Our previous work in perfused rat livers has demonstrated that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) is catabolized predominantly via beta oxidation. Therefore, we hypothesized that perturbations of beta oxidation, such as diet-altered fatty acid oxidation activity, could lead to changes in HNE levels. To test our hypothesis, we (i) developed a simple and sensitive GC/MS method combined with mass isotopomer analysis to measure HNE and HNE analogs, 4-oxononenal (ONE) and 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), and (ii) investigated the effects of four diets (standard, low fat, ketogenic, and high fat mix diets) on HNE, ONE, and DHN concentrations in rat livers. Our results showed that livers from rats fed ketogenic diet or high fat mix diet had high ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress. However, high concentrations of HNE (1.6 ± 0.5 nmol/g) and ONE (0.9 ± 0.2 nmol/g) were only found in livers from rats fed the high fat mix diet. Livers from rats fed the ketogenic diet had low HNE (0.8 ± 0.1 nmol/g) and ONE (0.4 ± 0.07 nmol/g), similar to rats fed the standard diet. A possible explanation is that the predominant pathway of HNE catabolism (i.e. beta oxidation) is activated in the liver by the ketogenic diet. This is consistent with a 10 fold decrease in malonyl-CoA in livers from rats fed a ketogenic diet compared to a standard diet. The accelerated catabolism of HNE lowers HNE and HNE analog concentrations in livers from rats fed the ketogenic diet. On the other hand, rats fed the high fat mix diet had high rates of lipid synthesis and low rates of fatty acid oxidation, resulting in the slowing down of the catabolic disposal of HNE and HNE analogs. Thus, decreased HNE catabolism by a high fat mix diet induces high concentrations of HNE and HNE analogs. The results of the present work suggested a potential causal relationship to metabolic syndrome induced by western diets (i.e. high fat mix), as well as the effects of the ketogenic diet on the catabolism of lipid peroxidation products in liver.
4-hydroxynonenal; 4-oxononenal; 1,4-dihydroxynonene; diet; rat liver; metabolism; lipid peroxidation; mass isotopomer analysis
A field experiment was conducted to (i) examine the diurnal and seasonal soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes pattern in rice paddy fields in central China and (ii) assess the role of floodwater in controlling the emissions of CO2 from soil and floodwater in intermittently draining rice paddy soil. The soil CO2 flux rates ranged from −0.45 to 8.62 µmol.m−2.s−1 during the rice-growing season. The net effluxes of CO2 from the paddy soil were lower when the paddy was flooded than when it was drained. The CO2 emissions for the drained conditions showed distinct diurnal variation with a maximum efflux observed in the afternoon. When the paddy was flooded, daytime soil CO2 fluxes reversed with a peak negative efflux just after midday. In draining/flooding alternating periods, a sudden pulse-like event of rapidly increasing CO2 efflux occured in response to re-flooding after draining. Correlation analysis showed a negative relation between soil CO2 flux and temperature under flooded conditions, but a positive relation was found under drained conditions. The results showed that draining and flooding cycles play a vital role in controlling CO2 emissions from paddy soils.
In this study, we examined anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects of the synthetic melanocortin peptide (Ac-Cys-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2)2 or (CKPV)2 against Candida albicans vaginitis. Our in vitro results showed that (CKPV)2 dose-dependently inhibited Candida albicans colonies formation. In a rat Candida albicans vaginitis model, (CKPV)2 significantly inhibited vaginal Candida albicans survival and macrophages sub-epithelial mucosa infiltration. For mechanisms study, we observed that (CKPV)2 inhibited macrophages phagocytosis of Candida albicans. Meanwhile, (CKPV)2 administration inhibited macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) release, while increasing the arginase activity and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production, suggesting macrophages M1 to M2 polarization. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) production was also induced by (CKPV)2 administration in macrophages. These above effects on macrophages by (CKPV)2 were almost reversed by melanocortin receptor-1(MC1R) siRNA knockdown, indicating the requirement of MC1R in the process. Altogether, our results suggest that (CKPV)2 exerted anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activities against Candida albicans vaginitis probably through inducing macrophages M1 to M2 polarization and MC1R activation.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme involved in the genesis and development of atherosclerosis. Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) is a newly discovered member of the peroxidase family that is mainly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells and has structural characteristics and biological activity similar to those of MPO. Our specific aims were to explore the effects of VPO1 on endothelial cell apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that ox-LDL induced endothelial cell apoptosis and the expression of VPO1 in endothelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner concomitant with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generation, and up-regulated protein expression of the NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. All these effects of ox-LDL were inhibited by VPO1 gene silencing and NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit gene silencing or by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or diphenyliodonium. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO significantly inhibited ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, but had no effect on intracellular ROS and HOCl generation or the expression of NADPH oxidase gp91phox subunit or VPO1. Collectively, these findings suggest for the first time that VPO1 plays a critical role in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and that there is a positive feedback loop between VPO1/HOCl and the now-accepted dogma that the NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK/caspase-3 pathway is involved in ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.
VPO1; MPO; NADPH oxidase; Apoptosis; Endothelial cells; Free radicals
Long-term expression from helper virus-free Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors is required for many specific neural gene therapies and studies on neuronal physiology. We previously developed a promoter that supports long-term, neuron-specific expression by fusing the chicken ß-globin insulator (INS), followed by an upstream enhancer from the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, to a neurofilament heavy gene (NFH) promoter. Here, we examined the capability of specific transcription factors to further improve long-term expression from this promoter. Following a HSV-1 virus infection, the virus genome is localized to promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies (NB). At these sites, specific cellular transcription factors interact with HSV-1 encoded transcription factors, and together regulate HSV-1 gene expression. Importantly, lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1), CLOCK, and Co-Rest each activate HSV-1 gene expression. However, gene expression from HSV-1 vectors differs in a number of important aspects from the virus, including no HSV-1 genes are expressed. Nonetheless, these observations raise the possibility that specific transcription factors may improve long-term expression from specific promoters in HSV-1 vectors. Here, we show that overexpression of either LSD1 or CLOCK improves long-term expression from the INS-TH-NFH promoter, but overexpression of Co-Rest supports levels of long-term expression similar to those supported by a control vector. Further, overexpression of LSD1 is compatible with neuron-specific expression. Thus, overexpressing specific transcription factors can improve long-term expression from specific cellular promoters in HSV-1 vectors, and the chromatin structure of the vector has an important role in enabling expression.
herpes simplex virus vector; long-term expression; transcription factor; chromatin modifying enzyme; enhancer; striatal neuron
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of reduced cathartic bowel preparation with 2 L polyethylene glycol (PEG)-4000 electrolyte solution and 10 mg bisacodyl enteric-coated tablets for computed tomographic colonography (CTC).
METHODS: Sixty subjects who gave informed consent were randomly assigned to study group A, study group B or the control group. On the day prior to CTC, subjects in study group A were given 20 mL 40% wt/vol barium sulfate suspension before 3 mealtimes, 60 mL 60% diatrizoate meglumine diluted in 250 mL water after supper, and 10 mg bisacodyl enteric-coated tablets 1 h before oral administration of 2 L PEG-4000 electrolyte solution. Subjects in study group B were treated identically to those in study group A, with the exception of bisacodyl which was given 1 h after oral PEG-4000. Subjects in the control group were managed using the same strategy as the subjects in study group A, but without administration of bisacodyl. Residual stool and fluid scores, the attenuation value of residual fluid, and discomfort during bowel preparation in the three groups were analyzed statistically.
RESULTS: The mean scores for residual stool and fluid in study group A were lower than those in study group B, but the differences were not statistically significant. Subjects in study group A showed greater stool and fluid cleansing ability than the subjects in study group B. The mean scores for residual stool and fluid in study groups A and B were lower than those in the control group, and were significantly different. There was no significant difference in the mean attenuation value of residual fluid between study group A, study group B and the control group. The total discomfort index during bowel preparation was 46, 45 and 45 in the three groups, respectively, with no significant difference.
CONCLUSION: Administration of 10 mg bisacodyl enteric-coated tablets prior to or after oral administration of 2 L PEG-4000 electrolyte solution enhances stool and fluid cleansing ability, and has no impact on the attenuation value of residual fluid or the discomfort index. The former is an excellent alternative for CTC colorectum cleansing
Colorectal cancer; Screening; Computed tomographic colonography; Polyethylene glycol; Bisacodyl
AIM: To study the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) inducing protein (Tip-α) on cytokine expression and its mechanism.
METHODS: We cloned Tip-α from the H. pylori strain 26695, transformed Escherichia coli with an expression plasmid, and then confirmed the expression product by Western blotting. Using different concentrations of Tip-α that affected SGC7901 and GES-1 cells at different times, we assessed cytokine levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We blocked SGC7901 cells with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). We then detected interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α levels in SGC7901 cells.
RESULTS: Western blot analysis using an anti-Tip-α antibody revealed a 23-kDa protein, which indicated that recombinant Tip-α protein was recombined successfully. The levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly higher following Tip-α interference, whether GES-1 cells or SGC-7901 cells were used (P < 0.05). However, the levels of cytokines (including IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α) secreted by SGC-7901 cells were greater than those secreted by GES-1 cells following treatment with Tip-α at the same concentration and for the same duration (P < 0.05). After blocking NF-κB with PDTC, the cells (GES-1 cells and SGC-7901 cells) underwent interference with Tip-α. We found that IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased compared to cells that only underwent Tip-α interference (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Tip-α plays an important role in cytokine expression through NF-κB.
Helicobacter pylori; Tumor necrosis factor-α inducing protein; Interleukin-1β; Interleukin-8; Tumor necrosis factor-α; Nuclear factor-κB
ATP-binding-cassette family membrane proteins play an important role in multidrug resistance. In this study, we investigated BIRB796, an orally active inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, reversed MDR induced by ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1. Our results showed that BIRB796 could reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR in both the drug selected and transfected ABCB1-overexpressing cell models, but did not enhance the efficacy of substrate-chemotherapeutical agents in ABCC1 or ABCG2 overexpression cells and their parental sensitive cells. Furthermore, BIRB796 increased the intracellular accumulation of the ABCB1 substrates, such as rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin. Moreover, BIRB796 bidirectionally mediated the ATPase activity of ABCB1, stimulating at low concentration, inhibiting at high concentration. However, BIRB796 did not alter the expression of ABCB1 both at protein and mRNA level. The down-regulation of p38 by siRNA neither affected the expression of ABCB1 nor the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel on KBV200. The binding model of BIRB796 within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1 may form the basis for future lead optimization studies. Importantly, BIRB796 also enhanced the effect of paclitaxel on the inhibition of growth of the ABCB1-overexpressing KBV200 cell xenografts in nude mice. Overall, we conclude that BIRB796 reverses ABCB1-mediated MDR by directly inhibiting its transport function. These findings may be useful for cancer combinational therapy with BIRB796 in the clinic.
The role of leptin and its receptors (OBRs) in the pathogenesis of various primary human malignancies has been demonstrated. However, their expression and clinicopathological significance in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the expression of leptin and OBRs in 76 PTC samples using immunohistochemistry, and their associations with clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. The expression of OBRs was observed in the tumor cell membrane and/or cytoplasm, with a positive rate of 73.7% (56/76), while leptin was expressed in the tumor cell cytoplasm in 55 of 76 cases (72.4%). The expression of either protein was associated with greater tumor size (P=0.016 for leptin and P=0.002 for OBRs). In addition, the expression levels of leptin and OBRs were associated with each other. Neither leptin nor OBR expression levels were associated with other parameters, including age, body weight, postmenopausal state, multifocality and lymph node metastasis. These data suggest that the expression of leptin and/or OBRs in PTC is associated with tumor size and may be a potential target in PTC.
leptin; leptin receptors; clinicopathological features; papillary thyroid cancer
Bioluminescence reporter proteins have been widely used in the development of tools for monitoring biological events in living cells. Currently, some assays like flow cytometry analysis are available for studying DNA synthetic phase (S-phase) targeted anti-cancer drug activity in vitro; however, techniques for imaging of in vivo models remain limited. Cyclin A2 is known to promote S-phase entry in mammals. Its expression levels are low during G1-phase, but they increase at the onset of S-phase. Cyclin A2 is degraded during prometaphase by ubiquitin-dependent, proteasome-mediated proteolysis. In this study, we have developed a cyclin A2-luciferase (CYCA-Luc) fusion protein targeted for ubiquitin-proteasome dependent degradation, and have evaluated its utility in screening S-phase targeted anti-cancer drugs. Similar to endogenous cyclin A2, CYCA-Luc accumulates during S-phase and is degraded during G2/M-phase. Using Cdc20 siRNA we have demonstrated that Cdc20 can mediate CYCA-Luc degradation. Moreover, using noninvasive bioluminescent imaging, we demonstrated accumulation of CYCA-Luc in response to 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), an S-phase targeted anti-cancer drug, in human tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. Our results indicate that a CYCA-Luc fusion reporter system can be used to monitor S-phase of cell cycle, and evaluate pharmacological activity of anti-cancer drug HCPT in real time in vitro and in vivo, and is likely to provide an important tool for screening such drugs.
AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of 5-flurouracil-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for gastroesophageal and gastric cancer by meta-analysis.
METHODS: MEDLINE and manual searches were performed to identify all published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of the flurouracil-based NAC for gastroesophageal and gastric cancer, and RCTs of NAC for advanced gastroesophageal and gastric cancer vs no therapy before surgery. Studies that included patients with metastases at enrollment were excluded. Primary endpoint was the odds ratio (OR) for improving overall survival rate of patients with gastroesophageal and gastric cancer. Secondary endpoints were the OR of efficiency for down-staging tumor and increasing R0 resection in patients with gastroesophageal and gastric cancer. Safety analyses were also performed. The OR was the principal measurement of effect, which was calculated as the treatment group (NAC plus surgery) vs control group (surgery alone) and was presented as a point estimate with 95% confidence intervals (CI). All calculations and statistical tests were performed using RevMan 5.1 software.
RESULTS: Seven RCTs were included for the analysis. A total of 1249 patients with advanced gastroesophageal and gastric cancer enrolled in the seven trials were divided into treatment group (n = 620) and control group (n = 629). The quality scores of the RCTs were assessed according to the method of Jadad. The RCT quality scores ranged from 2 to 7 (5-point scale), with a mean of 3.75. The median follow-up time in these studies was over 3 years. The meta-analysis showed that NAC improved the overall survival rate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.11-1.76; P = 0.005), which was statistically significant. The 3-year progression-free survival rate was significantly higher in treatment group than in control group (37.7% vs 27.3%) (OR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.15; P = 0.001). The tumor down-stage rate was higher in treatment group than in control group (55.76% vs 41.38%) (OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.27-2.49; P = 0.0009) and the R0 resection rate of the gastroesophageal and gastric cancer was higher in treatment group than in control group (75.11% vs 68.56%) (OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.03-1.85; P = 0.03), with significant differences. No obvious safety concerns about mortality and complications were raised in these trials. There were no statistically significant differences in perioperative mortality (5.08% vs 4.86%) (OR 1.05, 95%CI 0.57-1.94; P = 0.87 fixed-effect model) and in the complication rate between the two groups (13.25% vs 9.66%) (OR 1.40, 95%CI 0.91-2.14; P = 0.12 fixed-effect model). Trials showed that patients from Western countries favored NAC compared with those from Asian countries (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.07-1.83). Monotherapy was inferior to multiple chemotherapy (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.07-1.83). Intravenous administration of NAC was more advantageous than oral route (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.81).
CONCLUSION: Flurouracil-based NAC can safely improve overall survival rate of patients with gastroesophageal/gastric cancer. Additionally, NAC can down the tumor stage and improve R0 resection.
Gastroesophageal cancer; Gastric cancer; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy; Meta-analysis
S-phase kinase protein 2 (Skp2), an oncogenic protein, is a key regulator in different cellular and molecular processes, through ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. Increased levels of Skp2 are observed in various types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. However, in human breast carcinomas, the underlying mechanism and prognostic significance of cytoplasmic Skp2 is still undefined.
To investigate the role of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression in human breast carcinomas, we immnohistochemically assessed cytoplasmic Skp2, p-Akt1, and p27 expression in 251 patients with invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast. Association of cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with p-Akt1 and p27 was analyzed as well as correspondence with other clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free survival and overall survival were determined based on the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models.
Cytoplasmic of Skp2 was detected in 165 out of 251 (65.7%) patients. Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was associated with larger tumor size, more advanced histological grade, and positive HER2 expression. Increased cytoplasmic Skp2 expression correlated with p-Akt1 expression, with 54.2% (51/94) of low p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas, but 72.6% (114/157) of high p-Akt1-expressing breast carcinomas exhibiting cytoplasmic Skp2 expression. Elevated cytoplasmic Skp2 expression with low p-Akt1 expression was associated with poor disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS), and Cox regression models demonstrated that cytoplasmic Skp2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for invasive breast carcinomas.
Cytoplasmic Skp2 expression is associated with aggressive prognostic factors, such as larger tumor size, and advanced histological grade of the breast cancers. Results demonstrate that combined cytoplasmic Skp2 and p-Akt1 expression may be prognostic for patients with invasive breast carcinomas, and cytoplasmic Skp2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target.
One of the primary challenges in translational research data management is breaking down the barriers between the multiple data silos and the integration of 'omics data with clinical information to complete the cycle from the bench to the bedside. The role of contextual metadata, also called provenance information, is a key factor ineffective data integration, reproducibility of results, correct attribution of original source, and answering research queries involving "What", "Where", "When", "Which", "Who", "How", and "Why" (also known as the W7 model). But, at present there is limited or no effective approach to managing and leveraging provenance information for integrating data across studies or projects. Hence, there is an urgent need for a paradigm shift in creating a "provenance-aware" informatics platform to address this challenge. We introduce an ontology-driven, intuitive Semantic Proteomics Dashboard (SemPoD) that uses provenance together with domain information (semantic provenance) to enable researchers to query, compare, and correlate different types of data across multiple projects, and allow integration with legacy data to support their ongoing research.
SemPoD is an intuitive and powerful provenance ontology-driven data access and query platform that uses the MIAPE and MIMIx metadata guideline to create an integrated view over large-scale systems molecular biology datasets. SemPoD leverages the SysPro ontology to create an intuitive dashboard for biologists to compose queries, explore the results, and use a query manager for storing queries for later use. SemPoD can be deployed over many existing database applications storing 'omics data, including, as illustrated here, the LabKey data-management system. The initial user feedback evaluating the usability and functionality of SemPoD has been very positive and it is being considered for wider deployment beyond the proteomics domain, and in other 'omics' centers.
The androgen receptor (AR) expression and the CAG repeat length within the AR gene appear to be involved in the carcinogenesis of male breast carcinoma (MBC). Although phenotypic differences have been observed between MBC and normal control group in AR gene, there is lack of correlation analysis between AR expression and CAG repeat length in MBC. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of CAG repeat lengths and AR protein expression.
81 tumor tissues were used for immunostaining for AR expression and CAG repeat length determination and 80 normal controls were analyzed with CAG repeat length in AR gene. The CAG repeat length and AR expression were analyzed in relation to clinicopathological factors and prognostic indicators.
AR gene in many MBCs has long CAG repeat sequence compared with that in control group (P = 0.001) and controls are more likely to exhibit short CAG repeat sequence than MBCs. There was statistically significant difference in long CAG repeat sequence between AR status for MBC patients (P = 0.004). The presence of long CAG repeat sequence and AR-positive expression were associated with shorter survival of MBC patients (CAG repeat: P = 0.050 for 5y-OS; P = 0.035 for 5y-DFS AR status: P = 0.048 for 5y-OS; P = 0.029 for 5y-DFS, respectively).
The CAG repeat length within the AR gene might be one useful molecular biomarker to identify males at increased risk of breast cancer development. The presence of long CAG repeat sequence and AR protein expression were in relation to survival of MBC patients. The CAG repeat length and AR expression were two independent prognostic indicators in MBC patients.
With a large percentage of clinical trials still using paper forms as the primary data collection tool, there is much potential for increasing efficiency through web-based data collection systems, especially for large-scale multi-center trials. This paper presents OnWARD, an ontology-driven, secure, rapidly-deployed, web-based framework supporting data capture for large-scale multi-center clinical research. Our approach is developed using the agile methodology to provide a flexible, user-centered dynamic form generator, which can be quickly deployed and customized for any clinical study without the need of deep technical expertise. Because of the flexible framework, the data management system can be extended to accommodate a large variety of data types, including genetic, genomic and proteomic data. In this paper, we demonstrate the initial deployment of OnWARD for a Phase II multi-center clinical trial after a development period of merely three months. The study utilizes 23 clinical report forms containing more than 1500 data points. Preliminary evaluation results show that OnWARD exceeded expectations of the clinical investigators in efficiency, flexibility and ease in setting up.
ontology; clinical research form; dynamic form; web-based data entry
To investigate the 3.0-Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of primary adnexal lesions for discriminating benign from malignant lesions.
One hundred thirty-nine patients with pathologically proven primary adnexal masses referred for 3 T MRI assessment preoperatively were included. Baseline characteristics, components, and conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI-MRI) signals were recorded and compared.
There were 22 ovarian cysts, 33 endometriomas, 43 benign tumors and 42 malignant tumors. When ovarian cyst and endometrioma were excluded, there were no significant differences in patients’ age between benign and malignant tumor (P = 0.235). There were no significant differences (P = 0.606) in the conventional MRI signals and significant difference (P = 0.008) in DWI-MRI signal between the non-malignant and malignant lesions. There was a significant difference (P = 0.000) in the apparent diffusion coefficient values (ADCs) between the non-malignant and malignant lesions.
3 T MRI categorized the characteristics of primary adnexal lesions. Conventional MRI signals were not useful for characterizing between benign and malignant lesions. DWI-MRI and ADCs were helpful for distinguishing malignant from benign ovarian lesions.
Magnetic resonance images; Diffusion weighted imaging; 3.0 Tesla; Ovary diseases
The interaction of multiple types of relationships among anatomical classes in the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) can provide inferred information valuable for quality assurance. This paper introduces a method called Motif Checking (MOCH) to study the effects of such multi-relation type interactions for detecting logical inconsistencies as well as other anomalies represented by the motifs. MOCH represents patterns of multi-type interaction as small labeled (with multiple types of edges) sub-graph motifs, whose nodes represent class variables, and labeled edges represent relational types. By representing FMA as an RDF graph and motifs as SPARQL queries, fragments of FMA are automatically obtained as auditing candidates. Leveraging the scalability and reconfigurability of Semantic Web Technology, we performed exhaustive analyses of a variety of labeled sub-graph motifs. The quality assurance feature of MOCH comes from the distinct use of a subset of the edges of the graph motifs as constraints for disjointness, whereby bringing in rule-based flavor to the approach as well. With possible disjointness implied by antonyms, we performed manual inspection of the resulting FMA fragments and tracked down sources of abnormal inferred conclusions (logical inconsistencies), which are amendable for programmatic revision of the FMA. Our results demonstrate that MOCH provides a unique source of valuable information for quality assurance. Since our approach is general, it is applicable to any ontological system with an OWL representation.
Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is a poorly understood phenomenon. Patient cohorts to power statistical studies in SUDEP need to be drawn from multiple centers due to the low rate of reported SUDEP incidences. But the current practice of manual chart review of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) patient discharge summaries is time-consuming, tedious, and not scalable for large studies. To address this challenge in the multi-center NIH-funded Prevention and Risk Identification of SUDEP Mortality (PRISM) Project, we have developed the Epilepsy Data Extraction and Annotation (EpiDEA) system for effective processing of discharge summaries. EpiDEA uses a novel Epilepsy and Seizure Ontology (EpSO), which has been developed based on the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification system, as the core knowledge resource. By extending the cTAKES natural language processing tool developed at the Mayo Clinic, EpiDEA implements specialized functions to address the unique challenges of processing epilepsy and seizure-related clinical free text in discharge summaries. The EpiDEA system was evaluated on a corpus of 104 discharge summaries from the University Hospitals Case Medical Center EMU and achieved an overall precision of 93.59% and recall of 84.01% with an F-measure of 88.53%. The results were compared against a gold standard created by two epileptologists. We demonstrate the use of EpiDEA for cohort identification through use of an intuitive visual query interface that can be directly used by clinical researchers.
The widespread use of paper or document-based forms for capturing patient information in various clinical settings, for example in epilepsy centers, is a critical barrier for large-scale, multi-center research studies that require interoperable, consistent, and error-free data collection. This challenge can be addressed by a web-accessible and flexible patient data capture system that is supported by a common terminological system to facilitate data re-usability, sharing, and integration. We present OPIC, an Ontology-driven Patient Information Capture (OPIC) system that uses a domain-specific epilepsy and seizure ontology (EpSO) to (1) support structured entry of multi-modal epilepsy data, (2) proactively ensure quality of data through use of ontology terms in drop-down menus, and (3) identify and index clinically relevant ontology terms in free-text fields to improve accuracy of subsequent analytical queries (e.g. cohort identification). EpSO, modeled using the Web Ontology Language (OWL), conforms to the recommendations of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification and terminological commission. OPIC has been developed using agile software engineering methodology for rapid development cycles in close collaboration with domain expert and end users. We report the result from the initial deployment of OPIC at the University Hospitals Case Medical Center (UH CMC) epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) as part of the NIH-funded project on Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Preliminary user evaluation shows that OPIC has achieved its design objectives to be an intuitive patient information capturing system that also reduces the potential for data entry errors and variability in use of epilepsy terms.
A novel 68 kDa laccase was purified from the mycorrhizal fungus Agaricus placomyces by utilizing a procedure that comprised three successive steps of ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration as the final step. The monomeric enzyme exhibited the N-terminal amino acid sequence of DVIGPQAQVTLANQD, which showed only a low extent of homology to sequences of other fungal laccases. The optimal temperature for A. placomyces laccase was 30°C, and optimal pH values for laccase activity towards the substrates 2,7′-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazolone-6-sulfonic acid] diammonium salt (ABTS) and hydroquinone were 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. The laccase displayed, at 30°C and pH 5.2, Km values of 0.392 mM towards hydroquinone and 0.775 mM towards ABTS. It potently suppressed proliferation of MCF 7 human breast cancer cells and Hep G2 hepatoma cells and inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) activity with an IC50 of 1.8 μM, 1.7 μM, and 1.25 μM, respectively, signifying that it is an antipathogenic protein.
Because of the numerous types of neurons in the brain, and particularly the forebrain, neuron type-specific expression will benefit many potential applications of direct gene transfer. The two most promising approaches for achieving neuron type-specific expression are targeted gene transfer to a specific type of neuron and using a neuron type-specific promoter. We previously developed antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors by modifying glycoprotein C (gC) to replace the heparin binding domain, which mediates the initial binding of HSV-1 particles to many cell types, with the Staphylococcus A protein ZZ domain, which binds immunoglobulin (Ig) G. We showed that a chimeric gC--ZZ protein is incorporated into vector particles and binds IgG. As a proof-of-principle for antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer, we isolated complexes of these vector particles and an anti-NMDA NR1 subunit antibody, and demonstrated targeted gene transfer to neocortical cells that contain NR1 subunits. However, because most forebrain neurons contain NR1, we obtained only a modest increase in the specificity of gene transfer, and this targeting specificity is of limited utility for physiological experiments. Here, we report efficient antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer to NMDA NR2B- or NR2A-containing cells in rat postrhinal cortex, and a neuron-specific promoter further restricted recombinant expression to neurons. Of note, because NR2A-containing neurons are relatively rare, these results show that antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer with HSV-1 vectors containing neuron type-specific promoters can restrict recombinant expression to specific types of forebrain neurons of physiological significance.
targeted gene transfer; NMDA receptor NR2B subunit; NMDA receptor NR2A subunit; herpes simplex virus vector; glycoprotein C; Staphylococcus A protein
Helper virus-free Herpes Simplex Virus vector-mediated gene transfer has supported studies on neuronal physiology, and may support specific gene therapies. Long-term, neuron-specific expression is required for many of these applications. A neurofilament heavy gene (NFH) promoter does not support long-term expression. We previously developed a promoter that supports long-term expression by fusing 6.3 kb of upstream sequences from the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter to a NFH promoter, and this promoter has supported physiological studies. The TH promoter fragment contains an enhancer, as it has activity in both orientations and at a distance from the basal promoter. Identifying this enhancer may support further improvements in long-term expression. A previous deletion analysis identified two ~100 bp fragments that each support long-term expression, and are contained within an ~320 bp fragment located ~3 kb from the TH promoter transcription start site. As this analysis used overlapping fragments, the two ~100 bp fragments contained 44 or 23 bp of unique sequence. Here, we used mutagenesis to identify a short sequence that supports long-term expression. We studied a 42 bp sequence, centered on the 23 bp unique sequence. Analysis of the wt sequence, and five mutations containing clustered changes that spanned the sequence, identified two adjacent mutations that do not support long-term expression, that together defined a 16 bp maximum essential sequence. This 16 bp sequence contains a putative E2F-1/DP-1 transcription factor binding site, and this transcription factor is expressed in many brain areas.
herpes simplex virus vector; long-term expression; tyrosine hydroxylase promoter; neurofilament heavy gene promoter; enhancer; striatal neuron
Fork head box M1 (FoxM1) is a proliferation-associated transcription factor essential for cell cycle progression. Numerous studies have documented that FoxM1 has multiple functions in tumorigenesis and its elevated levels are frequently associated with cancer progression. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression of FoxM1 and its prognostic significance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Meanwhile, the function of FoxM1 in human ccRCC was further investigated in cell culture models.
Real-time quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to explore FoxM1 expression in ccRCC cell lines and primary ccRCC clinical specimens. FoxM1 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in Caki-1 and 786-O cells; proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis were assayed.
FoxM1 expression was up-regulated in the majority of the ccRCC clinical tissue specimens at both mRNA and protein levels. Clinic pathological analysis showed that FoxM1 expression was significantly correlated with primary tumor stage (P <0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.01), distant metastasis (P = 0.01), TNM stage (P < 0.001) and histological grade (P = 0.003). The Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed that high FoxM1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in ccRCC patients (P < 0.001). FoxM1 expression was an independent prognostic marker of overall ccRCC patient survival in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.008). Experimentally, we found that down-regulation of FoxM1 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest with reduced expression of cyclin B1, cyclin D1, and Cdk2, and increased expression of p21 and p27. Also, down-regulation of FoxM1 reduced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), resulting in the inhibition of migration, invasion, and angiogenesis.
These results suggest that FoxM1 expression is likely to play important roles in ccRCC development and progression, and that FoxM1 is a prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for ccRCC.
Renal cell carcinoma; FoxM1; Prognosis; Small interfering RNA
Treatment failure for lung adenocarcinoma is frequently due to lymph node metastasis and invasion to neighboring organs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the invasion- and metastasis-related gene, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9), in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. The expression of NEDD9 was analyzed by the SP method of immunohistochemistry for 60 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung adenocarcinoma tissues in which 32 cases were metastastic and 28 were without metastases. NEDD9 mRNA expression and protein levels were quantified by fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and western blotting in the highly invasive lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 and 95D as well as in SPC-A-1 cells with low invasive potential. The immunostaining scores revealed a statistically significant difference between metastatic and non-metastatic lung adenocarcinomas (p<0.001). FQ-PCR and western blotting demonstrated that NEDD9 expression was higher in A549 and 95D compared to SPC-A-1 cells (P=0.003). Our results provide evidence that NEDD9 is upregulated in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma and in highly invasive lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, suggesting its potential involvement in regulating cell migration and invasion.
NEDD9; lung adenocarcinoma; metastases; immunohistochemistry; fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Surveys were carried out to better understand the tick vector ecology and genetic diversity of Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV) in both regions of endemicity and regions of nonendemicity. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were dominant in regions of endemicity, while Rhipicephalus microplus is more abundant in regions of nonendemicity. HYSV RNA was found in human and both tick species, with greater prevalence in H. longicornis and lesser prevalence in R. microplus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that HYSV is a novel species of the genus Phlebovirus.