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1.  Characterization of lysophosphatidic acid subspecies produced by autotaxin using a modified HPLC ESI-MS/MS method 
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid with a plethora of biological functions including roles in cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Although high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC ESI-MS/MS) technology has been used to measure the levels of LPA in human blood, serum and plasma, current methods cannot readily detect the minute levels of LPA from cell culture. In this study, a modified HPLC ESI-MS/MS method with enhanced sensitivity was developed, which allows accurate measurements of LPA levels with a limit of quantitation at approximately 10 femtomoles. The method was validated by quantitation of LPA levels in the media of previously characterized cell lines ectopically expressing autotaxin. Specifically, autotaxin overexpression induced an increase in the 16:0, 18:2, 18:1, 18:0, and 20:4 subspecies of LPA, but not the 22:6 LPA subspecies. Lastly, this HPLC ESI-MS/MS method was cross-validated via biological assays previously utilized to assay LPA levels. Hence, this HPLC ESI-MS/MS method will allow researchers to measure in vitro LPA levels and also distinguish between specific LPA subspecies for the delineation of individual biological mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC3956132  PMID: 24648853
2.  SRSF1 (SRp30a) regulates the alternative splicing of caspase 9 via a novel intronic splicing enhancer affecting the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells 
Molecular cancer research : MCR  2011;9(7):889-900.
Increasing evidence points to the functional importance of alternative splice variations in cancer pathophysiology with the alternative pre-mRNA processing of caspase 9 as one example. In this study, we delve into the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate the alternative splicing of caspase 9. Specifically, the pre-mRNA sequence of caspase 9 was analyzed for RNA cis-elements known to interact with SRSF1, a required enhancer for caspase 9 RNA splicing. This analysis revealed thirteen possible RNA cis-elements for interaction with SRSF1 with mutagenesis of these RNA cis-elements identifying a strong intronic splicing enhancer located in intron 6 (C9-I6/ISE). SRSF1 specifically interacted with this sequence, which was required for SRSF1 to act as a splicing enhancer of the inclusion of the four exon cassette. To further determine the biological importance of this mechanism, we employed RNA oligonucleotides to redirect caspase 9 pre-mRNA splicing in favor of caspase 9b expression, which resulted in an increase in the IC50 of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to daunorubicin, cisplatinum, and paclitaxel. In contrast, downregulation of caspase 9b induced a decrease in the the IC50 of these chemotherapeutic drugs. Lastly, these studies demonstrated that caspase 9 RNA splicing was a major mechanism for the synergistic effects of combination therapy with daunorubicin and erlotinib. Overall, we have identified a novel intronic splicing enhancer that regulates caspase 9 RNA splicing and specifically interacts with SRSF1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the alternative splicing of caspase 9 is an important molecular mechanism with therapeutic relevance to NSCLCs.
PMCID: PMC3140550  PMID: 21622622
ceramide; non-small cell lung cancer; RNA trans-factor; tumor repressor; oncogene; ASF/SF2; SRp30a; SRSF1; chemotherapy; erlotinib; daunorubicin; cisplatinum; paclitaxel

Results 1-2 (2)