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1.  Candidate Agtr2 influenced genes and pathways identified by expression profiling in the developing brain of Agtr2−/y mice 
Genomics  2009;94(3):188-195.
Intellectual disability (ID) is a common developmental disability observed in one to three percent of the human population. A possible role for the Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AGTR2) in brain function, affecting learning, memory, and behavior, has been suggested in humans and rodents. Mice lacking the Agtr2 gene (Agtr2−/y) showed significant impairment in their spatial memory and exhibited abnormal dendritic spine morphology. To identify Agtr2 influenced genes and pathways, we performed whole genome microarray analysis on RNA isolated from brains of Agtr2−/y and control male mice at embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day one (P1). The gene expression profiles of the Agtr2−/y brain samples were significantly different when compared to profiles of the age-matched control brains. We identified 62 differently expressed genes (p ≤ 0.005) at E15 and in P1 brains of the Agtr2−/y mice. We verified the differential expression of several of these genes in brain samples using quantitative RT-PCR. Differentially expressed genes encode molecules involved in multiple cellular processes including microtubule functions associated with dendritic spine morphology. This study provides insight into Agtr2 influenced candidate genes and suggests that expression dysregulation of these genes may modulate Agtr2 actions in the brain that influences learning and memory.
PMCID: PMC3164574  PMID: 19501643
Learning and memory; Intellectual Disability; Dendritic spine; Expression profiling; Agtr2
2.  Cardiac phenotype and angiotensin II levels in AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 receptor single, double, and triple knockouts 
Cardiovascular Research  2010;86(3):401-409.
Our aim was to determine the contribution of the three angiotensin (Ang) II receptor subtypes (AT1a, AT1b, AT2) to coronary responsiveness, cardiac histopathology, and tissue Ang II levels using mice deficient for one, two, or all three Ang II receptors.
Methods and results
Hearts of knockout mice and their wild-type controls were collected for histochemistry or perfused according to Langendorff, and kidneys were removed to measure tissue Ang II. Ang II dose-dependently decreased coronary flow (CF) and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), and these effects were absent in all genotypes deficient for AT1a, independently of AT1b and AT2. The deletion of Ang II receptors had an effect neither on the morphology of medium-sized vessels in the heart nor on the development of fibrosis. However, the lack of both AT1 subtypes was associated with atrophic changes in the myocardium, a reduced CF and a reduced LVSP. AT1a deletion alone, independently of the presence or absence of AT1b and/or AT2, reduced renal Ang II by 50% despite a five-fold rise of plasma Ang II. AT1b deletion, on top of AT1a deletion (but not alone), further decreased tissue Ang II, while increasing plasma Ang II. In mice deficient for all three Ang II receptors, renal Ang II was located only extracellularly.
The lack of both AT1 subtypes led to a baseline reduction of CF and LVSP, and the effects of Ang II on CF and LVSP were found to be exclusively mediated via AT1a. The lack of AT1a or AT1b does not influence the development or maintenance of normal cardiac morphology, whereas deficiency for both receptors led to atrophic changes in the heart. Renal Ang II levels largely depend on AT1 binding of extracellularly generated Ang II, and in the absence of all three Ang II receptors, renal Ang II is only located extracellularly.
PMCID: PMC2868177  PMID: 20071356
Angiotensin II; G protein-coupled receptors; Genetically modified animals
3.  Angiotensin-(1–7) and the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Mas Are Key Players in Renal Inflammation 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(4):e5406.
Angiotensin (Ang) II mediates pathophysiologial changes in the kidney. Ang-(1–7) by interacting with the G protein-coupled receptor Mas may also have important biological activities.
In this study, renal deficiency for Mas diminished renal damage in models of renal insufficiency as unilateral ureteral obstruction and ischemia/reperfusion injury while the infusion of Ang-(1–7) to wild-type mice pronounced the pathological outcome by aggravating the inflammatory response. Mas deficiency inhibited NF-κB activation and thus the elevation of inflammation-stimulating cytokines, while Ang-(1–7) infusion had proinflammatory properties in experimental models of renal failure as well as under basal conditions. The Ang-(1–7)-mediated NF-κB activation was Mas dependent but did not involve Ang II receptors. Therefore, the blockade of the NF-κB-activating properties of the receptor Mas could be a new strategy in the therapy of failing kidney.
PMCID: PMC2672164  PMID: 19404405
4.  Upregulation of bradykinin B1-receptor expression after myocardial infarction 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2000;129(8):1537-1538.
To determine the influence of the myocardial infarction (MI) on bradykinin B1-receptor (B1R) regulation, we studied its expression in the left ventricle (LV) after MI. Rats were submitted to a permanent occlusion of the left coronary artery. Six hours, 24 h and 6 days after MI or after sham operation, left ventricular pressure (LVP) and dP/dtmax were measured. LV-total RNA was extracted and B1R expression was analysed by a RNase-protection assay (each group n=6). LVP and dP/dtmax were impaired at all time points after MI. Basal B1R expression was not detectable in controls. Six hours after MI, the B1R expression was upregulated and reached a maximum 24 h after MI (4 fold vs 6 h). Six days post-MI, B1R expression returned to levels found 6 h after MI. These data are the first demonstration for an induced myocardial B1R expression in an in vivo model of MI.
PMCID: PMC1571999  PMID: 10780955
Bradykinin; B1 receptor; myocardial infarction

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