Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which encompass storage, voiding, and postmicturition symptoms, are highly prevalent and recognized globally. Based on a nationwide population-based database, this study tests the hypothesis that medical attendance for LUTS is associated with a subsequent increase in the number of outpatient visits and hospitalizations, with differences among medical specialties and age groups.
Participants were selected from a random population sample of approximately one million people as a representative cohort of National Health Insurance (NHI) enrollees in Taiwan. Participants had at least three outpatient service claims with a coding of LUTS during the recruitment period 2001–2004. Both the LUTS group and non-LUTS control group were monitored for subsequent outpatient visits and hospitalizations, excluding LUTS-related healthcare services, for 2 years following the index date. The results were categorized based on medical specialty and age group.
The outpatient visit rates (no. per person-year) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) (95% confidence interval (CI) were significantly higher in urology (4.51, 95%CI 4.15–4.91) and gynecology (1.82, 95%CI 1.76–1.89) for the LUTS group. They were also significantly high in other departments, including internal medicine (1.25), general practice (1.13), Chinese medicine (1.77), family medicine (1.19), surgery (1.38), and psychiatry (1.98). Similarly, the hospitalization rate (no. per 1000 person-year) and adjusted IRRs (95% CI) were significantly higher in urology (5.50, 95% CI = 4.60–6.50) and gynecology (1.60, 95% CI = 1.35–1.90), as well as in internal medicine (1.55) and surgery (1.56), but not in psychiatry (1.12). Furthermore, the IRRs differed among 3 age groups.
A significantly higher number of outpatient visits and hospitalizations were observed for individuals with LUTS, compared to the control group, and the effects differed with the advancement of age. This study broadens understanding of LUTS by viewing their impact on healthcare services with multiple and overlapping systems, rather than considering them exclusively as symptoms of traditional diseases of the bladder and urethra.
Thiazides and β-blockers cause adverse metabolic effects (AMEs), but whether these effects share predictors with blood pressure (BP) response is unknown. We aimed to determine whether AMEs are correlated with BP response in uncomplicated hypertensives.
In a multicenter, open-label, parallel-group trial, we enrolled 569 persons, aged 17–65, with random assignment to 9 weeks of daily hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or atenolol monotherapy, followed by 9 weeks of add-on therapy with the alternate agent. Measurements included home BP, averaged over 1 week, weight and fasting levels of serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and uric acid (UA) before and after monotherapy and after add-on therapy.
Increases in UA correlated with reductions in systolic BP (SBP) (r = −0.18; P = 0.003) and diastolic BP (DBP) (r = −0.20; P = 0.001) following HCTZ monotherapy and add-on therapy (r = −0.27 and r = −0.21, respectively; both P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, race, gender, and baseline body mass index (BMI), only the correlation between UA and DBP response became nonsignificant. Reductions in HDL correlated with systolic response following atenolol monotherapy (r = 0.18; P = 0.002) and with systolic and diastolic response following add-on therapy (r = 0.30 and r = 0.24, respectively; both P < 0.0001). These correlations remained significant after covariate adjustment. BP responses were not correlated with changes in glucose, LDL, triglycerides, or weight following either therapy.
BP response correlated with changes in UA following HCTZ therapy and HDL following atenolol therapy. No other significant correlations were observed between BP response and AMEs, suggesting that these effects generally do not share predictors. Patients should be monitored for AMEs, regardless of BP response.
thiazide diuretics; atenolol; β-blockers; blood pressure; hydrochlorothiazide; hypertension; metabolic effects
A length polymorphism of GT repeats in the promoter region of the human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene modulates its gene transcription to protect against myocardial injury. The present study investigated the association between HO-1 promoter polymorphisms and the outcomes of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). The allelic frequencies of GT repeats in the HO-1 gene promoter were screened in 205 random individuals who underwent catheter ablation for drug refractory AF.In the patients who received catheter ablation, those with AF recurrence had fewer GT repeats (53.4±7.1 vs. 56.1±6.5, p = 0.004), a lower incidence of hyperlipidemia, more non-paroxysmal AF, and a larger left atrial diameter. After conducting a multivariate logistic analysis, the number of GT repeats (Odds ratio: 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.99, p = 0.01) and the diameter of the left atrium (Odds ratio: 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.15, p = 0.01) remained independent predictors. The carriers of GT repeats, which were <29 in both alleles, were associated with a lower sinus maintenance rate after catheter ablation (38.5% vs. 60.1%, p = 0.003). The patients were divided into paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal AF groups; the number of GT repeats was associated with AF recurrence only in the patients with paroxysmal AF. The number of GT repeats, combined with LAD, was significant for predicting AF recurrence after catheter ablation (p = 0.01). The number of GT repeats was not found to be associated with differences in the left atrial diameter, the biatrial voltage, or the levels of bilirubin, ferritin, iron, C-reactive protein, or von-Willibrand factor. In conclusions, HO-1 gene promoter polymorphisms were associated with AF recurrence after catheter ablation.
Data are limited on cancer outcomes in adolescents and young adults.
Based on data from the Western Australian Data Linkage System, this study modelled survival and excess mortality in all adolescents and young adults aged 15–39 years in Western Australia who had a diagnosis of cancer in the period 1982–2004. Relative survival and excess all-cause mortality for all cancers combined and for principal tumour subgroups were estimated, using the Ederer II method and generalised linear Poisson modelling, respectively.
A cancer diagnosis in adolescents and young adults conferred substantial survival decrement. However, overall outcomes improved over calendar period (excess mortality hazard ratio [HR], latest versus earliest diagnostic period: 0.52, trend p<0.0001). Case fatality varied according to age group (HR, oldest versus youngest: 1.38, trend p<0.0001), sex (HR, female versus male: 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62–0.71), ethnicity (HR, Aboriginal versus others: 1.47, CI 1.23–1.76), geographical area (HR, rural/remote versus urban: 1.13, CI 1.04–1.23) and residential socioeconomic status (HR, lowest versus highest quartile: 1.14, trend p<0.05). Tumour subgroups differed substantially in frequency according to age group and sex, and were critical outcome determinants.
Marked progressive calendar-time improvement in overall outcomes was evident. Further research is required to disentangle the contributions of tumour biology and health service factors to outcome disparities between ethno-demographic, geographic and socioeconomic subgroups of adolescents and young adults with cancer.
We explored the desaturase activities and the correlation of fatty acid desaturases (FADS) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with plasma fatty acid in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients in a Chinese Han population.
Plasma fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in CAD patients (n = 505) and a control group (n = 510). Five SNPs in the FADS gene were genotyped with high-resolution melting (HRM) methods.
After adjustment, D6D activity, assessed as arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6)/linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6), was higher in CAD patients (p<0.001). D9D activity, which was estimated as the ratio of palmitoleic acid (C16:1)/palmitic acid (C16:0) or oleic acid (C18:1n-9) to stearic acid (C18:0), was also increased (p<0.001). The genotype distributions of rs174537 G>T and rs174460 C>T were different between the two groups. The rs174537 T allele was associated with a lower risk of CAD [OR 0.743, 95% CI (0.624, 0.884), p = 0.001]. Carriers of the rs174460 C allele were associated with a higher risk of CAD [OR 1.357, 95% CI (1.106, 1.665), p = 0.003].
We firstly report that the rs174460 C allele is associated with a higher risk of CAD, and confirm that the rs174537 T allele is associated with a lower risk of CAD. Our results indicate that FADS gene polymorphisms are likely to influence plasma fatty acid concentrations and desaturase activities.
Folate metabolism, with its importance to DNA repair, provides a promising region for genetic investigation of lung cancer risk. This project investigates genes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, CBS, SHMT1, TYMS), folate metabolism related nutrients (B vitamins, methionine, choline, and betaine) and their gene-nutrient interactions.
We analyzed 115 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 15 nutrients from 1239 and 1692 non-Hispanic white, histologically-confirmed lung cancer cases and controls, respectively, using stochastic search variable selection (a Bayesian model averaging approach). Analyses were stratified by current, former, and never smoking status.
Rs6893114 in MTRR (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10; 95% credible interval [CI]: 1.20–3.48) and alcohol (drinkers vs. non-drinkers, OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.26–0.84) were associated with lung cancer risk in current smokers. Rs13170530 in MTRR (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.10–2.87) and two SNP*nutrient interactions [betaine*rs2658161 (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19–0.88) and betaine*rs16948305 (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30–0.91)] were associated with lung cancer risk in former smokers. SNPs in MTRR (rs13162612; OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11–0.58; rs10512948; OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41–0.90; rs2924471; OR = 3.31; 95% CI: 1.66–6.59), and MTHFR (rs9651118; OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43–0.95) and three SNP*nutrient interactions (choline*rs10475407; OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.11–2.42; choline*rs11134290; OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.27–0.92; and riboflavin*rs8767412; OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.15–0.95) were associated with lung cancer risk in never smokers.
This study identified possible nutrient and genetic factors related to folate metabolism associated with lung cancer risk, which could potentially lead to nutritional interventions tailored by smoking status to reduce lung cancer risk.
The count of the nucleotides in a cloned, short genomic sequence has become an important criterion to annotate such a sequence as a miRNA molecule. While the majority of human mature miRNA sequences consist of 22 nucleotides, there exists discrepancy in the characteristic lengths of the miRNA sequences. There is also a lack of systematic studies on such length distribution and on the biological factors that are related to or may affect this length. In this paper, we intend to fill this gap by investigating the sequence structure of human miRNA molecules using statistics tools. We demonstrate that the traditional discrete probability distributions do not model the length distribution of the human mature miRNAs well, and we obtain the statistical distribution model with a decent fit. We observe that the four nucleotide bases in a miRNA sequence are not randomly distributed, implying that possible structural patterns such as dinucleotide (trinucleotide or higher order) may exist. Furthermore, we study the relationships of this length distribution to multiple important factors such as evolutionary conservation, tumorigenesis, the length of precursor loop structures, and the number of predicted targets. The association between the miRNA sequence length and the distributions of target site counts in corresponding predicted genes is also presented. This study results in several novel findings worthy of further investigation that include: (1) rapid evolution introduces variation to the miRNA sequence length distribution; (2) miRNAs with extreme sequence lengths are unlikely to be cancer-related; and (3) the miRNA sequence length is positively correlated to the precursor length and the number of predicted target genes.
In the past few decades, consumption of added sugars has increased dramatically. Studies have linked high sugar intake with increased risk for a number of diseases. Importantly, fructose, a component of sugar, has been linked with the development of features of metabolic syndrome. This study determined if single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in fructose transport (solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter, member 2 (SLC2A2) and solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose/fructose transporter, member 5 (SLC2A5)) and metabolism (ketohexokinase (KHK)) affect inter-individual variability in metabolic phenotypes, such as increased serum uric acid levels.
The influence of SLC2A2, SLC2A5, and KHK SNPs on metabolic phenotypes was tested in 237 European Americans and 167 African Americans from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation and Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study. Using baseline untreated fasting data, associations were considered significant if p≤0.005. These SNPs were then evaluated for potential replication (p≤0.05) using data from the Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives (GERA) studies.
SLC2A5 rs5438 was associated with an increase in serum uric acid in European American males. However, we were unable to replicate the association in GERA. The minor allele of SLC2A2 rs8192675 showed an association with lower high-density lipoproteins in European Americans (A/A: 51.0 mg/dL, A/G: 47.0 mg/dL, G/G: 41.5 mg/dL, p = 0.0034) in PEAR. The association between rs8192675 and lower high-density lipoproteins was replicated in the combined European American GERA study samples (A/A: 47.6 mg/dL, A/G: 48.6 mg/dL, G/G: 41.9 mg/dL, p = 0.0315).
The association between SLC2A2 rs8192675 and high-density lipoproteins suggests the polymorphism may play a role in influencing high-density lipoproteins and thus metabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.
Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1) variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST).
INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry.
We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups), and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls). The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88) or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2) of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans). Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant.
Our results suggest that IVS5-13insC is not a functional variant and not associated with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse, hypertensive, coronary artery disease population. Larger, more adequately powered studies need to be performed to confirm our findings.
HMGA1; Type 2 diabetes; Genetics
Bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and identifying genetic markers that may predict susceptibility in high-risk population is always needed. The purpose of our study is to determine whether genetic variations in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) pathway are associated with bladder cancer risk. We identified 356 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 key genes from this pathway and evaluated their association with cancer risk in 801 cases and 801 controls. Forty-one SNPs were significantly associated with cancer risk, and after adjusting for multiple comparisons, 9 remained significant (Q-value ≤0.1). Haplotype analysis further revealed three haplotypes within VEGFC and two haplotypes in EGFR were significantly associated with increased bladder cancer risk compared to the most common haplotype. Classification and regression tree analysis further revealed potential high-order gene-gene interactions, with VEGFC: rs3775194 being the initial split, which suggests that this variant is responsible for the most variation in risk. Individuals carrying the common genotype for VEGFC: rs3775194 and EGFR: rs7799627 and the variant genotype for VEGFR: rs4557213 had a 4.22-fold increase in risk, a much larger effect magnitude than that conferred by common genotype for VEGFR: rs4557213. Our study provides the first epidemiological evidence supporting a connection between TGF-β pathway variants and bladder cancer risk.
Melanoma is an immunogenic tumor; however, the efficacy of immune-therapy shows large inter-individual variation with possible influence of background genetic variation. In this study we report the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the type I interferon gene cluster on chromosome 9p22 on melanoma survival. We genotyped 625 melanoma patients recruited in an oncology center in Germany for 44 polymorphisms located on chromosome 9p22 that were informative for 299 polymorphisms and spanned 15 type I interferon genes. Our results showed associations between time to metastasis/survival and two linked (r2 = 0.76) polymorphisms, rs10964859 (C>G) and rs10964862 (C>A). The rs10964859 polymorphism was located at 3′UTR and rs10964862 was 9.40 Kb towards 5′UTR of IFNW1 gene. The carriers of the variant alleles of the rs10964859 and rs10964862 polymorphisms were associated with a reduced disease-free survival. The validation of data in an independent group of 710 patients from Spain showed that the direction of the effect was similar. Stratification based on therapy showed that the adverse effect on metastasis development was statistically significant in the patients from Spain who did not receive any treatment and were homozygous for variant allele of rs10964862 (HR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.07–5.90; P = 0.03). Patients homozygous for rs10964859 (HR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.17–3.44; P = 0.01) and rs10964862 (HR 1.84, 95%CI 1.03–3.27, P = 0.04) were associated to increased risk of death following metastasis. GTCGACAA haplotype, found in 8.8% of the patients, was associated with an increased risk of death (HR 1.94, 95%CI 1.16–3.26, P = 0.01). In conclusion, our results identified genetic variants in interferon genes that influence melanoma progression and survival with modulation of effect due to treatment status.
AIM: To investigate whether the addition of probiotics can improve the eradication effect of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection.
METHODS: This open randomized trial recruited 234 H. pylori positive gastritis patients from seven local centers. The patients were randomized to one-week standard triple therapy (omeprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid, and amoxicillin 1000 mg bid; OCA group, n = 79); two weeks of pre-treatment with probiotics, containing 3 × 107
Lactobacillus acidophilus per day, prior to one week of triple therapy (POCA group, n = 78); or one week of triple therapy followed by two weeks of the same probiotics (OCAP group, n = 77). Successful eradication was defined as a negative C13 or C14 urease breath test four weeks after triple therapy. Patients were asked to report associated symptoms at baseline and during follow-up, and side effects related to therapy were recorded. Data were analyzed by both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) methods.
RESULTS: PP analysis involved 228 patients, 78 in the OCA, 76 in the POCA and 74 in the OCAP group. Successful eradication was observed in 171 patients; by PP analysis, the eradication rates were significantly higher (P = 0.007 each) in the POCA (62/76; 81.6%, 95% CI 72.8%-90.4%) and OCAP (61/74; 82.4%, 95% CI 73.6%-91.2%) groups than in the OCA group (48/78; 61.5%, 95% CI 50.6%-72.4%). ITT analysis also showed that eradication rates were significantly higher in the POCA (62/78; 79.5%, 95% CI 70.4%-88.6%) and OCAP (61/77; 79.2%, 95% CI 70%-88.4%) groups than in the OCA group (48/79; 60.8%, 95% CI 49.9%-71.7%), (P = 0.014 and P = 0.015). The symptom relieving rates in the POCA, OCAP and OCA groups were 85.5%, 89.2% and 87.2%, respectively. Only one of the 228 patients experienced an adverse reaction.
CONCLUSION: Administration of probiotics before or after standard triple therapy may improve H. pylori eradication rates.
Helicobacter pylori; Probiotic; Eradication
The potential role of DSS in CVD prevention remains unclear as only a few studies report on patient outcomes for cardiovascular disease.
Methods and Results
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies was done using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Amed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus databases; reference lists of relevant studies to 30 July 2011; and email contact with experts. The primary outcome was prevention of cardiovascular disorders (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disorders and heart failure) and management of hypertension owing to decision support systems, clinical decision supports systems, computerized decision support systems, clinical decision making tools and medical decision making (interventions). From 4116 references ten studies met our inclusion criteria (including 16,312 participants). Five papers reported outcomes on blood pressure management, one paper on heart failure, two papers each on stroke, and coronary heart disease. The pooled estimate for CDSS versus control group differences in SBP (mm of Hg) was - 0.99 (95% CI −3.02 to 1.04 mm of Hg; I2 = 0; p = 0.851).
DSS show an insignificant benefit in the management and control of hypertension (insignificant reduction of SBP). The paucity of well-designed studies on patient related outcomes is a major hindrance that restricts interpretation for evaluating the role of DSS in secondary prevention. Future studies on DSS should (1) evaluate both physician performance and patient outcome measures (2) integrate into the routine clinical workflow with a provision for decision support at the point of care.
Our aim was to assess the association of left ventricular mass with mortality and nonfatal cardiovascular events.
Left ventricular mass was measured by echocardiography in 40138 adult patients (mean age 61.1±16.4 years, 52.5% male). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints included nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke. During a mean follow-up period of 5.6±3.9 years, 9181 patients died, 901 patients had a nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 2139 patients had a nonfatal stroke. Cumulative 10-year mortality was 26.8%, 31.9%, 37.4% and 46.4% in patients with normal, mildly, moderately and severely increased left ventricular mass, respectively (p<0.001). Ten-year rates of nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke ranged from 3.2% and 6.7% in patients with normal left ventricular mass to 5.3% and 12.7% in those with severe increase in left ventricular mass, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, left ventricular mass remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per 100 g increase 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1–27, p<0.001 in women, and HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1–13, p<0.001 in men), myocardial infarction (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.31–1.94, p<0.001 in women and HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02–1.29, p = 0.019 in men) and stroke (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.40, p<0.001 in women and HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09–1.30, p<0.001 in men).
Left ventricular mass has a graded and independent association with all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke.
Several studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D status is assessed by determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in serum.
We assessed the prognostic utility of 25(OH)D in 982 chest-pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from Salta, Northern Argentina. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death were analyzed in quartiles of 25(OH)D, applying univariate and multivariate analysis.
There were statistically significant changes in seasonal 25(OH)D levels. At follow-up, 119 patients had died. The mean 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower among patients dying than in long-term survivors, both in the total population and in patients with a troponin T (TnT) release (n = 388). When comparing 25(OH)D in the highest quartile to the lowest quartile in a multivariable Cox regression model for all-cause mortality, the hazard ratio (HR) for cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total population was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.19–0.73), p = 0.004, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.08–0.67), p = 0.007, and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.11–0.94), p = 0.038, respectively. In patients with TnT release, the respective HR was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.10–0.54), p = 0.001, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05–0.60), p = 0.006 and 0.25 (95% CI, 0.07–0.89), p = 0.033. 25(OH)D had no prognostic value in patients with no TnT release.
Vitamin D was shown to be a useful biomarker for prediction of mortality when obtained at admission in chest pain patients with suspected ACS.
Chronic hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes increases the risk of microvascular events. However, there is continuing uncertainty about its effect on macrovascular outcomes and death. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to estimate the association of glycosylated hemoglobin level with the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes.
We systematically searched the MEDLINE database through April 2011 by using Medical Subject Heading search terms and a standardized protocol. We included prospective cohort studies that reported data of glycosylated hemoglobin level on the risk of incident cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Relative risk estimates (continuous and categorical variables) were derived or abstracted from each cohort study. Twenty six studies were included in this analysis with a mean follow-up rang of 2.2–16 years. The pooled relative risk associated with a 1% increase in glycosylated hemoglobin level among patients with type 2 diabetes was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.20) for all-cause mortality, 1.17 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.23) for cardiovascular disease, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.20) for coronary heart disease, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.18) for heart failure, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.17) for stroke, and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.40) for peripheral arterial disease, respectively. In addition, a positive dose-response trend existed between glycosylated hemoglobin level and cardiovascular outcomes.
Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes, likely independently from other conventional risk factors.
Enhanced reactive oxygen species formation within the kidney following the administration of contrast media may play a key role in the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Bilirubin has emerged as an important endogenous antioxidant molecule. This study was undertaken to determine whether bilirubin is associated with CIN and future cardiovascular events in patients undergoing coronary intervention.
Totally, 544 consecutive patients received coronary intervention were enrolled. All patients were followed up for at least 3 years or until the occurrence of a major event. The primary endpoint was CIN, defined as a rise in serum creatinine (SCr) of 0.5 mg/dl or a 25% increase from the baseline value within 48 hours after the procedure. The secondary endpoint was the combined occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke.
Overall, CIN occurred in 85 (15.6%) patients. All patients were stratified into 3 groups (low/normal/high) according to the serum bilirubin levels. In a multivariate logistic analysis, the odds ratio for CIN with low-bilirubin levels relative to high-bilirubin levels was 11.82 (95% CI, 3.25–43.03). By Cox regression analysis, serum bilirubin levels was an independent predictor of MACE in patients undergoing coronary intervention (low vs. high hazard ratio 2.26; 95% CI, 1.05–4.90).
CIN is a serious complication of coronary intervention. Higher serum bilirubin concentrations were associated with lower risk of CIN and fewer cardiovascular events. The development of interventions that promote bilirubin levels may be a potential target to reduce CIN and future MACE in patients undergoing coronary intervention.
Coronary restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention still remains a significant problem, despite all medical advances. Unraveling the mechanisms leading to restenosis development remains challenging. Many studies have identified genetic markers associated with restenosis, but consistent replication of the reported markers is scarce. The aim of the current study was to analyze the joined effect of previously in literature reported candidate genes for restenosis in the GENetic DEterminants of Restenosis (GENDER) databank.
Candidate genes were selected using a MEDLINE search including the terms ‘genetic polymorphism’ and ‘coronary restenosis’. The final set included 36 genes. Subsequently, all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomic region of these genes were analyzed in GENDER using set-based analysis in PLINK. The GENDER databank contains genotypic data of 2,571,586 SNPs of 295 cases with restenosis and 571 matched controls. The set, including all 36 literature reported genes, was, indeed, significantly associated with restenosis, p = 0.024 in the GENDER study. Subsequent analyses of the individual genes demonstrated that the observed association of the complete set was determined by 6 of the 36 genes.
Despite overt inconsistencies in literature, with regard to individual candidate gene studies, this is the first study demonstrating that the joint effect of all these genes together, indeed, is associated with restenosis.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between renal function and clinical outcomes among patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ASTEMI), who were treated with emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: 420 patients hospitalized in Peking University First Hospital, diagnosed with ASTEMI treated with emergency (PCI) from January 2001 to June 2011 were enrolled in this study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used as a measure of renal function. We compared the clinical parameters and outcomes between ASTEMI patients combined renal insufficiency and the patients with normal renal function. Results: There was a significant increase in the concentrations of fibrinogen and D-Dimer (P<0.05) and a much higher morbidity of diabetes mellitus in the group of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; eGFR<60 ml/(min·1.73 m2)) (P<0.01). CKD (eGFR<60 ml/(min·1.73 m2)) was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients hospitalized with ASTEMI receiving PCI therapy rapidly (P=0.032, odds ratio (OR) 4.159, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.127–15.346). Conclusions: Renal insufficiency is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients hospitalized with ASTEMI treated with primary PCI.
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI); Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); Renal function; Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); Mortality
Appropriate dosing of coumarins is difficult to establish, due to significant inter-individual variability in the dose required to obtain stable anticoagulation. Several genetic and other clinical factors have been associated with the coumarins dose, and some pharmacogenetic-guided dosing algorithms for warfarin and acenocoumarol have been developed for mixed populations. We recruited 147 patients with thromboembolic disease who were on stable doses and with an international normalized ratio (INR) between 2 and 3. We ascertained the influence of clinical and genetic variables on the stable acenocoumarol dose by multiple linear regression analysis in a derivation cohort (DC; n = 117) and developed an algorithm for dosing that included clinical factors (age, body mass index and concomitant drugs) and genetic variations of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and APOE. For purposes of comparison, a model including only clinical data was created. The clinical factors explained 22% of the dose variability, which increased to 60.6% when pharmacogenetic information was included (p<0.001); CYP4F2 and APOE variants explained 4.9% of this variability. The mean absolute error of the predicted acenocoumarol dose (mg/week) obtained with the pharmacogenetic algorithm was 3.63 vs. 5.08 mg/week with the clinical algorithm (95% CI: 0.88 to 2.04). In the testing cohort (n = 30), clinical factors explained a mere 7% of the dose variability, compared to 39% explained by the pharmacogenetic algorithm. Considering a more clinically relevant parameter, the pharmacogenetic algorithm correctly predicted the real stable dose in 59.8% of the cases (DC) vs. only 37.6% predicted by the clinical algorithm (95% CI: 10 to 35). Therefore the number of patients needed to genotype to avoid one over- or under-dosing was estimated to be 5.
The association between polymorphisms on 15q25.1 and lung cancer has been widely evaluated; however, the studies have yielded contradictory results. We sought to investigate this inconsistency by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis on two polymorphisms (CHRNA3 gene: rs1051730 and AGPHD1 gene: rs8034191) on 15q25.1.
Data were extracted from 15 and 14 studies on polymorphisms rs1051730 and rs8034191 involving 12301/14000 and 14075/12873 lung cancer cases/controls, respectively. The random-effects model was applied, addressing heterogeneity and publication bias.
The two polymorphisms followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all studies (P>0.05). For rs1051730-G/A, carriers of A allele had a 36% increased risk for lung cancer (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–1.46; P<0.0005), without heterogeneity (P = 0.258) or publication bias (PEgger = 0.462). For rs8034191-T/C, the allelic contrast indicated that C allele conferred a 23% increased risk for lung cancer (95% CI: 1.08–1.4; P = 0.002), with significant heterogeneity (P<0.0005), without publication bias (PEgger = 0.682). Subgroup analyses suggested that the between-study heterogeneity was derived from ethnicity, study design, matched information, and lung cancer subtypes. For example, the association of polymorphisms rs1051730 and rs8034191 with lung cancer was heterogeneous between Caucasians (OR = 1.32 and 1.22; 95% CI: 1.25–1.44 and 1.05–1.42; P<0.0005 and 0.008, respectively) and East Asians (OR = 1.51 and 1.03; 95% CI: 0.76–3 and 0.47–2.27; P = 0.237 and 0.934, respectively) under the allelic model, and this association was relatively strengthened under the dominant model. There was no observable publication bias for both polymorphisms.
Our findings demonstrated that CHRNA3 gene rs1051730-A allele and AGPHD1 gene rs8034191-T allele might be risk-conferring factors for the development of lung cancer in Caucasians, but not in East-Asians.
Chance imbalance in baseline prognosis of a randomized controlled trial can lead to over or underestimation of treatment effects, particularly in trials with small sample sizes. Our study aimed to (1) evaluate the probability of imbalance in a binary prognostic factor (PF) between two treatment arms, (2) investigate the impact of prognostic imbalance on the estimation of a treatment effect, and (3) examine the effect of sample size (n) in relation to the first two objectives.
We simulated data from parallel-group trials evaluating a binary outcome by varying the risk of the outcome, effect of the treatment, power and prevalence of the PF, and n. Logistic regression models with and without adjustment for the PF were compared in terms of bias, standard error, coverage of confidence interval and statistical power.
For a PF with a prevalence of 0.5, the probability of a difference in the frequency of the PF≥5% reaches 0.42 with 125/arm. Ignoring a strong PF (relative risk = 5) leads to underestimating the strength of a moderate treatment effect, and the underestimate is independent of n when n is >50/arm. Adjusting for such PF increases statistical power. If the PF is weak (RR = 2), adjustment makes little difference in statistical inference. Conditional on a 5% imbalance of a powerful PF, adjustment reduces the likelihood of large bias. If an absolute measure of imbalance ≥5% is deemed important, including 1000 patients/arm provides sufficient protection against such an imbalance. Two thousand patients/arm may provide an adequate control against large random deviations in treatment effect estimation in the presence of a powerful PF.
The probability of prognostic imbalance in small trials can be substantial. Covariate adjustment improves estimation accuracy and statistical power, and hence should be performed when strong PFs are observed.
Anaphylaxis management guidelines recommend the use of intramuscular adrenaline in severe reactions, complemented by antihistamines and corticoids; secondary prevention includes allergen avoidance and provision of self-applicable first aid drugs. Gaps between recommendations and their implementation have been reported, but only in confined settings. Hence, we analysed nation-wide data on the management of anaphylaxis, evaluating the implementation of guidelines.
Within the anaphylaxis registry, allergy referral centres across Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on severe anaphylaxis cases. Based on patient records, details on reaction circumstances, diagnostic workup and treatment were collected via online questionnaire. Report of anaphylaxis through emergency physicians allowed for validation of registry data.
2114 severe anaphylaxis patients from 58 centres were included. 8% received adrenaline intravenously, 4% intramuscularly; 50% antihistamines, and 51% corticoids. Validation data indicated moderate underreporting of first aid drugs in the Registry. 20% received specific instructions at the time of the reaction; 81% were provided with prophylactic first aid drugs at any time.
There is a distinct discrepancy between current anaphylaxis management guidelines and their implementation. To improve patient care, a revised approach for medical education and training on the management of severe anaphylaxis is warranted.
To examine the epidemiology of hypertension in women of reproductive age.
Using NHANES from 1999–2008, we identified 5,521 women age 20–44 years old. Hypertension status was determined using blood pressure measurements and/or self-reported medication use.
The estimated prevalence of hypertension in women of reproductive age was 7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.9%–8.5%). The prevalence of anti-hypertensive pharmacologic therapy was 4.2% (95% CI 3.5%–4.9%). The prevalence of hypertension was relatively stable across the study period; the age and race adjusted odds of hypertension in 2007–2008 did not differ significantly from 1999–2000 (odds ratio 1.2, CI 0.8 to 1.7, p = 0.45). Significant independent risk factors associated with hypertension included older age, non-Hispanic black race (compared to non-Hispanic whites), diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and higher body mass index. The most commonly used antihypertensive medications included diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE), and beta blockers.
Hypertension occurs in about 8% of women of reproductive age. There are remarkable differences in the prevalence of hypertension between racial/ethnic groups. Obesity is a risk factor of particular importance in this population because it affects over 30% of young women in the U.S., is associated with more than 4 fold increased risk of hypertension, and is potentially modifiable.
Candida albicans is a human commensal that is also responsible for chronic gastritis and peptic ulcerous disease. Little is known about the genetic profiles of the C. albicans strains in the digestive tract of dyspeptic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, diversity, and genetic profiles among C. albicans isolates recovered from natural colonization of the digestive tract in the dyspeptic patients.
Methods and Findings
Oral swab samples (n = 111) and gastric mucosa samples (n = 102) were obtained from a group of patients who presented dyspeptic symptoms or ulcer complaints. Oral swab samples (n = 162) were also obtained from healthy volunteers. C. albicans isolates were characterized and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. The prevalence of Candida spp. in the oral samples was not significantly different between the dyspeptic group and the healthy group (36.0%, 40/111 vs. 29.6%, 48/162; P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences between the groups in the distribution of species isolated and the genotypes of the C. albicans isolates. C. albicans was isolated from 97.8% of the Candida-positive subjects in the dyspeptic group, but from only 56.3% in the healthy group (P < 0.001). DST1593 was the dominant C. albicans genotype from the digestive tract of the dyspeptic group (60%, 27/45), but not the healthy group (14.8%, 4/27) (P < 0.001).
Our data suggest a possible link between particular C. albicans strain genotypes and the host microenvironment. Positivity for particular C. albicans genotypes could signify susceptibility to dyspepsia.