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1.  Hypersensitivity with Ayurvedic Oils Under Inappropriate Use 
Indian Journal of Dermatology  2014;59(5):517-518.
PMCID: PMC4171931  PMID: 25284868
2.  Effect of Tamra Bhasma (Calcined Copper) on Ponderal and Biochemical Parameters 
Toxicology International  2014;21(2):156-159.
Tamra Bhasma (TB) and its forms like Somnathi Tamra Bhasma (STB), etc., are in vogue since centuries in Ayurveda. The present study is carried out to evaluate the effect of TB and STB in different dose levels on ponderal and biochemical parameters in wistar strain albino rats to provide scientific basis for its safety profile.
Materials and Methods:
TB and STB were prepared as per the classical guidelines and administered to wistar strain albino rats for 45 consecutive days. Blood was collected and rats were sacrificed on the 46th day. Ponderal and biochemical parameters were studied.
Results showed significant decrease in serum cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Comparatively, all the differences in between the groups are insignificant and no pathological changes at ponderal and biochemical levels were observed.
Based on these observations, it can be said that these formulations can be safely used in cases of hyperlipidemia.
PMCID: PMC4170556  PMID: 25253924
Bhasma; biochemical parameters; copper; ponderal parameters; Somnathi Tamra Bhasma; Tamra Bhasma
3.  Shelf-life evaluation of Rasayana Churna: A preliminary study 
Ayu  2014;35(2):184-186.
Concept of Saviryta Avadhi (shelf-life) of Ayurvedic dosage forms is well-defined in classics of Ayurveda. Information on this is scattered in initial classics of Ayurveda like Charaka Samhita, but focused well after 13th Century AD in texts such as Vangasena Samhita, Sharangadhara Samhita and Yogaratnakara. Though the concepts have a strong background; considering the pharmaceutical development, a need is felt to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms.
To evaluate shelf-life of two samples of Rasayana Churna.
Materials and Methods:
Raw material was procured from The Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University and authenticated at Pharmacognosy Laboratory. Individual drugs were powdered and blended in specified ratio to obtain Rasayana Churna (RC). RC was levigated with decoction of Amalaki, Guduchi and Gokshura to prepare Bhavita Rasayana Churna (BRC). Both the samples were subjected to accelerated stability studies by following standard guidelines.
Both the samples are bitter and astringent with characteristic odor. RC is creamish brown in colour, while BRC is dark blackish brown. These Organoleptic characters were unchanged till the 6th month of study. On comparision, BRC is found to be more stable than RC.
This signifies that, Bhavana not only incorporates additional therapeutic attributes, but also helpful in increasing shelf-life.
PMCID: PMC4279326  PMID: 25558165
Accelerated stability; Bhavana; Churna; Rasayana; Saviryta Avadhi; shelf-life
4.  Remarks on “Tinospora cordifolia: One plant, many roles” 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):194.
PMCID: PMC4264311  PMID: 25538358
5.  Seasonal variations in physicochemical profiles of Guduchi Satva (starchy substance from Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) 
Guduchi Satva (GS), the starchy material extracted from the Guduchi stem is well-known Ayurvedic single drug formulation having a wide range of therapeutic utility. Species of the plant, stem size, collection time, season and maturity of the plant may affect the yield and physico-chemical profile of GS. However, published data on such variations is lacking. Considering this, present study is planned to screen seasonal variations in physico-chemical profile of GS. 18 batches of GS were prepared in six different seasons (3 batches in each season) and findings were systematically recorded. The obtained Satva was further subjected to relevant physico-chemical parameters. Principal component analysis method was adopted to analyze variations. Maximum yield of Satva was obtained in Shishira Ritu(January-February) while the minimum in Grishma (May-June). Variation in taste and color was found in Satva prepared in Varsha Ritu. All functional groups were found to be same in each season. Total alkaloidal contents found bit higher in Varsha and Vasanta. More residual x-variance in alcohol soluble extract and more leverage were observed in water soluble extract due to impact of seasonal spells.
PMCID: PMC3891173  PMID: 24459384
Guduchi; Ritu; Satva; season; Tinospora cordifolia
6.  Effect of Sameera Pannaga Rasa (arsenomercurial formulation) in the management of Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) - Randomized double blind clinical study 
Ayu  2013;34(4):346-351.
Asthma represents a profound world-wide public health problem. The most effective anti-asthmatic drugs currently available include β2-agonists and glucocorticoids which can controls asthma in about 90-95% of patients. In Ayurveda, this miserable condition is comparable with Tamaka Shwasa type of Shwasa Roga. In the present study, 52 patients were treated with Sameera Pannaga Rasa at a dose of 30 mg twice a day for 4 weeks along with Nagavallidala (leaf of Piper betel Linn.) The results were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief, pulmonary function improvement and on subjective and objective parameters. A significant improvement in subjective parameters, control on asthma, recurrence of asthma, increase in peak expiratory flow rate, considerable decrease in total and absolute, acute eosinophil count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed. Overall marked improvement was found in 33.33%, moderate improvement in 44.44% and mild improvement in 20.00% was observed. The study reveals that Sameera Pannaga Rasa can be used as an effective drug in bronchial asthma.
PMCID: PMC3968694  PMID: 24696570
Bronchial asthma; pulmonary function; Sameera Pannaga Rasa; Shwasa
7.  Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Guduchi Satva in experimental animals 
Ayu  2013;34(4):417-420.
Over the centuries, herbs have served as a major source of medicines for prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. These herbs are getting more importance around the globe and many studies have provided safety and efficacy of such herbal drugs in different condition. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) is reported as highly potent Pramehahara (anti-diabetic) herb in Ayurveda and Guduchi Satva (GS) is popularly used to treat Paittika type of Prameha. In the present study, GS prepared from the stem of T. cordifolia was evaluated for hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in 18 h fasted mice. GS was suspended in distilled water and administered to animals at the dose of 130 mg/kg that showed the marginal reduction in blood sugar level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice. In anti-hyperglycemic activity, administration of GS prior to glucose over load failed to attenuate BSL at all-time interval in comparison to glucose control group. The study concludes that mild hypoglycemic insignificant anti-hyperglycemic activities of GS.
PMCID: PMC3968707  PMID: 24695802
Guduchi Satva; anti-hyperglycemic; hypoglycemic
8.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Svarṇa vaṅga 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):97-102.
Kūpīpakva Rasāyana is a category of Rasauṣadhis (herbomineral medicines) prepared by unique pharmaceutical process explained in Rasaśāstra. Svarṇa Vanga (SV) is one such medicament indicated mainly in diseases such as Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Śvāsa (respiratory disorders), Pradara (menorrhagia), and as a Vrṣya (aphrodisiac).
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to establish the standard manufacturing process for SV and analyze its organoleptic and physicochemical properties.
Pharmaceutical standardization.
Materials and Methods:
Śodhita Vaṅga was melted and triturated with purified Pārada (mercury) to form an amalgam. The amalgam so formed was mixed with Saindhava Lavaṇa and levigated with Nimbu Svarasa (Citrus medica Var.) and washed until blackness of the mixture disappeared. On drying, śuddha Gandhaka (Sulfur) and Navasadara (Ammonium chloride) were added and ground into a fine powder. The powder thus formed was filled in the Kupī and processed in an electrical muffle furnace for 18 h. On cooling, the product formed at the bottom of the Kūpī was collected. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of SV were analyzed and tabulated.
Results and Conclusion:
SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana. It requires Mṛdu (<250 C) and Madhyama Agni (250-500 C) for a period of 9 h each to prepare SV with 42.9% yield and having 63.2 and 34.4% tin and sulfur, respectively.
PMCID: PMC4171861  PMID: 25284942
Ayurveda; Kupipakva Rasayana; standardization; Swarna Vanga
9.  Validation of standard manufacturing procedure of Guḍūcī sattva (aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) and its tablets 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):27-34.
Guḍūci Sattva is a highly valued formulation among ayurvedic physicians, commonly recommended in conditions such as Jvara (fever), Dāha (burning sensation) and other conditions of Pitta predominance. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available until date on manufacturing guidelines along with its quality control parameters.
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to develop the standard manufacturing procedure for preparation of Guḍūci Sattva and its tablets.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 15 batches of Guḍūci Sattva were prepared in the laboratory. During its preparation, pharmaceutical findings and observations were systematically recorded. To maintain quality control, Guḍūci Sattva tablets were further subjected to analysis such as shape, diameter, width, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time (DT) and friability. Qualitative analysis to detect the presence of various functional groups and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile were also carried out.
Results and Conclusion:
The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
PMCID: PMC4140018  PMID: 25161327
Guḍūci; Sattva; standard manufacturing procedure; tablets
10.  Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx): A brief review 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):52-59.
Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha.
The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug.
Materials and Methods
Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data.
Result and Conclusion:
Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.
PMCID: PMC4140024  PMID: 25161332
Antidiabetic formulations; efficacy; Nāga bhasma; safety
11.  Ayurvedic management of adverse drug reactions with Shvitrahara Varti 
Ayu  2013;34(2):189-192.
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are an expression that describes harm associated with the use of medications at therapeutic dose. Traditional medicines also can develop ADRs due to their improper use. Shvitrahara Varti, one of such medicines holds Bakuchi as a component and is to be used judiciously. Furanocoumarins like psoralen present in Bakuchi makes skin hypersensitive and causes phytophotodermatitis in few cases. Hence, one should be careful while using medicines that contain Bakuchi. One such case is observed, where extensive reactions with application of Shvitrahara Varti were noticed and managed with Ayurvedic treatment.
PMCID: PMC3821249  PMID: 24250129
Adverse drug reactions; Bakuchi; blisters; Shvitra; Shvitrahara Varti; vitiligo
12.  Review of research works done on Tamra Bhasma [Incinerated Copper] at Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar 
Ayu  2013;34(1):21-25.
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
PMCID: PMC3764875  PMID: 24049401
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
13.  Immunomodulatory activity of Āmalaki Rasāyana: An experimental evaluation 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(2):93-98.
Ayurvedic system of medicine holds a number of drugs that improves the immunity. Āmalaki (Emblica officinalis) is one such drug. Researches with crude extracts of Āmalaki have proven the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. But, works on Āmalaki Rasāyana are not found reported.
Considering this, two samples of Āmalaki Rasāyana (AR7 and AR21) were studied to evaluate comparative immunomodulatory activity against the cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Test drugs were prepared by following classical guidelines. Wistar strain albino rats of either sex were used in the study.
Statistical Analysis:
For comparison of data from cyclophosphamide control group with remaining cyclophosphamide plus test drug administered groups one way ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple t-test (DMTT) was employed.
Results and Conclusions:
Āmalaki Rasāyana possesses significant immunostimulant activity and moderate cytoprotective activity. AR21 was found to have better activity profile in terms of both immunostimulant as well as cytoprotective activity.
PMCID: PMC3807964  PMID: 24167334
Āmalaki; cyclophosphamide; Ghrita; humoral immunity; Madhu; Rasāyana
14.  Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh 
BMC Psychiatry  2012;12:123.
Little is known about the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression in out-patients with Type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh.
In this cross-sectional study a random sample of 483 diabetes out-patients from three diabetes clinics in Bangladesh was invited to participate. Of them 417 patients took part. Depressive symptoms were measured using previously developed and culturally standardized Bengali and Sylheti versions of the World HealthOrganization-5 Well Being Index (WHO-5) and the Patient Health Questionairre-9 (PHQ-9) with predefined cut-off scores. Data was collected using two different modes; e.g. standard assisted collection and audio questionnaire methods. Associations between depression and patient characteristics were explored using regression analysis.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 34% (PHQ-9 score ≥ 5) and 36% (WHO-5 score < 52) with audio questionnaire delivery method. The prevalence rates were similar regardless of the type (PHQ-9 vs. WHO-5) and language (Sylheti vs. Bengali) of the questionnaires, and methods of delivery (standard assisted vs. audio methods). The significant predictors of depressive symptoms using either the PHQ-9 or WHO-5 questionnaires were; age, income, gender, treatment intensity, and co-morbid cardiovascular disease. Further, depression was strongly associated with poor glycaemic control and number of co-morbid conditions.
This study demonstrated that depression prevalence is common in out-patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. In a setting where recognition, screening and treatment levels remain low, health care providers need to focus their efforts on diagnosing, referring and effectively treating this important disease in order to improve service delivery.
PMCID: PMC3502134  PMID: 22909306
Diabetes; Depression; Prevalence; Risk factors; Bangladesh
15.  Steven–Johnson syndrome may NOT be due to ayurvedic drugs – 2 
PMCID: PMC3371481  PMID: 22701268
16.  Clinical efficacy of two different samples of Shirishavaleha in Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma) 
Ayu  2012;33(2):255-260.
Incidences of Bronchial Asthma have been raised in recent decades due to increased industrialization and pollution. This miserable condition can be compared with Tamaka Shwasa in Ayurveda. Modern synthetic drugs will provide instant relief in these cases, but are tend to develop a number of adverse drug reactions. Knowing this, the current suffering population is looking towards few remedies from other systems of medicines, that are comparatively safe and provide better relief. Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth] is a drug with multi-dimensional activities emphasized in Ayurveda for different disease conditions. Considering this, two types of Shirishavaleha (confection of Shirisha) were prepared by Kwatha (decoction) of Twak (bark) and Sara (heartwood) of Shirisha to evaluate its comparative efficacy in Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma). The results were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief and pulmonary function improvement. A significant increase in Hb and considerable decrease in total eosinophil count, AEC and ESR were observed. The study revealed that Shirishavaleha can be used as an effective drug in bronchial asthma.
PMCID: PMC3611652  PMID: 23559799
Avaleha; Sara; Shirisha; Tamaka Shwasa; Twak
17.  Critical review on the pharmaceutical vistas of Lauha Kalpas (Iron formulations) 
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
PMCID: PMC3326790  PMID: 22529676
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
18.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma 
Ayu  2012;33(1):136-142.
Shukti is an important component of Sudha Varga, which is considered as the latest class in the field of Rasa Shastra. Two types of Shukti have been mentioned in Rasa Shastra texts i.e. Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukti according to the availability. In present study, an attempt has been made to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma. Five batches of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma were prepared and standardization was attempted by maintaining batch manufacturing records of individual batches. During pharmaceutical procedures like Shodhana, Bhavana, Marana, etc. due care of temperature, its duration, percentage of weight gain or loss and the cost factor of the end product, etc. were considered. The average weight loss observed was 12.08 g i.e. 2.42% and 14.62 g i.e. 2.92% during Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukiti Shodhana respectively. Average weight loss found was 38.94 g i.e. 7.79% in Jala Shukti Bhasma while in Mukta Shukti Bhasma, it was 35.24 g i.e. 7.05%. At the end of the pharmaceutical procedure, it was found that Mukta Shukti Bhasma is 2.8 times costlier than Jala Shukti Bhasma.
PMCID: PMC3456852  PMID: 23049199
Bhasma; Jala Shukti; Marana; Mukta Shukti; Shodhana
19.  Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of “Shirishavaleha”–An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats 
The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.
PMCID: PMC3255450  PMID: 22253509
Albizia lebbeck; avaleha; hemagglutination titer; immunomodulatory activity
20.  Standardization of Shirishavaleha with reference to physico-chemical characteristics 
Ayu  2011;32(4):560-565.
Ten batches of Shirishavaleha were prepared by using Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) of Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth]. The adopted formulation was based on Shirisharishta of Bhaishajya Ratnavali. Though Shirisharishta has significant therapeutic effect in cases of Tamaka swasa, etc.; it has few difficulties during the pharmaceutical procedure like consuming long time, climatic influences etc. Considering these inconveniencies, the formulation composition has been converted in to Shirishavaleha. Avaleha has been prepared by using Twak and Sara of Shirisha. No significant differences were found in pharmaceutical aspects of both the samples of Shirishavaleha and the current method of preparation can be considered as standard. Attempts were also made to develop analytical profile of avaleha, which were almost similar in both the samples, except showing more Rf values in High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography profile of Sara group.
PMCID: PMC3361936  PMID: 22661855
Albizzia lebbeck; Avaleha; Bark; Heartwood; Shirisha; Shirishavaleha
21.  Therapeutic potentials of metals in ancient India: A review through Charaka Samhita 
The Ayurvedic system of medicine has stood the test of time for four millennia or more. The ancient seers found that drugs of different origin (herbal, metal or animal) in addition to codes of conduct and dietary regulations are suitable tools to maintain health in healthy and eradicating diseases in diseased. Use of metallic preparations in healthcare is a unique feature in this system. Processed metals including Mercury, Gold, Silver, Lead, Zinc, Copper etc. were used very frequently by seers of the Indian tradition in different disease conditions with great authority. It is generally claimed, that these metals are detoxified during the highly complex manufacturing processes described in Ayurvedic, especially Rasashastra texts. Charaka Samhita, one of the scheduled books of Ayurveda also holds ample of references regarding the use of metals for different purposes, which are summarized in the current paper.
PMCID: PMC3131772  PMID: 21760689
Ayurveda; Charaka Samhita; lead; mercury; metals
22.  Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation 
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.
PMCID: PMC3059440  PMID: 21455445
Albizia lebbeck; anti-inflammatory activity; Avaleha
23.  Fatal Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis associated to Mycobacterium Mucogenicum-like Microorganism: a Case Report 
Mycobacterium mucogenicum is rarely associated to human infections. However, in the last year, a few reports of sepsis and fatal cases of central nervous systems have been documented. Here we report a fatal case of granulomatous meningoencephalitis of three weeks of evolution where DNA from a M. mucogenicum-like microorganism was identified post-mortem in samples of brain tissue.
PMCID: PMC2909603  PMID: 19715122
M. mucogenicum; CNS; immunocompetent; Meningoencephalitis
24.  Pharmacological attributes of Indian Medicinal Plants with special reference to their Anti-Inflammatory activity 
Ancient Science of Life  2009;28(3):36-39.
Inflammation has always been a problem of unease to all clinicians and patients since centuries. A total safe and effective drug against inflammation is yet to be emerged in our field which can fulfill the requirements is the need of the hour. Keeping the significance of this in view, clues are being taken from the rich Ayurvedic treasure to find out a safe anti inflammatory drug.
PMCID: PMC3336323  PMID: 22557319
Shopha; Inflammation; Anti-inflammatory drugs; Extracts; Kafa Vata Shamana

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