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1.  In Vitro Budding of Intralumenal Vesicles into Late Endosomes Is Regulated by Alix and Tsg101 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2008;19(11):4942-4955.
Endosomes along the degradation pathway leading to lysosomes accumulate membranes in their lumen and thus exhibit a characteristic multivesicular appearance. These lumenal membranes typically incorporate down-regulated EGF receptor destined for degradation, but the mechanisms that control their formation remain poorly characterized. Here, we describe a novel quantitative biochemical assay that reconstitutes the formation of lumenal vesicles within late endosomes in vitro. Vesicle budding into the endosome lumen was time-, temperature-, pH-, and energy-dependent and required cytosolic factors and endosome membrane components. Our light and electron microscopy analysis showed that the compartment supporting the budding process was accessible to endocytosed bulk tracers and EGF receptor. We also found that the EGF receptor became protected against trypsin in our assay, indicating that it was sorted into the intraendosomal vesicles that were formed in vitro. Our data show that the formation of intralumenal vesicles is ESCRT-dependent, because the process was inhibited by the K173Q dominant negative mutant of hVps4. Moreover, we find that the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 and its partner Alix control intralumenal vesicle formation, by acting as positive and negative regulators, respectively. We conclude that budding of the limiting membrane toward the late endosome lumen, which leads to the formation of intraendosomal vesicles, is controlled by the positive and negative functions of Tsg101 and Alix, respectively.
PMCID: PMC2575168  PMID: 18768755
2.  Concise Synthesis of Ether Analogues of Lysobisphosphatidic Acid 
Organic letters  2005;7(18):3837-3840.
We describe a versatile, efficient method for the preparation of ether analogues of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer from S-solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-octadecenyl glyceryl ether with 2-cyanoethyl bis-N,N-diisopropylamino phosphine and subsequent deprotection generated the bisether LBPA analogues. By simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps, the (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers of 2,2′-bisether LBPA were obtained. An ELISA assay with anti-LBPA monoclonal antibodies showed that the bisether LBPAs were recognized with the same affinity as the natural 2,2′-bisoleolyl LBPA.
PMCID: PMC2535798  PMID: 16119911
3.  Syntaxin 16 and Syntaxin 5 are Required for Efficient Retrograde Transport of Several Exogenous and Endogenous Cargo Proteins 
Journal of cell science  2007;120(Pt 8):1457-1468.
Retrograde transport allows proteins and lipids to leave the endocytic pathway to reach other intracellular compartments, such as TGN/Golgi membranes, the endoplasmic reticulum, and in some instances, the cytosol. Here, we have used RNA interference against the SNARE proteins syntaxin 5 and syntaxin 16 combined with recently developed quantitative trafficking assays, morphological approaches, and cell intoxication analysis to show that these SNARE proteins are not only required for efficient retrograde transport of Shiga toxin, but also for that of an endogenous cargo protein, the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, and for the productive trafficking into cells of cholera toxin and ricin. We have found that the function of syntaxin 16 was specifically required for, and restricted to the retrograde pathway. Strikingly, syntaxin 5 RNA interference protected cells particularly strongly against Shiga toxin. Since our trafficking analysis showed that apart from inhibiting retrograde endosomes-to-TGN transport, the silencing of syntaxin 5 had no additional effect on Shiga toxin endocytosis or trafficking from TGN/Golgi membranes to the endoplasmic reticulum, we hypothesize that syntaxin 5 also has trafficking-independent functions. In summary, our data demonstrate that several cellular and exogenous cargo proteins use elements of the same SNARE machinery for efficient retrograde transport between early/recycling endosomes and TGN/Golgi membranes.
PMCID: PMC1863825  PMID: 17389686
Protein toxin; Shiga toxin; cholera toxin; ricin; retrograde transport; membrane traffic; SNARE; endosome; Golgi
4.  The Association of Shiga-like Toxin with Detergent-resistant Membranes Is Modulated by Glucosylceramide and Is an Essential Requirement in the Endoplasmic Reticulum for a Cytotoxic Effect 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2006;17(3):1375-1387.
Receptor-mediated internalization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequent retro-translocation to the cytosol are essential sequential processes required for the productive intoxication of susceptible mammalian cells by Shiga-like toxin-1 (SLTx). Recently, it has been proposed that the observed association of certain ER-directed toxins and viruses with detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) may provide a general mechanism for their retrograde transport to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we show that DRM recruitment of SLTx bound to its globotriosylceramide (Gb3) receptor is mediated by the availability of other glycosphingolipids. Reduction in glucosylceramide (GlcCer) levels led to complete protection against SLTx and a reduced cell surface association of bound toxin with DRM. This reduction still allowed efficient binding and transport of the toxin to the ER. However, toxin sequestration within DRM of the ER was abolished under reduced GlcCer conditions, suggesting that an association of toxin with lipid microdomains or rafts in the ER (where these are defined by detergent insolubility) is essential for a later step leading to or involving retro-translocation of SLTx across the ER membrane. In support of this, we show that a number of ER residents, proteins intimately involved in the process of ER dislocation of misfolded proteins, are present in DRM.
PMCID: PMC1382325  PMID: 16381816
5.  Vitamin D Nuclear Receptor Deficiency Promotes Cholestatic Liver Injury by Disruption of Biliary Epithelial Cell Junctions in Mice 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2013;58(4):1401-1412.
Alterations in apical junctional complexes (AJCs) have been reported in genetic or acquired biliary diseases. The vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR), predominantly expressed in biliary epithelial cells in the liver, has been shown to regulate AJCs. The aim of our study was thus to investigate the role of VDR in the maintenance of bile duct integrity in mice challenged with biliary-type liver injury. Vdr−/− mice subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) displayed increased liver damage compared to wildtype BDL mice. Adaptation to cholestasis, ascertained by expression of genes involved in bile acid metabolism and tissue repair, was limited in Vdr−/− BDL mice. Furthermore, evaluation of Vdr−/− BDL mouse liver tissue sections indicated altered E-cadherin staining associated with increased bile duct rupture. Total liver protein analysis revealed that a truncated form of E-cadherin was present in higher amounts in Vdr−/− mice subjected to BDL compared to wildtype BDL mice. Truncated E-cadherin was also associated with loss of cell adhesion in biliary epithelial cells silenced for VDR. In these cells, E-cadherin cleavage occurred together with calpain 1 activation and was prevented by the silencing of calpain 1. Furthermore, VDR deficiency led to the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, while EGFR activation by EGF induced both calpain 1 activation and E-cadherin cleavage in these cells. Finally, truncation of E-cadherin was blunted when EGFR signaling was inhibited in VDR-silenced cells. Conclusion: Biliary-type liver injury is exacerbated in Vdr−/− mice by limited adaptive response and increased bile duct rupture. These results indicate that loss of VDR restricts the adaptation to cholestasis and diminishes bile duct integrity in the setting of biliary-type liver injury. (Hepatology 2013;58:1401–1412)
PMCID: PMC4286017  PMID: 23696511
6.  Targeting of Shiga Toxin B-Subunit to Retrograde Transport Route in Association with Detergent-resistant Membranes 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2001;12(8):2453-2468.
In HeLa cells, Shiga toxin B-subunit is transported from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, via early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus, circumventing the late endocytic pathway. We describe here that in cells derived from human monocytes, i.e., macrophages and dendritic cells, the B-subunit was internalized in a receptor-dependent manner, but retrograde transport to the biosynthetic/secretory pathway did not occur and part of the internalized protein was degraded in lysosomes. These differences correlated with the observation that the B-subunit associated with Triton X-100-resistant membranes in HeLa cells, but not in monocyte-derived cells, suggesting that retrograde targeting to the biosynthetic/secretory pathway required association with specialized microdomains of biological membranes. In agreement with this hypothesis we found that in HeLa cells, the B-subunit resisted extraction by Triton X-100 until its arrival in the target compartments of the retrograde pathway, i.e., the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, destabilization of Triton X-100-resistant membranes by cholesterol extraction potently inhibited B-subunit transport from early endosomes to the trans-Golgi network, whereas under the same conditions, recycling of transferrin was not affected. Our data thus provide first evidence for a role of lipid asymmetry in membrane sorting at the interface between early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network.
PMCID: PMC58606  PMID: 11514628

Results 1-6 (6)