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1.  Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type: a rare case 
Rare Tumors  2013;5(1):e3.
Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease. It occurs in 0.5–2% of all bladder cancers and is discussed as the malignant counterpart of nephrogenic adenomas. We report a 46-year-old white female presented with gross hematuria for clinical examination. Histopathology revealed pT2, Pn1, L1, G2 adenocarcinoma of the bladder and carcinoma in situ according to the TNM classification. Computed tomography scan diagnostic was unremarkable. Patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder should be treated vigorously and without time delay. Only 7 cases of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder (mesonephroid) have been described until now. We present a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder, mesonephroid type that early diagnosed and till now 3 months after the cystectomy without symptoms and without complications.
PMCID: PMC3682455  PMID: 23772302
urinary bladder; adenocarcinoma; mesonephroid type.
2.  14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus – Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer: Opinions Expressed by German Experts 
Breast Care  2015;10(3):211-219.
The key topics of this year's 14th St. Gallen Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and therapy of primary breast cancer were again questions about breast surgery and axillary surgery, radio-oncology and systemic therapy options in consideration of tumor biology, and the clinical application of multigene assays. This year, the consensus conference took place in Vienna. From a German perspective, it makes sense to substantiate the results of the vote of the international panel representing 19 countries in light of the updated national therapy recommendations of the AGO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie). Therefore, 14 German breast cancer experts, 3 of whom are members of the International St. Gallen Panel, have commented on the voting results of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference 2015 in relation to clinical routine in Germany.
PMCID: PMC4569213  PMID: 26557827
St. Gallen Consensus 2015; Systemic therapy; Local therapy; Sentinel node biopsy; Endocrine therapy; Targeted substances; Multigene assay
3.  Comprehensive Molecular Profiling of Archival Bone Marrow Trephines Using a Commercially Available Leukemia Panel and Semiconductor-Based Targeted Resequencing 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0133930.
Comprehensive mutation profiling becomes more and more important in hematopathology complementing morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation of fixed, decalcified and embedded bone marrow biopsies for diagnostic, prognostic and also predictive purposes. However, the number and the size of relevant genes leave conventional Sanger sequencing impracticable in terms of costs, required input DNA, and turnaround time. Since most published protocols and commercially available reagents for targeted resequencing of gene panels are established and validated for the analysis of fresh bone marrow aspirate or peripheral blood it remains to be proven whether the available technology can be transferred to the analysis of archival trephines. Therefore, the performance of the recently available Ion AmpliSeq AML Research panel (LifeTechnologies) was evaluated for the analysis of fragmented DNA extracted from archival bone marrow trephines. Taking fresh aspirate as gold standard all clinically relevant mutations (n = 17) as well as 25 well-annotated SNPs could be identified reliably with high quality in the corresponding archival trephines of the training set (n = 10). Pre-treatment of the extracted DNA with Uracil-DNA-Glycosylase reduced the number of low level artificial sequence variants by more than 60%, vastly reducing time required for proper evaluation of the sequencing results. Subsequently, randomly picked FFPE samples (n = 41) were analyzed to evaluate sequencing performance under routine conditions. Thereby all known mutations (n = 43) could be verified and 36 additional mutations in genes not yet covered by the routine work-up (e.g., TET2, ASXL1, DNMT3A), demonstrating the feasibility of this approach and the gain of diagnostically relevant information. The dramatically reduced amount of input DNA, the increase in sensitivity as well as calculated cost-effectiveness, low hands on , and turn-around-time, necessary for the analysis of 237 amplicons strongly argue for replacing Sanger sequencing by this semiconductor-based targeted resequencing approach.
PMCID: PMC4519100  PMID: 26222071
4.  The Codacs™ Direct Acoustic Cochlear Implant Actuator: Exploring Alternative Stimulation Sites and Their Stimulation Efficiency 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0119601.
This work assesses the efficiency of the Codacs system actuator (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney Australia) in different inner ear stimulation modalities. Originally the actuator was intended for direct perilymph stimulation after stapedotomy using a piston prosthesis. A possible alternative application is the stimulation of middle ear structures or the round window (RW). Here the perilymph stimulation with a K-piston through a stapes footplate (SFP) fenestration (N = 10) as well as stimulation of the stapes head (SH) with a Bell prosthesis (N = 9), SFP stimulation with an Omega/Aerial prosthesis (N = 8) and reverse RW stimulation (N = 10) were performed in cadaveric human temporal bones (TBs). Codacs actuator output is expressed as equivalent sound pressure level (eq. SPL) using RW and SFP displacement responses, measured by Laser Doppler velocimetry as reference. The axial actuator coupling force in stimulation of stapes and RW was adjusted to ~ 5 mN. The Bell prosthesis and Omega/Aerial prosthesis stimulation generated similar mean eq. SPLs (Bell: 127.5–141.8 eq. dB SPL; Omega/Aerial: 123.6–143.9 eq. dB SPL), being significantly more efficient than K-piston perilymph stimulation (108.6–131.6 eq. dB SPL) and RW stimulation (108.3–128.2 eq. dB SPL). Our results demonstrate that SH, SFP and RW are adequate alternative stimulation sites for the Codacs actuator using coupling prostheses and an axial coupling force of ~ 5 mN. Based on the eq. SPLs, all investigated methods were adequate for in vivo hearing aid applications, provided that experimental conditions including constant coupling force will be implemented.
PMCID: PMC4364953  PMID: 25785860
5.  High Reproducibility of Adhesion Formation in Rat with Meso-Stitch Approximation of Injured Cecum and Abdominal Wall 
Objective: Peritoneal adhesions following surgery are a common, serious pathology with severe complications. Appropriate animal adhesion models are essential for the assessment of adhesion preventing medical devices. This study introduces a variation of an established rat model in which highest degree adhesions are induced with excellent reproducibility (OPAM = optimized peritoneal adhesion model). Thus, this model seems to be eligible to study effects of adhesion preventing devices.
Methods: 24 Lewis male rats were divided into four groups (OPAM, WSFX, sham-OPAM, sham-WSFX). The OPAM technique comprised cecal abrasion, creation of an abdominal wall defect plus approximation of injured areas by a suture, which was compared to a setting of lesions without suture fixation (WSFX). All rats were sacrificed at day 7. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluations were performed. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Dunnett's test.
Results: In OPAM rats macroscopic analyses revealed a 90% incidence adhesion of cecum to the abdominal wall, all adhesions imposing as complete agglutination. In WSFX animals incidence of adhesions formation was 75%, while in both sham groups there were no adhesions at all. Histology showed the structure of adhesions with merged smooth muscle of colon and skeletal muscle of abdominal wall in all cases.
Conclusion: OPAM technique provides adhesions of injured areas with a better probability than with conventional methods. All OPAM adhesions impressed as highest degree adhesions, i.e. agglutination. Due to high reproducibility in incidence and extend of adhesion formation, the OPAM is recommended for testing of adhesion prevention medical devices.
PMCID: PMC4278869  PMID: 25552912
Adhesion; Prevention; Rat; Cecal Abrasion; OPAM.
6.  Synovial Sarcoma of the Kidney in a Young Patient with a Review of the Literature 
Rare Tumors  2014;6(2):5393.
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a soft tissue, generally deep seated neoplasms that occurs generally in the proximity of large joints. We report of a case of a 33-year-old man who was diagnosed with primary SS of the kidney which is an extremely rare tumor that accounts for less than 2% of malignant renal tumors. Contemporary management of renal synovial sarcoma includes surgical resection and ifosfamide-based chemotherapy and they remain the mainstay of therapy of synovial sarcoma, which is often applied, combined as part of an aggressive treatment approach. Fewer than 50 patients have been described in the English literature. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of malignancy in cystic renal masses and raise the suspicion of synovial sarcoma, especially when patients with renal masses are young adults. Along with the case report a literature review on primary synovial sarcomas of the kidney is provided with focus on the renal tumors’ differential diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4083674  PMID: 25002954
kidney; synovial sarcoma; review of literature
7.  Interactions among HCLS1, HAX1 and LEF-1 proteins are essential for G-CSF–triggered granulopoiesis 
Nature medicine  2012;18(10):1550-1559.
We found that hematopoietic cell–specific Lyn substrate 1 (HCLS1 or HS1) is highly expressed in human myeloid cells and that stimulation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) leads to HCLS1 phosphorylation. HCLS1 binds the transcription factor lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF-1), transporting LEF-1 into the nucleus upon G-CSF stimulation and inducing LEF-1 autoregulation. In patients with severe congenital neutropenia, inherited mutations in the gene encoding HCLS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX1) lead to profound defects in G-CSF–triggered phosphorylation of HCLS1 and subsequently to reduced autoregulation and expression of LEF-1. Consistent with these results, HCLS1-deficient mice are neutropenic. In bone marrow biopsies of the majority of tested patients with acute myeloid leukemia, HCLS1 protein expression is substantially elevated, associated with high levels of G-CSF synthesis and, in some individuals, a four-residue insertion in a proline-rich region of HCLS1 protein known to accelerate intracellular signaling. These data demonstrate the importance of HCLS1 in myelopoiesis in vitro and in vivo.
PMCID: PMC3941918  PMID: 23001182
8.  Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature 
Rare Tumors  2012;4(4):e48.
Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotomy which showed massive tumor burden within the pelvis and peritoneal carcinosis. This case demonstrated an extremely fast tumor growth. Therefore, patients with clear cell urothelial carcinoma should be treated vigorously and without time delay. We present a case of clear cell variant of TCC which exhibited an extremely aggressive behavior. To our knowledge this is the fifth report of this rare disease.
PMCID: PMC3557562  PMID: 23372912
clear-cell; TCC; urothelial carcinoma; adenocarcinoma.
9.  Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder 
Rare Tumors  2012;4(2):e22.
With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.
PMCID: PMC3401150  PMID: 22826779
bladder tumour; granular cell tumour; bladder cancer; transurethral resection of the bladder.
10.  Decentral gene expression analysis for ER+/Her2− breast cancer: results of a proficiency testing program for the EndoPredict assay 
Virchows Archiv  2012;460(3):251-259.
Gene expression profiles provide important information about the biology of breast tumors and can be used to develop prognostic tests. However, the implementation of quantitative RNA-based testing in routine molecular pathology has not been accomplished, so far. The EndoPredict assay has recently been described as a quantitative RT-PCR-based multigene expression test to identify a subgroup of hormone–receptor-positive tumors that have an excellent prognosis with endocrine therapy only. To transfer this test from bench to bedside, it is essential to evaluate the test–performance in a multicenter setting in different molecular pathology laboratories. In this study, we have evaluated the EndoPredict (EP) assay in seven different molecular pathology laboratories in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. A set of ten formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors was tested in the different labs, and the variance and accuracy of the EndoPredict assays were determined using predefined reference values. Extraction of a sufficient amount of RNA and generation of a valid EP score was possible for all 70 study samples (100%). The EP scores measured by the individual participants showed an excellent correlation with the reference values, respectively, as reflected by Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.987 to 0.999. The Pearson correlation coefficient of all values compared to the reference value was 0.994. All laboratories determined EP scores for all samples differing not more than 1.0 score units from the pre-defined references. All samples were assigned to the correct EP risk group, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, a concordance of 100%, and a kappa of 1.0. Taken together, the EndoPredict test could be successfully implemented in all seven participating laboratories and is feasible for reliable decentralized assessment of gene expression in luminal breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3306560  PMID: 22371223
Breast cancer; Prognosis; mRNA; Quality control
11.  Bamboo nodes associated with mixed connective tissue disease as a cause of hoarseness 
Rheumatology International  2011;33(3):777-781.
Vocal fold lesions related to autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid nodules and, to a lesser extent, bamboo nodes. Mostly transverse, they are located in the middle third of the vocal cord and exhibit a yellowish appearance. The characteristic shape of these lesions led to their name. These vocal fold deposits may interfere with the normal vibratory cycle during phonation and thus may be an unusual cause of hoarseness. We present a 43-year-old woman with known mixed connective tissue disease and a dysphonia. Laryngostroboscopy showed bamboo nodes as described above. We applied several laryngeal injections of cortisone as described previously in the literature. Since this treatment did not lead to a sufficient voice improvement, we attempted to surgically remove the deposits. After the surgery, the voice improved considerably. In all patients with rheumatic diseases who suffer from a rough, breathy, or unstable voice, a laryngostroboscopic examination should be done. If, however, a bamboo node lesion of the vocal folds is found by the laryngologists, an associated autoimmune disorder must be assumed, and adequate diagnostic procedures have to be initiated. Local laryngeal injections (1–3 times) with steroids should be the first line of therapy. In unsuccessful cases, subsequent surgery can be a useful treatment of bamboo nodes to stabilize and improve voice quality.
PMCID: PMC3576552  PMID: 22083614
Dysphonia; Bamboo nodes; Treatment; Mixed connective tissue disorder
12.  Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome as a major contributor to death in patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection 
Critical Care  2011;15(2):R80.
Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a severe complication of various viral infections often resulting in multiorgan failure and death. The purpose of this study was to describe baseline characteristics, development of VAHS, related treatments and associated mortality rate of consecutive critically ill patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection and respiratory failure.
We conducted a prospective observational study of 25 critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection at a single-center intensive care unit in Germany between 5 October 2009 and 4 January 2010. Demographic data, comorbidities, diagnosis of VAHS, illness progression, treatments and survival data were collected. The primary outcome measure was the development of VAHS and related mortality. Secondary outcome variables included duration of mechanical ventilation, support of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and duration of viral shedding.
VAHS developed in 9 (36%) of 25 critically ill patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection, and 8 (89%) of them died. In contrast, the mortality rate in the remaining 16 patients without VAHS was 25% (P = 0.004 for the survival difference in patients with or without VAHS by log-rank analysis). The patients were relatively young (median age, 45 years; interquartile range (IQR), 35 to 56 years of age); however, 18 patients (72%) presented with one or more risk factors for a severe course of illness. All 25 patients received mechanical ventilation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia, with a median duration of mechanical ventilation of 19 days (IQR, 13 to 26 days). An additional 17 patients (68%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for a median of 10 days (IQR, 6 to 19 days).
The findings of this study raise the possibility that VAHS may be a frequent complication of severe 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection and represents an important contributor to multiorgan failure and death.
PMCID: PMC3219333  PMID: 21366922

Results 1-12 (12)