. Using this approach, we demonstrated that virus infection alters the expression of numerous long ncRNAs, suggesting that these RNAs may be a new class of regulatory molecules that play a role in determining the outcome of infection.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are a significant cause of human and animal disease worldwide. Multiple interactions between virus and the host innate immune system ultimately determine the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of the infection. Evidence is rapidly emerging that suggests viral glycans play a key role in viral pathogenesis by regulating host cell tropism and interactions with the host innate immune response. Glycan-mediated interactions are especially important for arboviruses which must adapt to variable glycosylation systems and cellular receptors within both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. This review focuses on emerging evidence which supports a crucial role for viral glycans in mediating host cell tropism and regulating the innate antiviral response.
Arbovirus; Dendritic cells; Immunity; Glycan; Glycosylation; Lectin; Viral attachment/entry; Virus-host cell interactions
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral zoonosis. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important biological threat with the potential to spread to new susceptible areas. In addition, it is a potential biowarfare agent.
We developed two potential vaccines, DNA plasmids and alphavirus replicons, expressing the Gn glycoprotein of RVFV alone or fused to three copies of complement protein, C3d. Each vaccine was administered to mice in an all DNA, all replicon, or a DNA prime/replicon boost strategy and both the humoral and cellular responses were assessed. DNA plasmids expressing Gn-C3d and alphavirus replicons expressing Gn elicited high titer neutralizing antibodies that were similar to titers elicited by the live-attenuated MP12 virus. Mice vaccinated with an inactivated form of MP12 did elicit high titer antibodies, but these antibodies were unable to neutralize RVFV infection. However, only vaccine strategies incorporating alphavirus replicons elicited cellular responses to Gn. Both vaccines strategies completely prevented weight loss and morbidity and protected against lethal RVFV challenge. Passive transfer of antisera from vaccinated mice into naïve mice showed that both DNA plasmids expressing Gn-C3d and alphavirus replicons expressing Gn elicited antibodies that protected mice as well as sera from mice immunized with MP12.
These results show that both DNA plasmids expressing Gn-C3d and alphavirus replicons expressing Gn administered alone or in a DNA prime/replicon boost strategy are effective RVFV vaccines. These vaccine strategies provide safer alternatives to using live-attenuated RVFV vaccines for human use.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus associated with abortion storms, neonatal mortality in livestock and hemorrhagic fever or fatal encephalitis in a proportion of infected humans. Requirement of multiple booster immunizations to maintain the level of protective immunity with the inactivated vaccines and the ability of live-attenuated vaccines to cause detrimental side-effects are major limitations preventing the widespread use of current vaccines. In this paper, we describe the use of DNA and alphavirus replicon based vaccination approaches to elicit a protective immune response against RVFV. While both vaccines elicited high titer antibodies, DNA vaccination elicited high titer neutralizing antibodies, whereas the replicon vaccine elicited cellular immune responses. Both strategies alone or in combination elicited immune response that completely protected against not only mortality, but also illness. Even though the delivery vectors elicited some protection on their own, they did not prevent severe morbidity. These promising vaccines provide an alternative RVFV vaccine for livestock and humans.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection often caused severe end stage lung disease and organizing phase diffuse alveolar damage, especially in the elderly. The virus-host interactions that governed development of these acute end stage lung diseases and death are unknown. To address this question, we evaluated the role of innate immune signaling in protection from human (Urbani) and a recombinant mouse adapted SARS-CoV, designated rMA15. In contrast to most models of viral pathogenesis, infection of type I, type II or type III interferon knockout mice (129 background) with either Urbani or MA15 viruses resulted in clinical disease outcomes, including transient weight loss, denuding bronchiolitis and alveolar inflammation and recovery, identical to that seen in infection of wildtype mice. This suggests that type I, II and III interferon signaling play minor roles in regulating SARS pathogenesis in mouse models. In contrast, infection of STAT1−/− mice resulted in severe disease, high virus titer, extensive pulmonary lesions and 100% mortality by day 9 and 30 post-infection with rMA15 or Urbani viruses, respectively. Non-lethal in BALB/c mice, Urbani SARS-CoV infection in STAT1−/− mice caused disseminated infection involving the liver, spleen and other tissues after day 9. These findings demonstrated that SARS-CoV pathogenesis is regulated by a STAT1 dependent but type I, II and III interferon receptor independent, mechanism. In contrast to a well documented role in innate immunity, we propose that STAT1 also protects mice via its role as an antagonist of unrestrained cell proliferation.
The SARS coronavirus is a highly pathogenic respiratory virus that caused the first epidemic of the 21st century. During the epidemic ∼10% of those infected died and the elderly were particularly vulnerable. Severe cases developed acute lung injury with pulmonary fibrosis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing its virus pathogenesis and high lethality. Using a mouse model of infection with the epidemic strain of SARS-CoV (Urbani) as well as a recombinant mouse adapted strain of SARS-CoV (rMA15), we showed that a protein normally associated with the innate immune response, STAT1, plays an important role in the development of severe end stage lung injury. However, the lack of a normal innate immune type I, type II and type III interferon response did not enhance virus pathogenesis. Our work suggests that STAT1 may play a key role in development of acute lung injury and other chronic lung pathology, most likely by affecting cell proliferation and wound repair pathways.