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Biochimica et biophysica acta (1)
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (1)
Markowitz, Joseph (2)
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Year of Publication
Review of S100A9 Biology and its Role in Cancer
Carson, William E.
Biochimica et biophysica acta
S100A9 is a calcium binding protein with multiple ligands and post-translation modifications that is involved in inflammatory events and the initial development of the cancer cell through to the development of metastatic disease. This review has a threefold purpose: 1) describe S100A9 structural elements important for its biological activity, 2) describe S100A9 biology in the context of the immune system, and 3) illustrate the role of S100A9 in the development of malignancy via interactions with the immune system and other cellular processes.
A Multi-institutional Phase II study of the efficacy and tolerability of Lapatinib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinomas
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is on the rise worldwide. HCC responds poorly to chemotherapy. Lapatinib is an inhibitor of EGFR and HER2/NEU both implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. This trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of lapatinib in HCC.
A Fleming phase II design with a single stage of 25 patients with a 90% power to exclude a true response rate of < 10% and detect a true response rate of ≥30% was utilized. The dose of lapatinib was 1,500 mg/d administered orally in 28-day cycles. Tumor and blood specimens were analyzed for expression of HER2/NEU/CEP17 and status of downstream signal pathway proteins.
Twenty-six patients with HCC enrolled on this study. 19% had one prior therapy. Most common toxicities were diarrhea (73%), nausea (54%) and rash (42%). No objective responses were observed. Ten (40%) patients had stable disease (SD) as their best response including 6 (23%) with SD lasting > 120 days. Median progression-free-survival was 1.9 months and median overall survival 12.6 months. Patients who developed a rash had a borderline statistically significant longer survival. Tissue and blood specimens were available on >90% of patients. No somatic mutations in EGFR (exons 18–21) were found. In contrast to our previous findings, we did not find evidence of HER2/NEU somatic mutations. PTEN, P-AKT and P70S6K expression did not correlate with survival.
Lapatinib is well-tolerated but appears to benefit only a subgroup of patients for whom predictive molecular or clinical characteristics are not yet fully defined.
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