Aim. To evaluate and predict the therapeutic efficacy of Fuzheng-Huayu tablet (FZHY) based traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome differentiation or TCM symptoms on chronic hepatitis B caused cirrhosis (HBC). Methods. The trial was designed according to CONSORT statement. It was a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trail. Several clinical parameters, Child-Pugh classification and TCM symptoms were detected and evaluated. The FZHY efficacy was predicted by an established Bayes forecasting method following the Bayes classification model. Results. The levels of HA and TCM syndrome score in FZHY group were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to placebo group, respectively. The efficacy of FZHY on TCM syndrome score in HBC patients with some TCM syndromes was better. In TCM syndrome score evaluation, there were 53 effective and 22 invalid in FZHY group. TCM symptoms predicted FZHY efficacy on HBC were close to Child-Pugh score prediction. Conclusion. FZHY decreases the levels of HA and TCM syndrome scores, improves the life quality of HBC patients. Moreover, there were different therapeutic efficacies among different TCM syndromes, indicating that accurate TCM syndrome differentiation might guide the better TCM treatment. Furthermore, the FZHY efficacy was able to predict by Bayes forecasting method through the alteration of TCM symptoms.
Global data on human papillomavirus serological and DNA prevalence are essential to optimize HPV prophylactic vaccination strategies.
We conducted a global review of age-specific HPV antibody and studies with both antibody and DNA prevalence for HPV types 16, 18, 6 and 11.
One hundred-seventeen studies were included; participants’ ages ranged from several hours to over 90 years. HPV 16 seroprevalence was generally higher in Africa, Central and South America, and North America, more prevalent among women than men, and peaked around ages 25-40 years. HPV 18 seroprevalence was generally lower than HPV 16 with a later age peak. Data were limited for HPV 6 and 11, which both peaked at ages similar to HPV 18. In 9-26 year-old females, HPV 16 seroprevalence ranged from 0-31% in North America, 21-30% in Africa, 0-23% in Asia/Australia, 0-33% in Europe, and 13-43% in Central and South America. HPV 16/18 DNA prevalence peaked 10-15 years before corresponding HPV 16/18 antibody prevalence.
Females within the HPV-vaccine eligible age group (9-26 years) had a range of dual HPV 16 DNA and serology negativity from 81-87%, whereas 90-98% were HPV 16 DNA negative. Serology and DNA data are lacking worldwide for females younger than age 15 years, the prime target group for vaccination.
Global; Human papillomavirus; Serology; DNA; prevalence; immunology; antibodies
The combination of interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) is the standard therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV genotype 2a has proved more amenable to the therapy, but its efficacy is yet limited. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the poor response in a case of HCV genotype 2a infection.
We analyzed dynamic change of HCV RNA from a patient, infected with HCV genotype 2a, showing a poor virological response to IFN/RBV as judged 12 weeks after initiation of the therapy by HCV clone sequencing. Then we constructed subgenomic Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 (JFH1) replicon and different chimeric replicons with humanized Gaussia luciferase gene. The chimeric replicons were derived from subgenomic JFH1 replicon, in which the NS5A region was replaced by the patient’s sequence from the pre/post-treatment, and the chimeric replicons’ susceptibility to IFN were evaluated by relative Gausia Luciferase activity.
The pretreatment HCV sequences appeared almost uniform, and the quasispecies variation was further more simplified after 12 weeks of therapy. Besides, the quasispecies variation seemed to be more diversified in the NS5A, relatively, a region crucial for IFN response, and each of chimeric replicons exhibited distinct response to IFN.
During the course of the chronic infection, HCV population seems to be adapted to the patient’s immunological system, and further to be selected by combination of IFN/RBV therapy, indicating quasispecies may completely eliminated by addition of other drugs with targets different from those of IFN. In addition, each different response of chimeric replicon to IFN is most likely related to amino acid changes in or near the IFN-sensitivity determining region (ISDR) of NS5A during chronic infection and IFN/RBV therapy.
HCV-2a; IFN; poor response; JFH1; chimeric replicon
AIM: To investigate the expression of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) in relation to clinicopathological parameters and postoperative survival in a group of Chinese patients with gastric cancer.
METHODS: In our previous study of human whole-genome gene expression profiling, the differentially expressed genes were detected in the gastric cancer and its adjacent noncancerous mucosa. We found that MR-1 was associated with the location and differentiation of tumors. In this study, MR-1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in specimens of primary cancer and the adjacent noncancerous tissues from gastric cancer patients. A set of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays based on the Universal ProbeLibrary-a collection of 165 presynthesized, fluorescence-labeled locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probes-was designed specifically to detect the expression of MR-1 mRNA. The correlation was analyzed between the expression of MR-1 and other tumor characteristics which may influence the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and clinical data were collected from medical records.
RESULTS: MR-1 mRNA and protein could be detected in gastric cancer tissues as well as in matched noncancerous tissues. MR-1 was up-regulated at both mRNA (5.459 ± 0.639 vs 1.233 ± 0.238, P < 0.001) and protein levels (34.2% vs 13.2%, P = 0.003) in gastric cancer tissues. Correlation analysis demonstrated that high expression of MR-1 in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.034). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the postoperative survival of the MR-1 positive group tended to be poorer than that of the MR-1 negative group, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.002). Among all the patients with stage I-IV carcinoma, the 5-year survival rates of MR-1 positive and negative groups were 50.40% and 12.70%, respectively, with respective median survival times of 64.27 mo (95%CI: 13.41-115.13) and 16.77 mo (95%CI: 8.80-24.74). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare the impact of MR-1 expression and other clinicopathological parameters on prognosis. In a univariate analysis on all 70 specimens, 6 factors were found to be significantly associated with the overall survival statistically: including MR-1 expression, depth of invasion, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion and the tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage based on the 7th edition of the International Union against Cancer TNM classification. To avoid the influence caused by univariate analysis, the expressions of MR-1 as well as other parameters were examined in multivariate Cox analysis. Clinicopathological variables that might affect the prognosis of gastric cancer patients were analyzed by Cox regression analysis, which showed that MR-1 expression and TNM stage were independent predictors of postoperative survival. The best mathematical multivariate Cox regression model consisted of two factors: MR-1 expression and TNM stage. Our results indicated that MR-1 protein could act as an independent marker for patient overall survival [Hazard ratio (HR): 2.215, P = 0.043].
CONCLUSION: MR-1 is an important variable that can be used to evaluate the outcome, prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer patients.
Myofibrillogenesis regulator-1; Gastric cancer; Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; Immunohistochemistry; Poor prognosis
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma-cell neoplasm for which most treatments involve a therapeutic agent combined with dexamethasone. The preclinical combination of lenalidomide with the mTOR inhibitor CCI-779 has displayed synergy in vitro and represents a novel combination in MM.
Patients and Methods
A phase I clinical trial was initiated for patients with relapsed myeloma with administration of oral lenalidomide on days 1 to 21 and CCI-779 intravenously once per week during a 28-day cycle. Pharmacokinetic data for both agents were obtained, and in vitro transport and uptake studies were conducted to evaluate potential drug-drug interactions.
Twenty-one patients were treated with 15 to 25 mg lenalidomide and 15 to 20 mg CCI-779. The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be 25 mg lenalidomide with 15 mg CCI-779. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated increased doses of CCI-779 resulted in statistically significant changes in clearance, maximum concentrations, and areas under the concentration-time curves, with constant doses of lenalidomide. Similar and significant changes for CCI-779 pharmacokinetics were also observed with increased lenalidomide doses. Detailed mechanistic interrogation of this pharmacokinetic interaction demonstrated that lenalidomide was an ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein [P-gp]) substrate.
The MTD of this combination regimen was 25 mg lenalidomide with 15 mg CCI-779, with toxicities of fatigue, neutropenia, and electrolyte wasting. Pharmacokinetic and clinical interactions between lenalidomide and CCI-779 seemed to occur, with in vitro data indicating lenalidomide was an ABCB1 (P-gp) substrate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinically significant P-gp–based drug-drug interaction with lenalidomide.
S100A9 was originally discovered as a factor secreted by inflammatory cells. Recently, S100A9 was found to be associated with several human malignancies. The purpose of this study is to investigate S100A9 expression in gastric cancer and explore its role in cancer progression.
S100A9 expression in gastric tissue samples from 177 gastric cancer patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of its dimerization partner S100A8 and the S100A8/A9 heterodimer were also assessed by the same method. The effect of exogenous S100A9 on motility of gastric cancer cells AGS and BGC-823 was then investigated.
S100A9 was specifically expressed by inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils in human gastric cancer and gastritis tissues. Statistical analysis showed that a high S100A9 cell count (> = 200) per 200x magnification microscopic field in cancer tissues was predictive of early stage gastric cancer. High S100A9-positive cell count was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.009) and tumor invasion (P = 0.011). S100A9 was identified as an independent prognostic predictor of overall survival of patients with gastric cancer (P = 0.04). Patients with high S100A9 cell count were with favorable prognosis (P = 0.021). Further investigation found that S100A8 distribution in human gastric cancer tissues was similar to S100A9. However, the number of S100A8-positive cells did not positively correlate with patient survival. The inflammatory cells infiltrating cancer were S100A8/A9 negative, while those in gastritis were positive. Furthermore, exogenous S100A9 protein inhibited migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells.
Our results suggested S100A9-positive inflammatory cells in gastric cancer tissues are associated with early stage of gastric cancer and good prognosis.
Gastric cancer; S100A9; Inflammatory cells; Tumor staging; Survival
Human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence data have not previously been reported for different geographical regions of China. This study investigated the cross-sectional seroprevalence of antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 virus-like particles in Chinese women.
Population-based samples of women were enrolled from 2006 to 2007 in 3 rural and 2 urban areas of China. Each consenting woman completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Serum antibodies were detected using a competitive Luminex immunoassay that measures antibodies to type-specific, neutralizing epitopes on the virus-like particles.
A total of 4,731 women (median age 35, age range 14-54) were included, of which 4,211 were sexually active women (median age 37) and 520 virgins (median age 18). Low risk HPV 6 was the most common serotype detected (7.3%), followed by HPV 16 (5.6%), HPV 11 (2.9%), and HPV 18 (1.9%). Overall HPV seroprevalence to any type was significantly higher among sexually active women (15.8%) than virgins (2.5%) (P = 0.005). Overall seroprevalence among sexually active women gradually increased with age. Women from rural regions had significantly lower overall seroprevalence (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, versus metropolitan regions, P < 0.001). With increasing number of sexual partners, women were at higher risk of seropositivity of any type (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9 for > = 4 partners versus 1 partner, P < 0.001). Wives were at higher risk of seropositivity for HPV 16/18/6/11 when reporting having a husband who had an extramarital sexual relationship (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.5, versus those whose husbands having no such relationship, P < 0.001). There was a strong association between HPV 16 seropositivity and presence of high-grade cervical lesions (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 3.7-11.4, versus normal cervix, P < 0.001).
HPV seroprevalence differed significantly by age, geography, and sexual behavior within China, which all should be considered when implementing an optimal prophylactic HPV vaccination program in China.
Human papillomavirus; Seroprevalence; China
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) has been described in over 40% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol. We conducted a retrospective analysis to determine predictive factors for TLS. In 116 patients, the incidence of TLS was 46% (95% CI: 36%-55%). In univariable analysis, female gender, greater number of prior therapies, Rai stages III-IV, adenopathy ≥ 10 cm, splenomegaly, del(11q), decreased albumin, and increased absolute lymphocyte count, white blood cell count (WBC), β2-microglobulin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were associated (p<0.05) with TLS. In multivariable analysis, female gender, adenopathy ≥ 10 cm, elevated WBC, increased β2-microglobulin, and decreased albumin were associated with TLS (p<0.05). With respect to patient outcomes, 49% and 44% of patients with and without TLS, respectively, responded to flavopiridol (p=0.71). In a multivariable analysis controlling for number of prior therapies, cytogenetics, Rai stage, age, and gender, progression-free survival (PFS) was inferior in patients with TLS (p=0.01). Female patients and patients with elevated β2-microglobulin, increased WBC, adenopathy ≥ 10 cm, and decreased albumin were at highest risk and should be monitored for TLS with flavopiridol. TLS does not appear to be predictive of response or improved PFS in patients receiving flavopiridol.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia; flavopiridol; tumor lysis syndrome
To provide an evidence-based, consistent assessment of the burden of breast cancer attributable to reproductive factors (RFs, including nulliparity, mean number of children, age at first birth and breastfeeding), use of oral contraceptives (OCs, restricted to the age group of 15-49 years), and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), as well as of the burden of ovarian cancer attributable to the mean number of children in China in 2005.
We derived the prevalence of these risk factors and the relative risk of breast and ovarian cancer from national surveys or large-scale studies conducted in China. In the case of RFs, we compared the exposure distributions in 2001 and counterfactual exposure.
Exposure of RFs in 2001 was found to account for 6.74% of breast cancer, corresponding to 9,617 cases and 2,769 deaths, and for 2.78% of ovarian cancer (711 cases, 294 deaths). The decrease in mean number of children alone was responsible for 1.47% of breast cancer and 2.78% of ovarian cancer. The prevalence of OC use was 1.74% and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of breast cancer was 0.71%, corresponding to 310 cases and 90 deaths. The PAF of breast cancer due to HRT was 0.31%, resulting in 297 cases and 85 deaths.
RFs changes in China contributed to a sizable fraction of breast and ovarian cancer incidence and mortality, whereas HRT and OCs accounted for relatively low incidence of breast cancer in China.
Reproductive factors; Oral contraceptives; Hormone replacement therapy; Cancer; Population attributable fraction
The role of perioperative chemotherapy for gastric cancer has been established for gastric cancers in their advanced stage. In most parts of the world, even in Japan and Korea, local recurrence of gastric cancer following curative resection remains a problem. Should radiation be added to chemotherapy to achieve better local and regional control? What is the current evidence? What are the concerns regarding neoadjuvant chemoradiation in terms of safety, efficacy and survival benefit? After a serious review of the literature, the authors conclude that it is still too early to get a definitive answer but radiation seems promising. It may bring a higher pathological response rate. Rationally, more high level clinical trials are needed to confirm the role of radiotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting or to ascertain subsets of patients who may benefit from it. It is of note that surgeons should pay attention to possible complicated circumstances following radiotherapy, maintain proper nutrition status and minimize the occurrence of postoperative complications. As few data are available in Japan and Korea, interpretation and implementation of neoadjuvant radiation or chemoradiation should be done with caution.
Stomach; Neoplasm; Treatment; Radiation; Neoadjuvant
This study assessed the postoperative morbidity and mortality occurring in the first 30 days after radical gastrectomy by comparing gastric cancer patients who did or did not receive the FOLFOX7 regimen of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
We completed a retrospective analysis of 377 patients after their radical gastrectomies were performed in our department between 2005 and 2009. Two groups of patients were studied: the SURG group received surgical treatment immediately after diagnosis; the NACT underwent surgery after 2-6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
There were 267 patients in the SURG group and 110 patients in the NACT group. The NACT group had more proximal tumours (P = 0.000), more total/proximal gastrectomies (P = 0.000) and longer operative time (P = 0.005) than the SURG group. Morbidity was 10.0% in the NACT patients and 17.2% in the SURG patients (P = 0.075). There were two cases of postoperative death, both in the SURG group (P = 1.000). No changes in complications or mortality rate were observed between the SURG and NACT groups.
The FOLFOX7 neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with increased postoperative morbidity, indicating that the FOLFOX7 neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a safe choice for the treatment of local advanced gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; complication; FOLFOX7; surgery
The aim of this study was to detect metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression in Chinese gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between MACC1 expression and postoperative survival.
The expression of MACC1 and c-MET protein in a sample of 128 gastric cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and data were collected from medical records.
The positive rate of MACC1 protein expression in gastric cancer was 47.66%, higher than that in adjacent noncancerous mucosa (P<0.001). MACC1 protein expression was not related to the clinicopathological variables involved. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the survival of MACC1 positive group tended to be better than that of MACC1 negative group, particularly in patients with stage III carcinoma (P=0.032). Cox regression analysis revealed that MACC1 protein over-expression in gastric cancer tended to be a protective factor with hazard ratio of 0.621 (P=0.057). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the positive rate of c-MET protein expression was much higher in cases with positive MACC1 expression in gastric cancer (P=0.002), but P53 expression was not associated with MACC1 expression.
MACC1 over-expression implies better survival and may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer in Chinese patients.
MACC1; Gastric cancer; Prognosis
AIM: To develop a prognostic gene set that can predict patient overall survival status based on the whole genome expression analysis.
METHODS: Using Illumina HumanWG-6 BeadChip followed by semi-supervised analysis, we analyzed the expression of 47 296 transcripts in two batches of gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection. Thirty-nine samples in the first batch were used as the training set to discover candidate markers correlated to overall survival, and thirty-three samples in the second batch were used for validation.
RESULTS: A panel of ten genes were identified as prognostic marker in the first batch samples and classified patients into a low- and a high-risk group with significantly different survival times (P = 0.000047). This prognostic marker was then verified in an independent validation sample batch (P = 0.0009). By comparing with the traditional Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system, this ten-gene prognostic marker showed consistent prognosis results. It was the only independent prognostic value by multivariate Cox regression analysis (P = 0.007). Interestingly, six of these ten genes are ribosomal proteins, suggesting a possible association between the deregulation of ribosome related gene expression and the poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: A ten-gene marker correlated with overall prognosis, including 6 ribosomal proteins, was identified and verified, which may complement the predictive value of TNM staging system.
Gastric cancer; Gene expression profiling; Survival markers; Prognosis; Ribosomal proteins
Streptomyces bingchenggensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium producing the commercially important anthelmintic macrolide milbemycins. Besides milbemycins, the insecticidal polyether antibiotic nanchangmycin and some other antibiotics have also been isolated from this strain. Here we report the complete genome sequence of S. bingchenggensis. The availability of the genome sequence of S. bingchenggensis should enable us to understand the biosynthesis of these structurally intricate antibiotics better and facilitate rational improvement of this strain to increase their titers.
Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in phase II clinical development for treatment of various forms of cancer. When administered with a pharmacokinetically (PK)-directed dosing schedule, flavopiridol exhibited striking activity in patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate pharmacogenetic factors associated with inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics and outcomes associated with flavopiridol therapy.
Thirty-five patients who received single-agent flavopiridol via the PK-directed schedule were genotyped for 189 polymorphisms in genes encoding 56 drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Genotypes were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses as covariates in a population PK model. Transport of flavopiridol and its glucuronide metabolite was evaluated in uptake assays in HEK-293 and MDCK-II cells transiently transfected with SLCO1B1. Polymorphisms in ABCC2, ABCG2, UGT1A1, UGT1A9, and SLCO1B1 were found to significantly correlate with flavopiridol PK in univariate analysis. Transport assay results indicated both flavopiridol and flavopiridol-glucuronide are substrates of the SLCO1B1/OATP1B1 transporter. Covariates incorporated into the final population PK model included bilirubin, SLCO1B1 rs11045819 and ABCC2 rs8187710. Associations were also observed between genotype and response. To validate these findings, a second set of data with 51 patients was evaluated, and overall trends for associations between PK and PGx were found to be consistent.
Polymorphisms in transport genes were found to be associated with flavopiridol disposition and outcomes. Observed clinical associations with SLCO1B1 were functionally validated indicating for the first time its relevance as a transporter of flavopiridol and its glucuronide metabolite. A second 51-patient dataset indicated similar trends between genotype in the SLCO1B1 and other candidate genes, thus providing support for these findings. Further study in larger patient populations will be necessary to fully characterize and validate the clinical impact of polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 and other transporter and metabolizing enzyme genes on outcomes from flavopiridol therapy.
AIM: To understand the implication of GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation in gastric carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Methylation status of GATA-4 and GATA-5 CpG islands in human gastric mucosa samples, including normal gastric biopsies from 45 outpatients, gastric dysplasia [low-grade gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), n = 30; indefinite, n = 77], and 80 paired sporadic gastric carcinomas (SGC) as well as the adjacent non-neoplastic gastric tissues was analyzed by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and confirmed by denatured high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect protein expression. The correlation between GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation and clinicopathological characteristics of patients including Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was analyzed.
RESULTS: GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation was frequently observed in SGCs (53.8% and 61.3%, respectively) and their corresponding normal tissues (41.3% and 46.3%) by MSP. The result of MSP was consistent with that of DHPLC. Loss of both GATA-4 and GATA-5 proteins was associated with their methylation in SGCs (P = 0.01). Moreover, a high frequency of GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation was found in both gastric low-grade GIN (57.1% and 69.0%) and indefinite for dysplasia (42.9% and 46.7%), respectively. However, GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation was detected only in 4/32 (12.5%) and 3/39 (7.7%) of normal gastric biopsies. GATA-4 methylation in both normal gastric mucosa and low-grade GIN was also significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P = 0.023 and 0.027, two-sides).
CONCLUSION: Epigenetic inactivation of GATA-4 (and GATA-5) by methylation of CpG islands is an early frequent event during gastric carcinogenesis and is significantly correlated with H. pylori infection.
Dysplasia; Gastric carcinoma; GATA-4; GATA-5; Helicobacter pylori; Methylation
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000–40,000. Only 2%–3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Comparative genome sequencing of indica and japonica rice reveals that duplication of genes and genomic regions has played a major part in the evolution of grass genomes