The basic metrics of hypermetabolism have not been thoroughly characterized in rat burn injury models. We examined three models expected to differ in sensitivity to burn injury to identify that which group(s) exhibited the most clinically relevant metabolic response. Six and 12 weeks old male CD (6 week mCD and 12 week mCD) rats, and 12 weeks old female Fischer (12 week fFI) rats received a 20% total body surface area burn, followed by saline resuscitation. Activity, core body temperature, heart rate (via implanted telemetry devices), body weight, food and water intake, and fecal output were measured daily for 1 week before and after burn. Rats lost weight initially postburn but resumed weight gain by 1 week, except for 12 week mCD rats. Core body temperature increased above normal 2 days postburn and returned to baseline by 1 week. Food intake, normalized to body weight, remained unchanged postburn for 12 week mCD rats, but decreased in 6 week mCD rats and increased in 12 week fFI rats. Heart rate in the 12 week mCD and 12 week fFI rats remained at 10 to 15% above baseline, whereas, in 6 week mCD, heart rates returned to baseline after 4 days. Activity levels were unchanged for 12 week fFI and 6 week mCD rats postburn, but decreased for 12 week mCD rats. Postburn hypermetabolism was most significant and sustained in 12 week mCD rats, of least consequence and brief in 6 week mCD rats, and intermediate in 12 week fFI rats. The disparate responses indicate that the choice of animal model should be carefully considered in hypermetabolism studies.
The current application for many potential cell-based treatments for liver failure is limited by the low availability of mature functional hepatocytes. Although adult hepatocytes have a remarkable ability to proliferate in vivo, attempts to proliferate adult hepatocytes in vitro have been less successful. In this study, we investigated the effect of coculture cell type on the proliferative response and the functional activities of hepatocytes. We show, for the first time, a robust proliferative response of primary adult rat hepatocytes when cocultured with mouse 3T3-J2 fibroblasts. Hepatocytes cultured at low density on growth-arrested 3T3-J2 fibroblast feeder layers underwent significantly higher proliferation rates than when cultured on feeder layers made of four other cell types. Increasing colony size correlated with an increase in hepatocellular functions. The proliferating hepatocytes retained their morphologic, phenotypic, and functional characteristics. Using a cell patterning technique, we found that 3T3-J2 fibroblasts stimulate DNA synthesis in hepatocytes by short-range heterotypic cell–cell interactions. When hepatocytes that proliferated in cocultures were harvested and further subcultured either on 3T3-J2 fibroblast feeders or in the collagen sandwich configuration, their behavior was similar to that of freshly isolated hepatocytes. We conclude that adult rat hepatocytes can proliferate in vitro in a coculture cell type-dependent manner, and can be serially propagated by coculturing with 3T3-J2 fibroblasts while maintaining their differentiated characteristics. Our results also suggest that one of the major reasons for the functional differences in hepatocyte cocultures may be due to the different proliferative responses of hepatocytes as a function of coculture cell type. This study provides new insights in the roles of coculture cell types and cell–cell interactions in the modulation of hepatic proliferation and function.
hepatocyte proliferation; coculture; DNA synthesis; cell patterning; subculture
Utilizing livers from donors after cardiac death could significantly expand the donor pool. We have previously shown that normothermic (37°C) extracorporeal liver perfusion significantly improves transplantation outcomes of ischemic rat livers. Here we investigate whether recovery of ischemic livers is possible using sub-normothermic machine perfusion at 20°C and 30°C.
Livers from male Lewis rats were divided into five groups after 1 h of warm ischemia (WI): (1) WI only, (2) 5 h of static cold storage (SCS), or 5 h of MP at (3) 20°C, (4) 30°C, and (5) 37°C. Long-term graft performance was evaluated for 28 d post-transplantation. Acute graft performance was evaluated during a 2 h normothermic sanguineous reperfusion ex vivo. Fresh livers with 5 h of SCS were positive transplant controls while fresh livers were positive reperfusion controls.
Following machine perfusion (MP) (Groups 3, 4, and 5), ischemically damaged livers could be orthotopically transplanted into syngeneic recipients with 100% survival (N ≥ 4) after 4 wk. On the other hand, animals from WI only, or WI + SCS groups all died within 24 h of transplantation. Fresh livers preserved using SCS had the highest alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the lowest bile production during reperfusion, while at 28 d post-transplantation, livers preserved at 20°C and 30°C had the highest total bilirubin values.
MP at both 20°C and 30°C eliminated temperature control in perfusion systems and recovered ischemically damaged rat livers. Postoperatively, low transaminases suggest a beneficial effect of subnormothermic perfusion, while rising total bilirubin levels suggest inadequate prevention of ischemia- or hypothermia-induced biliary damage.
liver transplantation; reperfusion injury; sub-normothermic machine perfusion
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a serious clinical condition that is associated with high mortality. There is evidence that FHF is an inflammatory disease, which is supported clinically by elevated serum levels of cytokines. In an effort to develop hepatocytes with additional functions for use in our bioartificial liver (BAL) device, we focused on interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockade as a therapeutic modality. Primary porcine hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of miniature swine and then transfected with an adenoviral vector encoding human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (AdIL-1Ra). The transfected hepatocytes secreted human IL-1Ra. These transfected hepatocytes were incorporated into a flat-plate BAL device to evaluate their efficacy in treating D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced FHF in a rat model. After extracorporeal perfusion with the BAL device containing the transfected hepatocytes, there were significant reductions in the plasma levels of hepatic enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) and cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6), indicating a beneficial effect. Animal survival was significantly improved in the treated group compared to the control group. These experiments demonstrate that combining inflammatory cytokine blockade with a functional BAL device may be an effective therapeutic option in the treatment of FHF.
Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for many patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). A major limitation of this treatment is the lack of available donors. An optimally functioning bio-artificial liver (BAL) device has the potential to provide critical hepatic support to patients with FHF. In this study, we examined the efficacy of combining interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor blockade with the synthetic function of hepatocytes in a BAL device for the treatment of FHF.
Materials and methods
We injected an adenoviral vector encoding human IL-1 receptor antagonist (AdIL-1Ra) into the liver of D-galactosamine (GalN) intoxicated rats via the portal vein. We also transfected primary rat hepatocytes and reversibly immortalized human hepatocytes (TTNT cells) with AdIL-1Ra, and incorporated these transfected hepatocytes into our flat-plate BAL device and evaluated their efficacy in our GalN-induced FHF rat model after 10 h of extracorporeal perfusion.
Rats injected with AdIL-1Ra showed significant reductions in the plasma levels of hepatic enzymes. Primary rat hepatocytes transfected with AdIL-1Ra secreted IL-1Ra without losing their original synthetic function. Incorporating these cells into the BAL device and testing in a GalN-induced FHF rat model resulted in significant reductions in plasma IL-6 levels and significantly improved animal survival. Incorporating the AdIL-1Ra transfected TTNT cells in the BAL device and testing in the GalN-induced FHF rat model resulted in significantly reduced plasma IL-6 levels, and a trend toward improved survival was seen.
Hepatocytes producing IL-1Ra are a promising cell source for BAL devices in the treatment of GalN-induced FHF.
fulminant hepatic failure; primary rat hepatocytes; immortalized human hepatocytes; interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; bio-artificial liver device
Severe injury activates many stress-related and inflammatory pathways that can lead to a systemic hyper-metabolic state. Prior studies using perfused hypermetabolic rat livers have identified intrinsic metabolic flux changes that were not dependent upon the continual presence of elevated stress hormones and substrate loads. We investigated the hypothesis that such changes may be due to persistent alterations in gene expression. A systemic hypermetabolic response was induced in rats by applying a moderate burn injury followed 2 days later by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) to produce sepsis. Control animals received a sham-burn followed by CLP, or a sham-burn followed by sham-CLP. Two days after CLP, livers were analyzed for gene expression changes using DNA microarrays and for meta-bolism alterations by ex vivo perfusion coupled with Meta-bolic Flux Analysis. Burn injury prior to CLP increased fluxes while decreases in gene expression levels were observed. Conversely, CLP alone significantly increased metabolic gene expression, but decreased many of the corresponding meta-bolic fluxes. Burn injury combined with CLP led to the most dramatic changes, where concurrent changes in fluxes and gene expression levels occurred in about 1/3 of the reactions. The data are consistent with the notion that in this model, burn injury prior to CLP increased fluxes through post-translational mechanisms with little contribution of gene expression, while CLP treatment up-regulated the metabolic machinery by transcriptional mechanisms. Overall, these data show that mRNA changes measured at a single time point by DNA microarray analysis do not reliably predict metabolic flux changes in perfused livers.
hypermetabolism; liver perfusion; metabolic flux analysis; DNA microarray analysis
While dermal substitutes can mitigate scarring and wound contraction, a significant drawback of current dermal replacement technologies is the apparent delay in vascular ingrowth compared with conventional skin grafts. Herein, we examined the effect of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) on the performance of a porous collagen–glycosaminoglycan dermal analog in excisional wounds in mice. C57BL/6 mice with 1 cm×1 cm dorsal full-thickness wounds were covered with a collagen–glycosaminoglycan scaffold, followed by four daily topical applications of 1 μg SDF-1 or phosphate-buffered saline vehicle. Some animals were also pretreated with five daily doses of 300 mg/kg granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Animals treated with SDF-1 and no granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reepithelialized 36% faster than vehicle controls (16 vs. 25 days), and exhibited less wound contraction on postwounding day 18 (~35% greater wound area) plus three-fold longer neoepidermis formed than controls. Conversely, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor promoted contraction and no epidermal regeneration. Early (postwounding Day 3) inflammatory cell infiltration in the SDF-1-treated group was 86% less, while the fraction of proliferating cells (positive Ki67 staining) was 32% more, when compared with controls. These results suggest that SDF-1 simultaneously delays contraction and promotes reepithelialization and may improve the wound-healing performance of skin substitutes.
The current state of the art for linear optimization in Flux Balance Analysis has been limited to single objective functions. Since mammalian systems perform various functions, a multiobjective approach is needed when seeking optimal flux distributions in these systems. In most of the available multiobjective optimization methods, there is a lack of understanding of when to use a particular objective, and how to combine and/or prioritize mutually competing objectives to achieve a truly optimal solution. To address these limitations we developed a soft constraints based linear physical programming-based flux balance analysis (LPPFBA) framework to obtain a multiobjective optimal solutions. The developed framework was first applied to compute a set of multiobjective optimal solutions for various pairs of objectives relevant to hepatocyte function (urea secretion, albumin, NADPH, and glutathione syntheses) in bioartificial liver systems. Next, simultaneous analysis of the optimal solutions for three objectives was carried out. Further, this framework was utilized to obtain true optimal conditions to improve the hepatic functions in a simulated bioartificial liver system. The combined quantitative and visualization framework of LPPFBA is applicable to any large-scale metabolic network system, including those derived by genomic analyses.
Bioartificial Liver; Hepatocytes/Linear Physical Programming; Metabolic Networks; Multiobjective Optimization; Pareto Optimality
Donors after Cardiac Death present a significant pool of untapped organs for transplantation, and use of machine perfusion strategies has been an active focus area in experimental transplantation. However, despite two decades of research, a gold standard is yet to emerge for machine perfusion systems and protocols.
Whole blood reperfusion has been used as a surrogate for organ transplantation, especially as a model for the short-term response post transplantation, for optimization of perfusion systems. While it is known that there is a strong correlation between liver function in whole-blood reperfusion and survival, the exact nature of these correlations, and to what extent they can be considered as an indicator of viability for transplantation/recipient survival, remain unclear.
In this work, we demonstrate that diluted whole-blood reperfusion can be used as a direct model for transplantation of ischemic rat liver grafts. Moreover, it was shown that recipient survival can be predicted based simply on the value of ALT during perfusion, and quantitative criteria of viability was developed for use in this animal model. These results indicate that in the rat model graft survival is highly correlated to hepatocellular damage.
Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling microenvironments in which cell behavior can be observed. Here we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocytes on micropatterned fibroblast feeder layers using microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils. We fabricated PDMS stencils to pattern circular holes with diameters of 500 µm. Hepatocytes were co-cultured with 3T3-J2 fibroblasts in two types of patterns to evaluate and characterize the cellular interactions in the co-culture systems. Results of this study demonstrated uniform intracellular albumin staining and E-cadherin expression, increased liver-specific functions, and active glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes when the heterotypic interface between hepatocytes and fibroblasts was increased by the layered patterning technique. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening, and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of bioartificial liver devices.
hepatocytes; co-culture; layered cell patterning; cellular interactions; fibroblasts
Fatty liver is a significant risk factor for liver transplantation, and accounts for nearly half of the livers rejected from the donor pool. We hypothesized that metabolic preconditioning via ex vivo perfusion of the liver graft can reduce fat content and increase post-transplant survival to an acceptable range. We describe a perfusate medium containing agents that promote the defatting of hepatocytes and explanted livers. Defatting agents were screened on cultured hepatocytes made fatty by pre-incubation with fatty acids. The most effective agents were then used on fatty livers. Fatty livers were isolated from obese Zucker rats and normothermically perfused with medium containing a combination of defatting agents. This combination decreased the intracellular lipid content of cultured hepatocytes by 35% over 24 hours, and of perfused livers by 50% over 3 hours. Metabolite analysis suggests that the defatting cocktail upregulated both lipid oxidation and export. Furthermore, gene expression analysis for several enzymes and transcription factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride clearance were elevated. We conclude that a cocktail of defatting agents can be used to rapidly clear excess lipid storage in fatty livers, thus providing a new means to recondition donor livers deemed unacceptable or marginally acceptable for transplantation.
nuclear receptors; normothermic perfusion; hepatocytes; steatosis; liver transplantation
Steatosis decreases survival of liver grafts after transplantation due to poorly understood mechanisms. We examined the effect of steatosis on the survival of liver grafts in a rat liver transplantation model and the viability of cultured rat hepatocytes after hypoxia and reoxygenation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Rats were fed a choline and methionine-deficient diet (CMDD) to induce hepatic steatosis and the livers were transplanted into recipient rats after 6 h of cold storage. Cultured hepatocytes were made steatotic by incubation for 3 days in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Hypoxia and reoxygenation were induced by placing the cultures in a 90% N2/10% CO2 atmosphere for 4 h, followed by return to normoxic conditions for 6 h. Hepatocyte viability was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase release and mitochondrial potential staining.
Transplanted steatotic livers exhibited 0% viability compared to 90% for lean liver controls. When donor CMDD rats were returned to a normal diet, hepatic fat content decreased while viability of the grafts after transplantation increased. Cultured steatotic hepatocytes generated more mitochondrial superoxide, exhibited a lowered mitochondrial membrane potential, and released significantly more lactate dehydrogenase after hypoxia and reoxygenation than lean hepatocyte controls. When steatotic hepatocytes were defatted by incubating in fatty acid-free medium, they became less sensitive to hypoxia and reoxygenation as the remaining intracellular triglyceride content decreased.
Hepatic steatosis reversibly decreases viability of hepatocytes after hypoxia and reoxygenation in vitro. The decreased viability of steatotic livers after transplantation may be due to a direct effect of hypoxia and reoxygenation on hepatocytes, and can be reversed by defatting.
steatosis; liver transplantation; choline and methionine-deficient diet; intracellular triglyceride; defatting
Liver transplantation is currently the only established treatment for end-stage liver disease, but it is limited by a severe shortage of viable donor livers. Donors after cardiac death (DCD) are an untapped source that could significantly increase the pool of available livers. Preservation of these DCD livers by conventional static cold storage (SCS) is associated with an unacceptable risk of primary non-function and delayed graft failure. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) has been suggested as an improvement over SCS.
Livers recovered from male Lewis rats were subjected to 1hr of warm ischemia and preserved with 5hrs of SCS or NELP, and transplanted into syngeneic recipients. As additional controls, non-ischemic livers preserved with 6hrs of SCS or NELP and unpreserved ischemic livers were transplanted.
Following NELP, ischemically damaged livers could be orthotopically transplanted into syngeneic recipients with 92% survival (N=13) after 4 weeks, which was comparable to control animals which received healthy livers preserved by SCS (N=9) or NELP (N=11) for 6hrs. On the other hand, animals from ischemia/SCS control group all died within 12hrs post-operatively (N=6). Similarly, animals that received ischemic livers without preservation all died within 24hrs after transplantation (N=6).
These results suggest that NELP has the potential to reclaim warm ischemic livers that would not be transplantable otherwise. The rat model in this study is a useful platform to further optimize NELP as a method of recovery and preservation of DCD livers.
transplantation; reperfusion injury; machine perfusion; preservation; preconditioning
Embryonic stem cell-derived endoderm is critical for the development of cellular therapies for the treatment of disease such as diabetes, liver cirrhosis, or pulmonary emphysema. Here, we describe a novel approach to induce endoderm from mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) using fibronectin-coated collagen gels. This technique results in a homogenous endoderm-like cell population, demonstrating endoderm-specific gene and protein expression, which remains committed following in vivo transplantation. In this system, activin, normally an endoderm inducer caused an 80% decrease in the Foxa2 positive endoderm fraction, while follistatin increased the Foxa2 positive endoderm fraction to 78%. Our work suggests that activin delays the induction of endoderm through it transient precursors, the epiblast and mesendoderm. Long term differentiation, displays a two-fold reduction in hepatic gene expression and three-fold reduction in hepatic protein expression of activin-treated cells compared to follistatin-treated cells. Moreover, subcutaneous transplantation of activin-treated cells in a syngeneic mouse generated a heterogeneous teratoma-like mass, suggesting these were a more primitive population. In contrast, follistatin-treated cells resulted in an encapsulated epithelial-like mass, suggesting these cells remained committed to the endoderm lineage. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel technique to induce the direct differentiation of endoderm from mES cells without cell sorting. In addition, our work suggests a new role for activin in induction of the precursors to endoderm, and a new endoderm-enrichment technique using follistatin.
Activin; Endoderm; Collagen Gel; Embryonic Stem Cells (Mouse); Follistatin; Epiblast
Extending transplant criteria to include livers obtained from donor after cardiac death (DCD) could increase the liver donor pool, but conventional simple cold storage of these ischemic organs can lead to poor graft function after transplantation. Experimental normothermic machine perfusion has previously proven to be useful for the recovery and preservation of DCD livers, but it is more complicated than conventional cold storage, and is therefore perhaps not practical during the entire preservation period. In clinical situations, the combined use of simple cold storage and normothermic perfusion preservation of DCD livers might be more realistic, but even a brief period of cold storage prior to normothermic preservation has been suggested to have a negative impact on graft viability. In this study we show that rat livers subjected to 45 minutes of ex-vivo warm ischemia followed by 2 hours of simple cold storage can be reclaimed by 4 hours of normothermic machine perfusion. These livers could be orthotopically transplanted into syngeneic recipients with 100% survival after 4 weeks (N=10), similar to the survival of animals that received fresh livers that were stored on ice in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution for 6 hours (N=6). On the other hand, rats that received ischemic livers preserved on ice in UW solution for 6 hours (N = 6) all died within 12 hours after transplantation. These results suggest that normothermic perfusion can be used to reclaim DCD livers subjected to an additional period of cold ischemia during hypothermic storage.
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to prevent the development of liver fibrosis in a number of pre-clinical studies. Marked changes in liver histopathology and serological markers of liver function have been observed without a clear understanding of the therapeutic mechanism by which stem cells act. We sought to determine if MSCs could modulate the activity of resident liver cells, specifically hepatic stellate cells (SCs) by paracrine mechanisms using indirect cocultures. Indirect coculture of MSCs and activated SCs led to a significant decrease in collagen deposition and proliferation, while inducing apoptosis of activated SCs. The molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of SC activity by MSCs were examined. IL-6 secretion from activated SCs induced IL-10 secretion from MSCs, suggesting a dynamic response of MSCs to the SCs in the microenvironment. Blockade of MSC-derived IL-10 and TNF-α abolished the inhibitory effects of MSCs on SC proliferation and collagen synthesis. In addition, release of HGF by MSCs was responsible for the marked induction of apoptosis in SCs as determined by antibody-neutralization studies. These findings demonstrate that MSCs can modulate the function of activated SCs via paracrine mechanisms provide a plausible explanation for the protective role of MSCs in liver inflammation and fibrosis, which may also be relevant to other models of tissue fibrosis.
stem cell; fibrosis; immunomodulation; liver injury
In this study we present the development and the characterization of a generic platform for cell culture able to monitor extracellular ionic activities (K+, NH4+) for real-time monitoring of cell-based responses, such as necrosis, apoptosis or differentiation. The platform for cell culture is equipped with an array of 16 silicon nitride micropipette-based ion-selective microelectrodes with a diameter of either 2 or 6 μm. This array is located at the bottom of a 200 μm wide and 350 μm deep microwell where the cells are cultured. The characterization of the ion-selective microelectrode arrays in different standard and physiological solutions is presented. Near Nernstian slopes were obtained for potassium- (58.6 ± 0.8 mV/pK, n=15) and ammonium-selective microelectrodes (59.4 ± 3.9 mV/pNH4, n=13). The calibration curves were highly reproducible and showed an average drift of 4.4 ± 2.3 mV/h (n=10). Long-term behavior and response after immersion in physiological solutions are also presented. The lifetime of the sensors was found to be extremely long with a high recovery rate.
Modulation of the immune system may be a viable alternative in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and can potentially eliminate the need for donor hepatocytes for cellular therapies. Multipotent bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to inhibit the function of various immune cells by undefined paracrine mediators in vitro. Yet, the therapeutic potential of MSC-derived molecules has not been tested in immunological conditions in vivo. Herein, we report that the administration of MSC-derived molecules in two clinically relevant forms-intravenous bolus of conditioned medium (MSC-CM) or extracorporeal perfusion with a bioreactor containing MSCs (MSC-EB)-can provide a significant survival benefit in rats undergoing FHF. We observed a cell mass-dependent reduction in mortality that was abolished at high cell numbers indicating a therapeutic window. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue after MSC-CM treatment showed dramatic reduction of panlobular leukocytic infiltrates, hepatocellular death and bile duct duplication. Furthermore, we demonstrate using computed tomography of adoptively transferred leukocytes that MSC-CM functionally diverts immune cells from the injured organ indicating that altered leukocyte migration by MSC-CM therapy may account for the absence of immune cells in liver tissue. Preliminary analysis of the MSC secretome using a protein array screen revealed a large fraction of chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines. When MSC-CM was fractionated based on heparin binding affinity, a known ligand for all chemokines, only the heparin-bound eluent reversed FHF indicating that the active components of MSC-CM reside in this fraction. These data provide the first experimental evidence of the medicinal use of MSC-derived molecules in the treatment of an inflammatory condition and support the role of chemokines and altered leukocyte migration as a novel therapeutic modality for FHF.