We sought to identify novel pharmacogenomic markers for HDL-C response to atenolol in participants with mild to moderate hypertension. We genotyped 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study on the Illumina HumanCVD Beadchip. During PEAR, participants were randomized to receive atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure and cholesterol levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. This study focused on participants treated with atenolol monotherapy. Association with atenolol induced HDL-C change was evaluated in 232 whites and 152 African Americans using linear regression. No SNPs achieved a Bonferroni corrected P-value. However, we identified 13 regions with consistent association across whites and African Americans. The most interesting of these regions were seven with prior associations with HDL-C, other metabolic traits, or functional implications in the lipid pathway: GALNT2, FTO, ABCB1, LRP5, STARD3NL, ESR1, and LIPC. Examples are rs2144300 in GALNT2 in whites (P=2.29x10-4, β=-1.85 mg/dL) and rs12595985 in FTO in African Americans (P=2.90x10-4, β=4.52 mg/dL), both with consistent regional association (P<0.05) in the other race group. Additionally, baseline GALNT2 expression differed by rs2144300 genotype in whites (P=0.0279). In conclusion, we identified multiple gene regions associated with atenolol induced HDL-C change that were consistent across race groups, several with functional implications or prior associations with HDL-C.
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are important regulatory proteins for many G protein-coupled receptors, but little is known about GRK4 pharmacogenetics. We hypothesized three nonsynonymous GRK4 SNPs, R65L (rs2960306), A142V (rs1024323) and A486V (rs1801058) would be associated with blood pressure response to atenolol, but not hydrochlorothiazide, and would be associated with long term cardiovascular outcomes (all cause, death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) in participants treated with an atenolol-based versus verapamil-SR-based antihypertensive strategy. GRK4 SNPs were genotyped in 768 hypertensive participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) trial. In Caucasians and African Americans, increasing copies of the variant 65L-142V haplotype were associated with significantly reduced atenolol-induced diastolic blood pressure lowering (−9.1 ± 6.8 vs −6.8 ± 7.1 vs −5.3 ± 6.4 mmHg in participants with 0, 1 and 2 copies of 65L-142V respectively; p=0.0088). 1460 participants with hypertension and coronary artery disease from the INternational VErapamil SR / Trandolapril STudy (INVEST) were genotyped and variant alleles of all three GRK4 SNPs were associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in an additive fashion, with 486V homozygotes reaching statistical significance (Odds ratio 2.29 [1.48–3.55], p=0.0002). These effects on adverse cardiovascular outcomes were independent of antihypertensive treatment. These results suggest the presence of GRK4 variant alleles may be important determinants of blood pressure response to atenolol and risk for adverse cardiovascular events. The associations with GRK4 variant alleles were stronger in patients who were also ADRB1 389R-homozygotes, suggesting a potential interaction between these two genes.
hypertension; GRK4; atenolol; beta-blocker; outcomes; ADRB1; pharmacogenetics
Dichloroacetate (DCA), a chemical relevant to environmental science and allopathic medicine, is dehalogenated by the bifunctional enzyme glutathione transferase zeta (GSTz1) maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI), the penultimate enzyme in the phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolic pathway. The authors postulated that polymorphisms in GSTz1/MAAI modify the toxicokinetics of DCA. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype significantly affected the kinetics and biotransformation of 1,2-13C-DCA when it was administered at either environmentally (μg/kg/d) or clinically (mg/kg/d) relevant doses. GSTz1/MAAI haplotype also influenced the urinary accumulation of potentially toxic tyrosine metabolites. Atomic modeling revealed that GSTz1/MAAI variants associated with the slowest rates of DCA metabolism induced structural changes in the enzyme homodimer, predicting protein instability or abnormal protein-protein interactions. Knowledge of the GSTz1/MAAI haplotype can be used prospectively to identify individuals at potential risk of DCA’s adverse side effects from environmental or clinical exposure or who may exhibit aberrant amino acid metabolism in response to dietary protein.
dichloroacetate; glutathione transferase zeta; maleylacetoacetate isomerase; pharmacogenetics; toxicogenetics; tyrosine metabolism
Comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders with seizures or abnormal EEG (Autism-Epilepsy Phenotype) suggests shared pathomechanisms, and might be a starting point to identify distinct populations within the clinical complexity of the autistic spectrum. In this study, we tried to assess whether distinct subgroups, having distinctive clinical hallmarks, emerge from this comorbid condition.
Two-hundred and six individuals with idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorders were subgrouped into three experimental classes depending on the presence of seizures and EEG abnormalities. Neurobehavioral, electroclinical and auxological parameters were investigated to identify differences among groups and features which increase the risk of seizures. Our statistical analyses used ANOVA, post-hoc multiple comparisons, and the Chi-squared test to analyze continuous and categorical variables. A correspondence analysis was also used to decompose significant Chi-squared and reduce variables dimensions.
The high percentage of children with seizures (28.2% of our whole cohort) and EEG abnormalities (64.1%) confirmed that the prevalence of epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders exceeds that of the general population. Seizures were associated with severe intellectual disability, and not with autism severity. Interestingly, tall stature (without macrocephaly) was significantly associated with EEG abnormalities or later onset seizures. However, isolated macrocephaly was equally distributed among groups or associated with early onset seizures when accompanied by tall stature.
Tall stature seems to be a phenotypic “biomarker” of susceptibility to EEG abnormalities or late epilepsy in Autism Spectrum Disorders and, when concurring with macrocephaly, predisposes to early onset seizures. Growth pattern might act as an endophenotypic marker in Autism-Epilepsy comorbidity, delineating distinct pathophysiological subtypes and addressing personalized diagnostic work-up and therapeutic approaches.
The rs1333049, rs10757278 and rs4977574 are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of chromosome 9p21 locus that are associated with prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The rs1333049 SNP was also associated with cardiac outcome 6 months post ACS. No data concerning their association with long term prognosis after myocardial infarction is available. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of the 9p21.3 locus with 5-year overall mortality in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated invasively.
Materials and Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively in a registry of consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI. Genotyping was performed with a TaqMan method. The analyzed end-point was total 5-year mortality.
The study group comprised 589 patients: 25.3% of females (n = 149), mean age 62.4±11.9 years, total 5-year mortality 16.6% (n = 98). When all the study group was analyzed, no significant differences in mortality were found between the genotypes. However, in high-risk patients (Grace risk score ≥155 points, n = 238), low-risk homozygotes had significantly better 5-year survival compared to other genotypes. The hazard ratio associated with high-risk genotype (high-risk homozygote or heterozygote) was: HR = 2.9 (95%CI 1.4–6.1) for the rs4977574 polymorphism, HR = 2.6 (1.25–5.3) for the rs1333049 one and HR = 2.35 (1.2–4.6) for the rs10757278 one (Cox proportional hazards model).
The 9p21.3 locus is associated with 5-year mortality in high-risk patients with STEMI. This finding, due to very high effect size, could potentially be applied into clinical practice, if appropriate methods are elaborated.
β-blockers (BBs) with different pharmacological properties may have heterogeneous effects on sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and central aortic pressure (CAP), which are independent cardiovascular factors for hypertension. Hence, we analyzed the effects of bisoprolol and atenolol on SNA and CAP in hypertensive patients.
This was a prospective, randomized, controlled study in 109 never-treated hypertensive subjects randomized to bisoprolol (5 mg) or atenolol (50 mg) for 4–8 weeks. SNA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) were measured using power spectral analysis using a Finometer. CAP and related parameters were determined using the SphygmoCor device (pulse wave analysis).
Both drugs were similarly effective in reducing brachial BP. However, central systolic BP (−14±10 mm Hg vs −6±9 mm Hg; P<0.001) and aortic pulse pressure (−3±10 mm Hg vs +3±8 mm Hg; P<0.001) decreased more significantly with bisoprolol than with atenolol. The augmentation index at a HR of 75 bpm (AIxatHR75) was significantly decreased (29%±11% to 25%±12%; P = 0.026) in the bisoprolol group only. Furthermore, the change in BRS in the bisoprolol group (3.99±4.19 ms/mmHg) was higher than in the atenolol group (2.66±3.78 ms/mmHg), although not statistically significant (P>0.05). BRS was stable when RHR was controlled (RHR≤65 bpm), and the two treatments had similar effects on the low frequency/high frequency (HF) ratio and on HF.
BBs seem to have different effects on arterial distensibility and compliance in hypertensive subjects. Compared with atenolol, bisoprolol may have a better effect on CAP.
To simulate national estimates of prepregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) women.
Prepregnancy diabetes and GDM were estimated as a function of age, race/ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) using South Carolina live singleton births from 2004–2008. Diabetes risk was applied to a simulated population. Age, natality and BMI were assigned to women according to race- and age-specific US Census, Natality and National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data, respectively.
From 1980–2008, estimated GDM prevalence increased from 4.11% to 6.80% [2.68% (95% CI 2.58%–2.78%)] and from 3.96% to 6.43% [2.47% (95% CI 2.39%–2.55%)] in NHW and NHB women, respectively. In NHW women prepregnancy diabetes prevalence increased 0.90% (95% CI 0.85%–0.95%) from 0.95% in 1980 to 1.85% in 2008. In NHB women from 1980 through 2008 estimated prepregnancy diabetes prevalence increased 1.51% (95% CI 1.44%–1.57%), from 1.66% to 3.16%.
Racial disparities in diabetes prevalence during pregnancy appear to stem from a higher prevalence of prepregnancy diabetes, but not GDM, in NHB than NHW.
Precise effects of albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal events in diabetic patients are uncertain.
Materials and Methods
A systematic review was conducted of the literature through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINHAL from 1950 to December 2010. Cohort studies of diabetic patients providing adjusted relative risk (RR) of albuminuria and eGFR for risks of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and renal events were selected. Two reviewers screened abstracts and full papers of each study using standardized protocol.
We identified 31 studies fulfilling the criteria from 6546 abstracts. With regard to the risk of cardiovascular mortality, microalbuminuria (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.38–2.25) and macroalbuminuria (RR 2.96 95%CI 2.44–3.60) were significant risk factors compared to normoalbuminuria. The same trends were seen in microalbuminuria (RR 1.60, 95%CI 1.42–1.81), and macroalbuminuria (RR 2.64, 95%CI 2.13–3.27) for the risk of all-cause mortality, and also in microalbuminuria (RR 3.21, 95%CI 2.05–5.02) and macroalbuminuria (RR 11.63, 95%CI 5.68–23.83) for the risk of renal events. The magnitudes of relative risks associated with low eGFR along with albuminuria were almost equal to multiplying each risk rate of low eGFR and albuminuria. No significant factors were found by investigating potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analysis.
High albuminuria and low eGFR are relevant risk factors in diabetic patients. Albuminuria and low eGFR may be independent of each other. To evaluate the effects of low eGFR, intervention, or race, appropriately designed studies are needed.
The fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been implicated in recent studies as a potential regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, which may lead to atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the association of FGF19 with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a Chinese population.
A total of 315 patients with suspected or established CAD, including 205 males and 110 postmenopausal females, were enrolled and assessed by coronary angiography. CAD severity was determined by the Gensini score. Serum FGF19 was measured by quantitative sandwich ELISA.
FGF19 levels were not significantly different between male and female patients (median [interquartile range], 143.40 [87.96–250.80] vs. 141.60 [87.13–226.32] pg/mL, P = 0.773). CAD patients had lower levels of FGF19 than those without CAD (128.20 [80.62–226.58] vs. 188.00 [105.10–284.70] pg/mL, P = 0.007). FGF19 was negatively correlated with 2hPG (r = –0.150, P = 0.008), FINS (r = –0.169, P = 0.004), HOMA-IR (r = –0.171, P = 0.004), and the Gensini score (r = –0.141, P = 0.012), but positively correlated with HDL-c (r = 0.116, P = 0.041) and adiponectin (r = 0.128, P = 0.024). Moreover, FGF19 was found to be independently correlated with 2hPG (β = –0.146, P = 0.022) and adiponectin (β = 0.154, P = 0.016). After adjusting for other CAD risk factors, FGF19 was demonstrated to be an independent factor for Gensini score (β = –0.140, P = 0.019) and the presence of CAD (β = –1.248, P = 0.036).
Serum FGF19 is associated with the presence and severity of CAD in a Chinese population.
The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of telmisartan varies among the individuals, and the main causes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ORM1, as well as ABCC2, ABCB1, ABCG2 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms, on the disposition of the drug and BP change after taking 40 mg telmisartan in 48 healthy Chinese males.
A total of 48 healthy males were included in this trial. Every volunteer ingested a single dose of 40 mg telmisartan, and the plasma drug concentration and blood pressure (BP) were measured up to 48 h.
In this study, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) in the heterozygotes of ORM1 113AG was higher than that in the wild-type homozygotes, AUC(0–48) (113AA vs. 113AG, 1,549.18±859.84 ng·h/ml vs. 2,313.54±1,257.71 ng·h/ml, P = 0.033), AUC(0–∞) (113AA vs. 113AG, 1,753.13±1,060.60 ng·h/ml vs. 2,686.90±1,401.87 ng·h/ml, P = 0.016), and the change(%) of the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from the baseline BP value also showed a significant difference between the ORM1 113AG and 113AA genotypes at 5 h after taking telmisartan (P = 0.026). This study also showed that the allele of ABCC2 C3972T would affected the disposition of telmsiartan and the DBP change significantly after taking the drug. However, the common SNPs of ABCG2 C421, ABCB1 C3435T, and SLCO1B3 T334G showed no impacts on the PKs of telmisartan or BP change(%) in our trial.
The ORM1 A113G polymorphism was associated with the PKs variability after taking telmsiartan, as well as ABCC2 C3972T. The heterozygotes of ORM1 113AG showed a larger AUC and a notable BP change(%) from the baseline compared with the wild-type.
Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TNC-10000898
To evaluate if the Apgar score remains pertinent in contemporary practice after more than 50 years of wide use, and to assess the value of the Apgar score in predicting infant survival, expanding from the neonatal to the post-neonatal period.
The U.S. linked live birth and infant death dataset was used, which included 25,168,052 singleton births and 768,305 twin births. The outcome of interest was infant death within 1 year after birth. Cox proportional hazard-model was used to estimate risk ratio of infant mortality with different Apgar scores.
Among births with a very low Apgar score at five minutes (1–3), the neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates remained high until term (≥ 37 weeks). On the other hand, among births with a high Apgar score (≥7), neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rate decreased progressively with gestational age. Non-Hispanic White had a consistently higher neonatal mortality than non-Hispanic Black in both preterm and term births. However, for post-neonatal mortality, Black had significantly higher rate than White. The pattern of changes in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality by Apgar score in twin births is essentially the same as that in singleton births.
The Apgar score system has continuing value for predicting neonatal and post-neonatal adverse outcomes in term as well as preterm infants, and is applicable to twins and in various race/ethnic groups.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC, rs28493229) and caspase-3 (CASP3, rs113420705) are associated with susceptibility to KD in Japanese and Taiwanese populations. This study was conducted to investigate the involvement of these 2 SNPs in the risk for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and coronary artery lesion (CAL) in Taiwanese population. A total of 340 KD patients were subjected to assess by the identification of 2-locus genes model. A combinatorial association between ITPKC (rs28493229) and CASP3 (rs113420705) was found in CAL formation (P = 0.0227, OR: 3.06). KD patients with high-risk genotype had a trend of overrepresentation in IVIG resistance compared with individual SNPs. Our findings suggest the existence of genetic factors affecting patients’ risk for CAL formation and IVIG responsiveness in a Taiwanese population.
This study aimed to determine the contribution of individual and contextual socioeconomic status (SES) to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in the adult population in rural southwest China.
A population-based cross-sectional study of diabetes was performed in 4801(2152 men) Chinese adults (≥25 years old). Multilevel logistic regression model was used to examine the association between individuals’ and townships’ variables and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance.
The age-and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance were 7.1% (3.6% for undiagnosed) and 8.8% in adults aged ≥25 years, respectively, and increasing with age. Females were more likely to develop diabetes than males. The probability of developing diabetes increased with BMI. Both contextual and individual educational level and yearly household income were found to be negatively associated with the prevalence of diabetes. Residence in communities with a higher percentage of ethnic minorities was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes. Smoking had a protective effect for diabetes, drinking had a positive association with diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance.
Diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are common in rural adults of southwest China by international standards. These results indicate that diabetes mellitus has become a major public health problem in rural areas in southwest China, and strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance are needed.
AIM: To study the effects of low-dose amitriptyline (AMT) on gastrointestinal function and brain-gut peptides in healthy Chinese volunteers.
METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers were randomised and administered 1-wk treatments of AMT (12.5 mg tid) or placebo. Before and during the final two days of treatment, gastric emptying, proximal gastric accommodation and visceral sensitivity were measured by drinking-ultrasonography test; the orocecal transit time (OCTT) was measured by lactulose hydrogen breath test, and fasting blood was collected. Plasma levels of ghrelin, motilin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.
RESULTS: AMT slowed the OCTT (109.2 ± 29.68 min vs 96.61 ± 23.9 min, P = 0.004) but did not affect liquid gastric emptying and had no effect on proximal gastric accommodation. AMT resulted in decreases in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for difficulty in drinking 600 and 800 mL of water (3.57 ± 0.94 vs 2.98 ± 0.85, 5.57 ± 0.82 vs 4.57 ± 0.98, P < 0.01 for both), although it had no significant effect on the VAS for difficulty in drinking 200 mL and 400 mL of water. AMT significantly increased the plasma ghrelin level (442.87 ± 176.79 pg/mL vs 526.87 ± 158.44 pg/mL, P = 0.04) and the neuropeptide-Y level (890.15 ± 131.46 pg/mL vs 965.64 ± 165.63 pg/mL, P = 0.03), whereas it had no effect on the MTL level.
CONCLUSION: Low-dose AMT could slow OCTT, make the stomach less sensitive and increase the plasma levels of ghrelin and NPY. Thus, we recommend the use of low-dose AMT for functional gastrointestinal disorders.
Amitriptyline; Orocecal transit time; Visceral hypersensitivity; Gastric emptying; Brain-gut peptides
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN) is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam.
Data from 2,368 adults (age≥25 years) participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol.
The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled.
Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality.
Hyperuricemia is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. URAT1 is a urate transporter, and we tested the association of URAT1 transporter gene (SLC22A12) polymorphisms with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in hypertensive subjects.
Patients with essential hypertension (n = 414) from a randomized controlled study were genotyped for SLC22A12 SNPs rs11602903, rs505802 and rs11231825.
In Caucasians, SLC22A12 SNPs were associated with the body mass index (BMI). rs11602903 was associated with BMI (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p = 0.003), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.018) and the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.033), and accounted for 7% of the variation of BMI in Caucasians. In African Americans, SLC22A12 SNP rs11602903 was not associated with BMI, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol or triglycerides.
The URAT1 gene SLC22A12 polymorphism may play a role in obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian hypertensive subjects.
Hypertension; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity; SLC22A12 polymorphisms; URAT1; Uric acid
We previously showed that treatment with folic acid (FA)/B12 was associated with more rapid progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). High doses of FA may induce methylation by increasing the availability of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and trimethyllysine (TML) are both produced through proteolytic release following post-translational SAM–dependent methylation of precursor amino acid. ADMA has previously been associated with CAD. We investigated if plasma levels of ADMA and TML were associated with progression of CAD as measured by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA).
183 patients from the Western Norway B Vitamin Intervention Trial (WENBIT) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized to daily treatment with 0.8 mg FA/0.4 mg B12 with and without 40 mg B6, B6 alone or placebo. Coronary angiograms and plasma samples of ADMA and TML were obtained at both baseline and follow-up (median 10.5 months). The primary end-point was progression of CAD as measured by diameter stenosis (DS) evaluated by linear quantile mixed models.
A total of 309 coronary lesions not treated with PCI were identified. At follow-up median (95% CI) DS increased by 18.35 (5.22–31.49) percentage points per µmol/L ADMA increase (p-value 0.006) and 2.47 (0.37–4.58) percentage points per µmol/L TML increase (p-value 0.021) in multivariate modeling. Treatment with FA/B12 (±B6) was not associated with ADMA or TML levels.
In patients with established CAD, baseline ADMA and TML was associated with angiographic progression of CAD. However, neither ADMA nor TML levels were altered by treatment with FA/B12 (±B6).
This study sought to ascertain the relationship of 9p21 locus with: 1) angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) burden; and 2) myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals with underlying CAD.
Chromosome 9p21 variants have been robustly associated with coronary heart disease, but questions remain on the mechanism of risk, specifically whether the locus contributes to coronary atheroma burden or plaque instability.
We established a collaboration of 21 studies consisting of 33,673 subjects with information on both CAD (clinical or angiographic) and MI status along with 9p21 genotype. Tabular data are provided for each cohort on the presence and burden of angiographic CAD, MI cases with underlying CAD, and the diabetic status of all subjects.
We first confirmed an association between 9p21 and CAD with angiographically defined cases and control subjects (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.43). Among subjects with angiographic CAD (n = 20,987), random-effects model identified an association with multivessel CAD, compared with those with single-vessel disease (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17)/copy of risk allele). Genotypic models showed an OR of 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.26 for heterozygous carrier and OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.39 for homozygous carrier. Finally, there was no significant association between 9p21 and prevalent MI when both cases (n = 17,791) and control subjects (n = 15,882) had underlying CAD (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.03)/risk allele.
The 9p21 locus shows convincing association with greater burden of CAD but not with MI in the presence of underlying CAD. This adds further weight to the hypothesis that 9p21 locus primarily mediates an atherosclerotic phenotype.
9p21; angiography; coronary artery disease; meta-analysis; myocardial infarction; single nucleotide polymorphism
A job-related factor is attracting a growing interest as a possible determinant of body weight gain in shift-workers.
The aim of the study was to reinvestigate the issue of overweight between rotating shift workers and daytime workers, taking into consideration possible confounding covariate factors.
This is a cross-sectional study, conducted by reviewing data from subjects participating in an occupational surveillance program in 2008. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire to retrieve information about socio-demographic factors and working conditions (job schedule type, job-related physical activity, time in job), subjective health status, health care visits during the previous year, and lifestyle factors (dietary habits, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption). Participants underwent a medical examination for measurement of BMI, and acquisition of medical history.
Compared to daytime workers (N = 229), rotating shift workers (N = 110) displayed higher BMI (mean BMI was 27.6±3.9 and 26.7±3.6 for shift workers, and daytime workers, respectively; p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis allowed to highlight the role of rotating shift-work as an independent risk factor for increased body weight (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.01–3.71), being aged between 35 and 54 years was a major determinant of increased BMI (OR 2.39, 95%CI 1.14–5.00). In addition, family history of obesity was the strongest determinant of overweight/obesity (OR 9.79, 95%CI 1.28–74.74). Interestingly, no significant association was found between overweight and other potentially relevant factors, such as diet quality and food choices, alcohol consumption, levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity.
Present findings seem to support the notion that rotating shift work is an independent risk factor for overweight, regardless of workers' dietary habits and physical activity levels.
To determine risk factors of superimposed preeclampsia in women with essential chronic hypertension receiving antihypertensive therapy prior to conception.
A retrospective study of 211 patients that analyzed risk factors of superimposed preeclampsia at first prenatal visit. Variables with a p<.1 at univariate analysis were included in a logistic regression analysis. P<.05 was considered as significant.
Superimposed preeclampsia occurred in 49 (23.2%) women. In logistic regression analysis, previous preeclampsia [OR: 4.05 (1.61–10.16)], and mean arterial blood pressure of 95 mmHg or higher [OR: 4.60 (1.94–10.93)] were associated with increased risk of superimposed preeclampsia. When both variables were present, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio for superimposed preeclampsia were 43%, 94%, 70%, 85%, and 7.71 (95% CI: 3.20–18.57), respectively.
In essential chronic hypertensive women, previous preeclampsia and mean arterial blood pressure of 95 mmHg or higher are associated with increased risks of superimposed preeclampsia.
In vitro studies have demonstrated the role of the BCL-2 family of genes in endometrial carcinogenesis. The role of genetic variants in BCL-2 genes and their interactions with non-genetic factors in the development of endometrial cancer has not been investigated in epidemiological studies.
Patients and Methods
We examined the relationship between BCL-2 gene family variants and endometrial cancer risk among 1,028 patients and 1,922 age-matched community controls from Shanghai, China. We also investigated possible interactions between genetic variants and established risk factors (demographic, lifestyle and clinical). Individuals were genotyped for 86 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BCL2, BAX, BAD and BAK1 genes.
Significant associations with endometrial cancer risk were found for 9 SNPs in the BCL2 gene (P trend<0.05 for all). For SNPs rs17759659 and rs7243091 (minor allele for both: G), the associations were independent. The odds ratio was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.04–1.53) for women with AG genotype for the SNP rs17759659 and 1.82 (95% CI: 1.21–2.73) for women with the GG genotype for the SNP rs7243091. No interaction between these two SNPs and established non-genetic risk factors of endometrial cancer was noticed.
Genetic polymorphisms in the BCL2 gene may be associated with the risk of endometrial cancer in Chinese women.
Good glycemic control reduces the risk of diabetic complications. Despite this, achieving good glycemic control remains a challenge in diabetic patients. The objective of this study is to identify determinants of glycemic control among insulin treated diabetic patients at Jimma University Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.
Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on systematically sampled 284 insulin-treated diabetic patients with a regular follow up. Data was collected by interviewing patients during hospital visits and reviewing respective databases of September 2010 to December 2011. Data collection took place from February 20 to May 20, 2012. Poor glycemic control was defined as fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dL. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of poor glycemic control.
Patients had a mean age of 41.37 (±15.08) years, 58.5% were males, the mean duration of insulin treatment was 4.9 (±5.1) years, 18.3% achieved good glycemic control (FBS≤126 mg/dL), 95% self-reported repeated use of disposable insulin syringe-needle and 48% correctly rotating insulin injection sites. Most (83.1%) of study participants had one or more complications. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, body weight of >70 Kg (AOR = 0.21; P<0.001), total daily dose of insulin ≤35 IU/day (AOR = 0.26; P<0.001), total daily dose variation without checking glycemic level (AOR = 3.39; P = 0.020), knowledge deficit about signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia (AOR = 3.60; P = 0.004), and non-adherence to dietary management (AOR = 0.35; P = 0.005) were independent predictors of poor glycemic control.
The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was high, which resulted in the development of one or more complications regardless of duration on insulin treatment. Hence, appropriate management of patients focusing on the relevant associated factors and independent predictors of poor glycemic control would be of great benefit in glycemic control.
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension and microalbuminuria are predictive markers for increased renal and cardiovascular risk. This post hoc analysis of data from a global development program aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linagliptin in a population with joint prevalence of these two vascular risk factors.
Data for patients with baseline microalbuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30–300 mg/g) and hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or a history of hypertension; and/or an antihypertensive treatment at baseline) who participated in any of six randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trials were analyzed. Participants received linagliptin 5 mg daily (alone or in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs) or placebo for 18 to 24 weeks.
Of 3,119 patients, 512 had both microalbuminuria and hypertension (linagliptin, 366; placebo, 146). Baseline mean (SD) HbA1c was 8.3 (0.9)% and 8.4 (0.9)%; median (range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 60 (30–292) mg/g and 64 (30–298) mg/g; mean (SD) systolic blood pressure was 138 (15) mm Hg and 135 (16) mm Hg; and mean (SD) diastolic blood pressure was 81 (10) mm Hg and 81 (10) mm Hg, for linagliptin and placebo, respectively. Placebo-corrected mean change in HbA1c from baseline to week 18 and week 24 was -0.57% (95% CI: -0.75, -0.39; P < 0.0001) and -0.59% (95% CI: -0.80, -0.39; P < 0.0001), respectively. Placebo-corrected mean change in FPG from baseline to week 24 was -21.3 mg/dl (95% CI: -31.0, -11.6; P < 0.0001). The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar for linagliptin and placebo (10.4% and 8.2%, respectively). Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were similar between linagliptin and placebo.
In T2DM patients with the two common vascular risk factors of hypertension and microalbuminuria, linagliptin achieved significant improvements in glycemic control. In this vulnerable patient population at high risk for micro- and macrovascular complications, linagliptin was well tolerated.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Hypertension; Microalbuminuria; Linagliptin; DPP-4 inhibitor
The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults.
This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors.
1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075–2.909, P = 0.025).
Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications.
Changes in the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contractile phenotype occur in pathological states such as restenosis and atherosclerosis. Multiple cytokines, signaling through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways, regulate these phenotypic transitions. The Spry proteins are feedback modulators of RTK signaling, but their specific roles in VSMC have not been established.
Here, we report for the first time that Spry1, but not Spry4, is required for maintaining the differentiated state of human VSMC in vitro. While Spry1 is a known MAPK/ERK inhibitor in many cell types, we found that Spry1 has little effect on MAPK/ERK signaling but increases and maintains Akt activation in VSMC. Sustained Akt signaling is required for VSMC marker expression in vitro, while ERK signaling negatively modulates Akt activation and VSMC marker gene expression. Spry4, which antagonizes both MAPK/ERK and Akt signaling, suppresses VSMC differentiation marker gene expression. We show using siRNA knockdown and ChIP assays that FoxO3a, a downstream target of PI3K/Akt signaling, represses myocardin promoter activity, and that Spry1 increases, while Spry4 decreases myocardin mRNA levels.
Together, these data indicate that Spry1 and Spry4 have opposing roles in VSMC phenotypic modulation, and Spry1 maintains the VSMC differentiation phenotype in vitro in part through an Akt/FoxO/myocardin pathway.