Peptide nucleic acids containing 2-pyrimidinone (P) and 3-oxo-2,3-dihydropyridazine (E) heterocycles recognized C-G and U-A inversions in a polypurine tract of double helical RNA with high affinity and sequence selectivity at pH 6.25. E-modified PNA bound strongly to bacterial A-site RNA, while no binding was observed to the human A-site RNA.
Blood-stage malaria vaccines that target single Plasmodium falciparum antigens involved in erythrocyte invasion have not induced optimal protection in field trials. Blood-stage malaria vaccine development has faced two major hurdles, antigenic polymorphisms and molecular redundancy, which have led to an inability to demonstrate potent, strain-transcending, invasion-inhibitory antibodies. Vaccines that target multiple invasion-related parasite proteins may inhibit erythrocyte invasion more efficiently. Our approach is to develop a receptor-blocking blood-stage vaccine against P. falciparum that targets the erythrocyte binding domains of multiple parasite adhesins, blocking their interaction with their receptors and thus inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. However, with numerous invasion ligands, the challenge is to identify combinations that elicit potent strain-transcending invasion inhibition. We evaluated the invasion-inhibitory activities of 20 different triple combinations of antibodies mixed in vitro against a diverse set of six key merozoite ligands, including the novel ligands P. falciparum apical asparagine-rich protein (PfAARP), EBA-175 (PfF2), P. falciparum reticulocyte binding-like homologous protein 1 (PfRH1), PfRH2, PfRH4, and Plasmodium thrombospondin apical merozoite protein (PTRAMP), which are localized in different apical organelles and are translocated to the merozoite surface at different time points during invasion. They bind erythrocytes with different specificities and are thus involved in distinct invasion pathways. The antibody combination of EBA-175 (PfF2), PfRH2, and PfAARP produced the most efficacious strain-transcending inhibition of erythrocyte invasion against diverse P. falciparum clones. This potent antigen combination was selected for coimmunization as a mixture that induced balanced antibody responses against each antigen and inhibited erythrocyte invasion efficiently. We have thus demonstrated a novel two-step screening approach to identify a potent antigen combination that elicits strong strain-transcending invasion inhibition, supporting its development as a receptor-blocking malaria vaccine.
Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents. In recent years, there has been an escalating interest in developing cannabis-derived medications to treat severe pain. This review provides an overview of the history of cannabis use in medicine, cannabinoid signaling pathways, and current data from preclinical as well as clinical studies on using cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents. Clinical and experimental studies show that cannabis-derived compounds act as anti-emetic, appetite modulating and analgesic agents. However, the efficacy of individual products is variable and dependent upon the route of administration. Since opioids are the only therapy for severe pain, analgesic ability of cannabinoids may provide a much-needed alternative to opioids. Moreover, cannabinoids act synergistically with opioids and act as opioid sparing agents, allowing lower doses and fewer side effects from chronic opioid therapy. Thus, rational use of cannabis based medications deserves serious consideration to alleviate the suffering of patients due to severe pain.
pain; cannabinoid; opioid; marijuana; cannabis; HIV/AIDS; cancer
To evaluate the prolongation of ventricular repolarization and proarrhythmic activity of antimalarial drug chloroquine in two rabbit proarrhythmia models viz., in vivo α1 adrenoceptor-stimulated anesthetized rabbit and ex vivo isolated Langendorff rabbit heart using clofilium as standard proarrhythmic agent.
Materials and Methods:
In the in vivo model, three groups of rabbits, anesthetized by pentobarbitone sodium and α-chloralose, sensitized with α1 agonist methoxamine followed by either continuous infusion of saline (control) or clofilium (3 mg/kg) or chloroquine (21 mg/kg) for 30 min. In ex vivo model, rabbit hearts were perfused with clofilium (10 μM) or chloroquine (300 μM) continuously after priming along with methoxamine, acetylcholine chloride and propranolol hydrochloride.
In these models, prolongation of repolarization during α1-adrenoceptor stimulation produced early after depolarization (EAD) and Torsade de pointes (TdP). Saline infusion did not induce any abnormality in the animals. Clofilium caused expected changes in the electrocardiogram in both the models including TdP (50.0% in in vivo and 66.67% in ex vivo). Chloroquine caused decrease in heart rate and increase in the corrected QT (QTc) interval in both the models. Further, apart from different stages of arrhythmia, TdP was evident in 33.33% in ex vivo model, whereas no TdP was observed in in vivo model.
The results indicated that proarrhythmic potential of chloroquine and clofilium was well evaluated in both the models; moreover, both the models can be used to assess the proarrhythmic potential of the new drug candidates.
α1 -Adrenoceptor stimulation; chloroquine; clofilium; torsade de pointes; in vivo rabbit model; ex vivo rabbit model
Medulloblastoma is a malignant childhood brain tumour comprising four discrete subgroups. To identify mutations that drive medulloblastoma we sequenced the entire genomes of 37 tumours and matched normal blood. One hundred and thirty-six genes harbouring somatic mutations in this discovery set were sequenced in an additional 56 medulloblastomas. Recurrent mutations were detected in 41 genes not yet implicated in medulloblastoma: several target distinct components of the epigenetic machinery in different disease subgroups, e.g., regulators of H3K27 and H3K4 trimethylation in subgroup-3 and 4 (e.g., KDM6A and ZMYM3), and CTNNB1-associated chromatin remodellers in WNT-subgroup tumours (e.g., SMARCA4 and CREBBP). Modelling of mutations in mouse lower rhombic lip progenitors that generate WNT-subgroup tumours, identified genes that maintain this cell lineage (DDX3X) as well as mutated genes that initiate (CDH1) or cooperate (PIK3CA) in tumourigenesis. These data provide important new insights into the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma subgroups and highlight targets for therapeutic development.
Double helical RNA has become an attractive target for molecular recognition because many non-coding RNAs play important roles in control of gene expression. Recently, we discovered that short peptide nucleic acids (PNA) bind strongly and sequence selectively to a homopurine tract of double helical RNA via triple helix formation. Herein we tested if the molecular recognition of RNA can be enhanced by α-guanidine modification of PNA. Our study was motivated by the discovery of Ly and co-workers that the guanidine modification greatly enhances the cellular delivery of PNA. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the guanidine-modified PNA (GPNA) had reduced affinity and sequence selectivity for triple helical recognition of RNA. The data suggested that in contrast to unmodified PNA, which formed a 1:1 PNA-RNA triple helix, GPNA preferred a 2:1 GPNA-RNA triplex-invasion complex. Nevertheless, promising results were obtained for recognition of biologically relevant double helical RNA. Consistent with enhanced strand invasion ability, GPNA derived from D-arginine recognized the transactivation response element (TAR) of HIV-1 with high affinity and sequence selectivity, presumably via Watson-Crick duplex formation. On the other hand, strong and sequence selective triple helices were formed by unmodified and nucelobase-modified PNAs and the purine rich strand of bacterial A-site. These results suggest that appropriate chemical modifications of PNA may enhance molecular recognition of complex non-coding RNAs.
The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS.
Materials and methods
Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS.
PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in the hydrocortisone induced cataract model. Moreover, PHF exhibited anti-inflammatory activity whereby it showed 39.34% inhibition of LTB4 formation and significantly inhibited carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. Eight compounds of PHF viz. camphor, casticin, curcumin-II, quercetin, rosmarinic acid, γ-terpinene, β-pinene and dipentene exhibited transcorneal penetration in rabbit eyes.
The significant antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities evinced by the PHF merits further investigation for ocular neovascular and inflammatory diseases in humans.
Polyherbal; Antiangiogenic; Anti-inflammatory; Anticataract; Antioxidant; Cytotoxicity; LC-MS/MS
A major mechanism of monoclonal antibodies that selectively target the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) to inhibit tumor growth is by downregulating the receptor, regardless whether they are capable (antagonistic) or incapable (agonistic) of blocking the binding of cognate ligands. We have developed and characterized a novel agonistic anti-IGF-1R humanized antibody, hR1, and used the Dock-and-Lock (DNL) method to construct Hex-hR1, the first multivalent antibody comprising 6 functional Fabs of hR1, with the aim of enhancing potency of hR1. Based on cross-blocking experiments, hR1 recognizes a region of cysteine-rich domain on the α-subunit, different from the epitopes mapped for existing anti-IGF-1R antibodies, yet hR1 is similar to other anti-IGF-1R antibodies in downregulating IGF-1R and inhibiting proliferation, colony formation, or invasion of selected cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as suppressing growth of the RH-30 rhabdomyosarcoma xenograft in nude mice when combined with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. Hex-hR1 and hR1 are generally comparable in their bioactivities under the in-intro and in-vivo conditions investigated. Nevertheless, in selective experiments involving a direct comparison of potency, Hex-hR1 demonstrated a stronger effect on inhibiting cell proliferation stimulated by IGF-1 and could effectively downregulate IGF-1R at a concentration as low as 20 pM.
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are often treated with opioids for severe pain. Although opioids are known to have renal-specific effects, their role in nephropathy in SCD remains unknown. Because a subset of patients receives opioids for long periods of time, we examined the influence of chronic morphine treatment on mice with pre-existing renal disease expressing varying amounts of sickle hemoglobin. Morphine treatment for 3–6 weeks resulted in a variety of defects in renal morphology observed using light and electron microscopy. Notably, morphine induced glomerular pathology, resulting in increased glomerular volume, mesangial expansion, mesangial cell proliferation, parietal cell metaplasia, podocyte effacement, and microvillus transformation. Cystic tubulopathy and hemeoxygenase-1 expression and activity were also increased in morphine-treated mice. Naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor (OR) antagonist, ameliorated these effects. Functionally, the urine albumin to creatinine ratio was increased following acute as well as chronic morphine treatment. These results suggest that clinically relevant doses of morphine induce renal pathology and that OR antagonists may be effective for ameliorating morphine-induced renal disease.
mesangial cell; morphine; nephropathy; pain; podocyte; sickle cell disease
Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of the RB1 gene. To identify the mutations that cooperate with RB1 loss, we performed whole-genome sequencing of retinoblastomas. The overall mutational rate was very low; RB1 was the only known cancer gene mutated. We then evaluated RB1’s role in genome stability and considered nongenetic mechanisms of cancer pathway deregulation. Here we show that the retinoblastoma genome is stable, but multiple cancer pathways can be epigenetically deregulated. For example, the proto-oncogene SYK is upregulated in retinoblastoma and is required for tumor cell survival. Targeting SYK with a small-molecule inhibitor induced retinoblastoma tumor cell death in vitro and in vivo. Thus, RB1 inactivation may allow preneoplastic cells to acquire multiple hallmarks of cancer through epigenetic mechanisms, resulting directly or indirectly from RB1 loss. These data provide novel targets for chemotherapeutic interventions of retinoblastoma.
Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of unknown genetic basis. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 12 ETP ALL cases and assessed the frequency of the identified somatic mutations in 94 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases. ETP ALL was characterized by activating mutations in genes regulating cytokine receptor and RAS signalling (67% of cases; NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, IL7R, JAK3, JAK1, SH2B3 and BRAF), inactivating lesions disrupting haematopoietic development (58%; GATA3, ETV6, RUNX1, IKZF1 and EP300) and histone-modifying genes (48%; EZH2, EED, SUZ12, SETD2 and EP300). We also identified new targets of recurrent mutation including DNM2, ECT2L and RELN. The mutational spectrum is similar to myeloid tumours, and moreover, the global transcriptional profile of ETP ALL was similar to that of normal and myeloid leukaemia haematopoietic stem cells. These findings suggest that addition of myeloid-directed therapies might improve the poor outcome of ETP ALL.
Bronchopulmonary sequestration represents a spectrum of abnormalities. One of these abnormalities is an aberrant systemic arterial supply to a normal lung with no bronchial sequestration. These lesions were originally classified by Pryce as type 1. Most of these patients are asymptomatic but with time, many patients develop localized pulmonary hypertension, hemoptysis, and eventually high output cardiac failure. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) plays an important role in the diagnosis and planning of definitive treatment by identifying the origin and course of the aberrant artery. Definitive treatment can be surgical (lobectomy or segmentectomy) or endovascular.
Sequestration; Pryce type 1; Hemoptysis
Intra-arterial injections during CT scan examinations are a rare occurrence in day-to-day radiology practice but are of potential significance when they do occur. They render an imaging study non-diagnostic, and for imaging techniques like CT scan, expose patient to undue radiation dose. Equally disturbing for both patient and clinicians, including radiologists, is the need for repeat imaging. For certain emergency indications, such an event may yield erroneous results and severely hamper patient's management. We report one such event that occurred in our cardiac CT scan section with the aim to raise awareness about such events among our colleagues.
Arterial variation; coronary CT angiography; intra-arterial injection
To determine external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of temporal bone in patients with microtia and to predict anatomic external and middle ear anomalies as well as the degree of functional hearing impairment based on clinical grades of microtia.
Materials and Methods:
It was a retrospective study conducted on Indian population. Fifty-two patients with microtia were evaluated for external, middle, and inner ear anomalies on HRCT of temporal bone. Clinical grading of microtia was done based on criteria proposed by Weerda et al. in 37 patients and degree of hearing loss was assessed using pure tone audiometry or brainstem-evoked response in 32 patients. Independent statistical correlations of clinical grades of micotia with both external and middle ear anomalies detected on HRCT and the degree of hearing loss were finally obtained.
The external, middle, and inner ear anomalies were present in 93.1%, 74.5%, and 2.7% patients, respectively. Combined cartilaginous and bony external auditory canal atresia (EAC) was the most common anatomic abnormality in our group of microtia patients. Hypoplastic mesotympanum represented the commonest middle ear anomaly. The incidence of combined ossicular dysplasia and facial canal anomalies was lower as compared to other population groups; however, we recorded a greater incidence of cholesteatoma. Both these factors can have a substantial impact on outcome of patients planned for surgery. We found no significant association between grades of microtia and external or middle ear anomalies. Similarly, no significant association was found between lower grades of microtia (grade I and II) and degree of hearing loss. However, association between grade III microtia and degree of hearing loss was significant. A significant association between congenital cholesteatoma and degree of pneumatization of atretic plate and mastoid process not previously studied was also recorded in our study.
External auditory canal; high-resolution computed tomography; microtia; middle ear anomalies; temporal bone
The craniofacial region is a rare site for chondrosarcomas. These tumors may have osseous or extraosseous origin. Extraosseous chondrosarcomas have the same histological features as osseous chondrosarcomas. Chondrosarcomas usually present in the fifth to seventh decades of life, although several cases with younger age at presentation have been reported. They usually present as a painless mass that gradually progresses to various complaints, such visual impairment, nasal obstruction, and dental abnormalities. In this article, we present two cases of chondrosarcoma occurring at rather unusual locations. It is important to keep this rare malignancy in the list of differential diagnoses for a mass in the head and neck region, as these tumors may not always show the features typical of this malignancy.
Craniofacial chondrosarcoma; Extraosseous chondrosarcomas; Head and neck chondrosarcomas; Head and neck masses; Sinonasal chondrosarcoma
Bone tumors include a variety of lesions, both primary and metastatic. The treatment modalities for bone tumors vary with the individual lesion, but in general surgical excision is the treatment of choice with other adjunctive therapies. However, surgery for many bone tumors is complex due to several factors including tumor bulk, vascularity, vicinity to vital structures and potentially inaccessible location of the lesion. Transarterial Embolisation (TAE) is one of the important adjuvant treatment modalities and in some cases it may be the primary and curative treatment. Preoperative TAE has proved to be effective in both primary and metastatic bone tumors. It reduces tumor vascularity and intraoperative blood loss, the need for blood transfusion and associated complications, allows better definition of tissue planes at surgery affording more complete excision, and hence reduced recurrence. Preoperative chemoEmbolisation has also been shown to increase the sensitivity of some tumors to subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There are several techniques and embolic agents available for this purpose, but the ultimate aim is to achieve tumor devascularization. In this review, we discuss the techniques including the choice of embolic agent, application to individual lesions and potential complications.
Blood loss; Surgical; Bone tumors; Embolisation; Radiology; Interventional
To identify the fracture patterns and mechanism of injury, based on subaxial cervical spine injury classification system (SLIC), on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) of cervical spine predictive of vertebral artery injury (VAI).
Patients and Methods:
We retrospectively analyzed cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 320 patients who were admitted with cervical spine injury in our level I regional trauma center over a period of two years (April 2010 to April 2012). Diagnosis of VAI was based on hyperintensity replacing the flow void on a T2-weighted axial image. NCCT images of the selected 43 patients with MRI diagnosis of VAI were then assessed for the pattern of injury. The cervical spinal injuries were classified into those involving the C1 and C2 and subaxial spine. For the latter, SLIC was used.
A total of 47 VAI were analyzed in 43 patients. Only one patient with VAI on MRI had no detectable abnormality on NCCT. C1 and C2 injuries were found in one and six patients respectively. In subaxial injuries, the most common mechanism of injury was distraction (37.5%) with facet dislocation with or without fracture representing the most common pattern of injury (55%). C5 was the single most common affected vertebral level. Extension to foramen transversarium was present in 20 (42.5%) cases.
CT represents a robust screening tool for patients with VAI. VAI should be suspected in patients with facet dislocation with or without fractures, foramina transversarium fractures and C1-C3 fractures, especially type III odontoid fractures and distraction mechanism of injury.
Blunt cerebrovascular injury; cervical spine injury; magnetic resonance imaging; vertebral artery injury
Entrainment mapping of ischemic ventricular tachycardia at a site in the left ventricle where radiofrequency ablation was successful in terminating the tachycardia revealed a post-pacing interval shorter than the tachycardia cycle length. The reason for the same is explained in the current report.
entrainment; post-pacing interval; ventricular tachycardia
The cytokine melanoma differentiation associated gene 7 (mda-7) was identified by subtractive hybridization as a protein whose expression increased during the induction of terminal differentiation, and that was either not expressed or was present at low levels in tumor cells compared to non-transformed cells. Based on conserved structure, chromosomal location and cytokine-like properties, MDA-7, was classified as a member of the interleukin (IL)-10 gene family and designated as MDA-7/IL-24. Multiple studies have demonstrated that expression of MDA-7/IL-24 in a wide variety of tumor cell types, but not in corresponding equivalent non-transformed cells, causes their growth arrest and rapid cell death. In addition, MDA-7/IL-24 has been noted to radiosensitize tumor cells which in part is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ceramide that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress and suppress protein translation. Phase I clinical trial data has shown that a recombinant adenovirus expressing MDA-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7 (INGN-241)) was safe and had measurable tumoricidal effects in over 40% of patients, strongly arguing that MDA-7/IL-24 could have significant therapeutic value. This review describes what is presently known about the impact of MDA-7/IL-24 on tumor cell biology and its potential therapeutic applications.
MDA-7; IL-24; Apoptosis; Autophagy; Ceramide; ROS; Ca2+; Clinical trial; Signal transduction; PERK; ER stress; MCL-1
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a novel cytokine displaying selective apoptosis-inducing activity in transformed cells without harming normal cells. The present studies focused on defining the mechanism(s) by which a GST-MDA-7 fusion protein inhibits cell survival of primary human glioma cells in vitro. GST-MDA-7 killed glioma cells with diverse genetic characteristics that correlated with inactivation of ERK1/2 and activation of JNK1-3. Activation of JNK1-3 was dependent on protein kinase R–like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and GST-MDA-7 lethality was suppressed in PERK−/− cells. JNK1-3 signaling activated BAX, whereas inhibition of JNK1-3, deletion of BAX, or expression of dominant-negative caspase-9 suppressed lethality. GST-MDA-7 also promoted a PERK-, JNK-, and cathepsin B–dependent cleavage of BID; loss of BID function promoted survival. GST-MDA-7 suppressed BAD and BIM phosphorylation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression. GST-MDA-7 caused PERK-dependent vacuolization of LC3-expressing endosomes whose formation was suppressed by incubation with 3-methylade-nine, expression of HSP70 or BiP/GRP78, or knockdown of ATG5 or Beclin-1 expression but not by inhibition of the JNK1-3 pathway. Knockdown of ATG5 or Beclin-1 expression or overexpression of HSP70 reduced GST-MDA-7 lethality. Our data show that GST-MDA-7 induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response that is causal in the activation of multiple proapoptotic pathways, which converge on the mitochondrion and highlight the complexity of signaling pathways altered by mda-7/IL-24 in glioma cells that ultimately culminate in decreased tumor cell survival.
The novel cytokine melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7) was identified by subtractive hybridization in the mid-1990s as a protein whose expression increased during the induction of terminal differentiation, and that was either not expressed or was present at low levels in tumor cells compared to non-transformed cells. Based on conserved structure, chromosomal location and cytokine-like properties, MDA-7, has now been classified as a member of the expanding interleukin (IL)-10 gene family and designated as MDA-7/IL-24. Multiple studies have demonstrated that expression of MDA-7/IL-24 in a wide variety of tumor cell types, but not in corresponding equivalent non-transformed cells, causes their growth arrest and ultimately cell death. In addition, MDA-7/IL-24 has been noted to be a radiosensitizing cytokine, which in part is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ceramide that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress. Phase I clinical trial data has shown that a recombinant adenovirus expressing MDA-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7 (INGN-241)) was safe and had measurable tumoricidal effects in over 40% of patients, which strongly argues that MDA-7/IL-24 may have significant therapeutic value. This review describes what is known about the impact of MDA-7/IL-24 on tumor cell biology and its potential therapeutic applications.
MDA-7: melanoma differentiation associated gene 7
Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs) include aneurysms of the splanchnic circulation and those of the renal artery. Their diagnosis is clinically important because of the associated high mortality and potential complications. Splenic, superior mesenteric, gastroduodenal, hepatic and renal arteries are some of the common arteries affected by VAAs. Though surgical resection and anastomosis still remains the treatment of choice in some of the cases, especially cases involving the proximal arteries, increasingly endovascular treatment is being used for more distal vessels. We present a pictorial review of various intra-abdominal VAAs and their endovascular management.
Visceral arterial aneurysm; Pseudoaneurysm; Endovascular management; Coil embolization; Imaging