The aim of this study is to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing blood pressure (BP) response to the β-blocker atenolol.
Genome-wide association analysis of BP response to atenolol monotherapy was performed in 233 white participants with uncomplicated hypertension in the pharmacogenomic evaluation of antihypertensive responses study. Forty-two polymorphisms with P less than 10−5 for association with either diastolic or systolic response to atenolol monotherapy were validated in four independent groups of hypertensive individuals (total n = 2114).
In whites, two polymorphisms near the gene PTPRD (rs12346562 and rs1104514) were associated with DBP response to atenolol (P = 3.2 × 10−6 and P = 5.9 × 10−6, respectively) with directionally opposite association for response to hydrochlorothiazide in another group of 228 whites (P = 0.0018 and P = 0.00012). A different polymorphism (rs10739150) near PTPRD was associated with response to atenolol in 150 black hypertensive individuals (P = 8.25 ×10−6). rs12346562 had a similar trend in association with response to bisoprolol (a different β-blocker) in 207 Finnish men in the genetics of drug responsiveness in essential hypertension study. In addition, an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4742610) in the PTPRD gene was associated with resistant hypertension in whites and Hispanics in the international verapamil SR trandolapril study (meta-analysis P = 3.2 × 10−5).
PTPRD was identified as a novel locus potentially associated with BP response to atenolol and resistant hypertension in multiple ethnic groups.
atenolol; blood pressure response; genome-wide association study; pharmacogenomic evaluation of antihypertensive responses; pharmacogenomics; PTPRD; resistant hypertension
Although previous studies have confirmed that 23S rRNA gene mutation could be responsible for most of macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis, a recent study suggested otherwise. Next generation sequence based comparative genomics has revolutionized the mining of potential novel drug resistant mechanisms. In this study, two pairs of resistant and susceptible M. catarrhalis isolates with different multilocus sequence types, were investigated for potential differential genes or informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identified genes and SNPs were evaluated in 188 clinical isolates. From initially 12 selected differential genes and 12 informative SNPs, 10 differential genes (mboIA, mcbC, mcbI, mboIB, MCR_1794, MCR_1795, lgt2B/C, dpnI, mcbB, and mcbA) and 6 SNPs (C619T of rumA, T140C of rplF, G643A of MCR_0020, T270G of MCR_1465, C1348A of copB, and G238A of rrmA) were identified as possibly linked to macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis. Most of the identified differential genes and SNPs are related to methylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or DNA, especially MCR_0020 and rrmA. Further studies are needed to determine the function and/or evolution process, of the identified genes or SNPs, to establish whether some novel or combined mechanisms are truly involved in M. catarrhalis macrolide resistance mechanism.
The laying quail is a worldwide breed which exhibits high economic value. In our current study, the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VIPR-1) was selected as the candidate gene for identifying traits of egg production. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection was performed in 443 individual quails, including 196 quails from the H line, 202 quails from the L line, and 45 wild quails. The SNPs were genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Two mutations (G373T, A313G) were detected in all the tested quail populations. The associated analysis showed that the SNP genotypes of the VIPR-1 gene were significantly linked with the egg weight of G373T and A313G in 398 quails. The quails with the genotype GG always exhibited the largest egg weight for the two mutations in the H and L lines. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated that G373T and A313G loci showed the weakest LD. Seven main diplotypes from the four main reconstructed haplotypes were observed, indicating a significant association of diplotypes with egg weight. Quails with the h1h2 (GGGT) diplotype always exhibited the smallest egg weight and largest egg number at 20 weeks of age. The overall results suggest that the alterations in quails may be linked with potential major loci or genes affecting reproductive traits.
Laying quail; Haplotypes; VIPR-1 gene; Egg production traits
Thiazide diuretics have been recommended as a first-line antihypertensive treatment, although the choice of ‘the right drug in the individual essential hypertensive patient’ remains still empirical. Essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic disease derived from the interaction of patient’s genetic background with the environment. Pharmacogenomics could be a useful tool to pinpoint gene variants involved in antihypertensive drug response, thus optimizing therapeutic advantages and minimizing side effects.
Methods and results
We looked for variants associated with blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide over an 8-week follow-up by means of a genome-wide association analysis in two Italian cohorts of never-treated essential hypertensive patients: 343 samples from Sardinia and 142 from Milan. TET2 and CSMD1 as plausible candidate genes to affect SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide were identified. The specificity of our findings for hydrochlorothiazide was confirmed in an independent cohort of essential hypertensive patients treated with losartan. Our best findings were also tested for replication in four independent hypertensive samples of European Ancestry, such as GENetics of drug RESponsiveness in essential hypertension, Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives, NORdic DILtiazem intervention, Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses, and Campania Salute Network-StayOnDiur. We validated a polymorphism in CSMD1 and UGGT2.
This exploratory study reports two plausible loci associated with SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide: TET2, an aldosterone-responsive mediator of αENaC gene transcription; and CSMD1, previously described as associated with hypertension in a case–control study.
essential hypertension; genome-wide association study; genomics; pharmacogenomics; thiazides diuretics
Background: The three branched amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and two aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) have been associated with many adverse metabolic pathways, including diabetes. However, these associations have been identified primarily in otherwise healthy Caucasian populations. We aimed to investigate the association of this five-amino-acid signature with metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a hypertensive cohort of Caucasian and African Americans.
Methods: We analyzed data from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) studies PEAR and PEAR2 conducted between 2005 and 2014. Subjects were enrolled at the University of Florida (Gainesville, FL), Emory University (Atlanta, GA), and Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). A total of 898 patients with essential hypertension were included in this study. Presence of metabolic syndrome and IFG at baseline were determined on the basis of measurements of demographic and biochemical data. Levels of the five amino acids were quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS).
Results: With a multiple logistic regression model, we found that all five amino acids were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in both Caucasian and African Americans. IFG and the five amino acids were associated in the Caucasian Americans. Only valine was significantly associated with IFG in African Americans.
Conclusion: In both Caucasian and African Americans with uncomplicated hypertension, plasma levels of the five-amino-acid signature are associated with metabolic syndrome. Additionally, in Caucasians we have confirmed the five-amino-acid signature was associated with IFG.
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis. Recently, the catalytic activity-independent function of FBP1, hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) repression in the nucleus, was identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between FBP1 and hypoxia-related gene expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The protein expression levels of FBP1, HIF-1α, HIF-2α, erythropoietin (EPO) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) were assessed by immunohistochemical staining of ccRCC paraffin blocks from 123 patients using the tissue microarray technique. The expression level of FBP1 was then correlated with various clinicopathological factors, and the protein expression levels of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, EPO and CA9. Clinicopathological factors, including age, gender, T stage and Fuhrman grade, were not significantly different between patients with low and high FBP1 expression in ccRCC (P>0.05). FBP1 protein expression level was significantly correlated with the expression levels of HIF-1α (P=0.005) and EPO (P=0.010), but not significantly correlated with the expression levels of HIF-2α (P=0.123) and CA9 (P=0.513) in ccRCC tissues. The current findings confirm the association between FBP1 and hypoxia-related gene expression, and may facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of ccRCC tumorigenesis.
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; clear cell renal cell carcinoma; hypoxia-related genes
Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine whether or not myocilin (MYOC) genetic variations are associated with susceptibility to primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in the Han Chinese population. Methods: Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)—rs235913, rs183532, rs12076134, and rs235875—in the MYOC gene were genotyped in 212 adult patients with PACG and 255 age-, sex-, and ethnic-matched healthy controls by using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Data were analyzed by chi-square analysis. Results: The four SNPs in the MYOC gene were in the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in all the subjects. The frequencies of A allele rs183532 were significantly different between the PACG patients and the controls (0.238 vs. 0.169, p=0.008; OR=1.541; 95% CI: 1.117–2.127). The frequencies of the AA genotype and A allele of rs235913 were increased in PACG patients compared with controls, but the difference was not significant (p=0.037, p=0.017, respectively). A comparison of the distributions of the genotypes and alleles of rs12076134 and rs235875 showed no statistically significant differences between the PACG patients and the controls (p>0.05). Haplotype analysis indicated that the frequency of the AATG and AATA haplotypes was significantly higher for PACG patients than for control subjects (both p<0.001). However, the frequency of CGGA and CGTG haplotypes was lower for PACG patients than for control subjects (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our study suggests that rs183532 is associated with an increased risk of PACG in the Chinese Han population.
Hypertension is an independent risk factor for the progression of chronic renal failure, and oxidative stress plays a critical role in hypertensive renal damage. Forkbox O1(FoxO1) signaling protects cells against oxidative stress and may be a useful target for treating oxidative stress-induced hypertension. Tongxinluo is a traditional Chinese medicine with cardioprotective and renoprotective functions. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of Tongxinluo in hypertensive renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHRs)and elucidate the possible involvement of oxidative stress and FoxO1 signaling in its molecular mechanisms. SHRs treated with Tongxinluo for 12 weeks showed a reduction in systolic blood pressure. In addition to increasing creatinine clearance, Tongxinluo decreased urinary albumin excretion, oxidative stress injury markers including malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits and its activity in SHR kidneys. While decreasing phosphorylation of FoxO1, Tongxinluo also inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and p38 and enhanced manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in SHR kidneys. Furthermore, histology revealed attenuation of glomerulosclerosis and renal podocyte injury, while Tongxinluo decreased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin, extracellular matrixprotein, transforming growth factor β1 and small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3,and improved tubulointerstitial fibrosis in SHR kidneys. Finally, Tongxinluo inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration as well as expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. In conclusion, Tongxinluo protected SHRs against hypertension-induced renal injury by exerting antioxidant, antifibrotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms of these effects may involve inhibition of oxidative stress and functional activation of FoxO1 signaling.
There is limited information about the safety of chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease.
This was a post hoc analysis from the INternational VErapamil Trandolapril STudy (INVEST), which enrolled patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease. At each visit, patients were asked by the local site investigator if they were currently taking NSAIDs. Patients who reported NSAID use at every visit were defined as chronic NSAID users, while all others (occasional or never users) were defined as nonchronic NSAID users. The primary composite outcome was all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Cox regression was used to construct a multivariate analysis for the primary outcome.
There were 882 chronic NSAID users and 21,694 nonchronic NSAID users (n = 14,408 for never users and n = 7286 for intermittent users). At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the primary outcome occurred at a rate of 4.4 events per 100 patient-years in the chronic NSAID group, versus 3.7 events per 100 patient-years in the nonchronic NSAID group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–1.82; P = .0003). This was due to an increase in cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR 2.26; 95% CI, 1.70–3.01; P = .0001).
Among hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease, chronic self-reported use of NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of adverse events during long-term follow-up.
Coronary artery disease; Hypertension; Myocardial infarction; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; NSAIDs
GATA5 is a transcription factor that is capable of suppressing the development of various types of human cancer. The present study investigated the expression of GATA5 and GATA4, and examined their roles in the proliferation and colony formation ability of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cells. The GATA4 and GATA5 expression levels and gene promoter methylation of HCC tissue samples from 38 patients and HCC cell lines were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and methylation-specific PCR (MSP), respectively. The effects of GATA4 and GATA5 overexpression on the proliferation and colony forming ability of HCC cells were also assessed using cell viability and colony formation assays. A luciferase reporter assay was utilized to investigate the transcriptional interaction of GATA4 and GATA5 with canonical Wnt signaling. The results indicated that the expression levels of GATA4 and GATA5 were lost or reduced following methylation of gene promoters in HCC tissues and cell lines. Treatment with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), restored GATA4 and GATA5 expression in HCC cell lines. Furthermore, methylation of the GATA5 promoter was observed to be associated with the age of patients exhibiting HCC. Restoration of GATA4 and GATA5 expression inhibited colony formation and induced apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro. The present study concluded that the expression levels of GATA4 and GATA5 were reduced in HCC tissues and cell lines. Treatment with 5-AZA restored GATA4 and GATA5 expression in HCC cell lines, suppressing tumor cell growth and colony formation, as well as inducing apoptosis.
GATA5; expression; methylation; proliferation; cloning formation; hepatocellular carcinoma
Elevations in uric acid (UA) and the associated hyperuricaemia are commonly observed secondary to treatment with thiazide diuretics. We sought to identify novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-induced elevations in UA and hyperuricaemia.
A genome-wide association study of HCTZ-induced changes in UA was performed in Caucasian and African American participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Response (PEAR) study who were treated with HCTZ monotherapy. Suggestive SNPs were replicated in Caucasians and African Americans from the PEAR study who were treated with HCTZ add-on therapy. Replicated regions were followed up through expression and pathway analysis.
Five unique gene regions were identified in African Americans (LUC7L2, ANKRD17/COX18, FTO, PADI4 and PARD3B) and one region was identified in Caucasians (GRIN3A). Increases in UA of up to 1.8 mg/dL were observed following HCTZ therapy in individuals homozygous for risk alleles, with heterozygotes displaying an intermediate phenotype. Several risk alleles were also associated with an increased risk of HCTZ-induced clinical hyperuricaemia. A composite risk score, constructed in African Americans using the ‘top’ SNP from each gene region, was strongly associated with HCTZ-induced UA elevations (P = 1.79×10−7) and explained 11% of the variability in UA response. Expression studies in RNA from whole blood revealed significant differences in expression of FTO by rs4784333 genotype. Pathway analysis showed putative connections between many of the genes identified through common microRNAs.
Several novel gene regions were associated with HCTZ-induced UA elevations in African Americans (LUC7L2, COX18/ANKRD17, FTO, PADI4 and PARD3B) and one region was associated with these elevations in Caucasians (GRIN3A).
genome-wide association study; hydrochlorothiazide; hypertension; pharmacogenetics; polymorphism; uric acid
To develop and validate a predictive model for glucose change and risk for new-onset impaired fasting glucose in hypertensive participants following treatment with atenolol or hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ).
Randomized multicenter clinical trial.
A total of 735 white or African-American men and women with uncomplicated hypertension.
Measurements and Main Results
Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) is a randomized clinical trial to assess the genetic and nongenetic predictors of blood pressure response and adverse metabolic effects following treatment with atenolol or HCTZ. To develop and validate predictive models for glucose change, PEAR participants were randomly divided into a derivation cohort of 367 and a validation cohort of 368. Linear and logistic regression modeling were used to build models of drug-associated glucose change and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, in the derivation cohorts. These models were then evaluated in the validation cohorts. For glucose change after atenolol or HCTZ treatment, baseline glucose was a significant (p<0.0001) predictor, explaining 13% of the variability in glucose change after atenolol and 12% of the variability in glucose change after HCTZ. Baseline glucose was also the strongest and most consistent predictor (p<0.0001) for development of IFG after atenolol or HCTZ monotherapy. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.77 for IFG after atenolol and 0.71 after HCTZ treatment, respectively.
Baseline glucose is the primary predictor of atenolol or HCTZ-associated glucose increase and development of IFG after treatment with either drug.
β-Blockers; thiazide diuretics; hyperglycemia; atenolol; hydrochlorothiazide; impaired fasting glucose
Asian patients represent a large portion of the global population with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but are underrepresented in trials of glucose-lowering therapies. The present randomized, phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 24-week study evaluated the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, as monotherapy in Asian patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Materials and Methods
Patients who were treatment naïve or had been treated with one oral antidiabetes drug were randomized to either linagliptin 5 mg daily or a placebo after washout. The primary end-point was a change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin after 24 weeks.
A total of 300 Asian (87% Chinese) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to linagliptin or placebo at a 2:1 ratio. After 24 weeks of treatment, adjusted mean (standard error) glycated hemoglobin decreased by a placebo-corrected −0.50 ± 0.11 (P < 0.0001). In patients with baseline glycated hemoglobin ≥8.5%, the placebo-corrected decrease in glycated hemoglobin was −0.91 ± 0.20% (P < 0.0001). Adverse events occurred in 28.0 and 28.3% of linagliptin and placebo patients, respectively, but few were drug-related (3.0 and 2.0%, respectively). Hypoglycemia was reported by one linagliptin patient and no placebo patients. Treatment with linagliptin was weight neutral.
In Asian patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, linagliptin 5 mg as monotherapy was efficacious and well tolerated over 24 weeks.
Asians; Linagliptin; Monotherapy
The spatial fluctuations of the extragalactic background light trace the total emission from all stars and galaxies in the Universe. A multiwavelength study can be used to measure the integrated emission from first galaxies during reionization when the Universe was about 500 million years old. Here we report arcmin-scale spatial fluctuations in one of the deepest sky surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope in five wavebands between 0.6 and 1.6 μm. We model-fit the angular power spectra of intensity fluctuation measurements to find the ultraviolet luminosity density of galaxies at redshifts greater than 8 to be . This level of integrated light emission allows for a significant surface density of fainter primeval galaxies that are below the point-source detection level in current surveys.
The luminosity of ultraviolet light emitted by the first galaxies in the universe traces the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies which led to the epoch of reionization. Here the authors use data from the Hubble Space Telescope and through a model provide a bound for the total luminosity.
The 2014 Eighth Joint National Committee panel recommendations for management of high blood pressure (BP) recommend a systolic BP threshold for initiation of drug therapy and a therapeutic target of <150 mm Hg in those ≥60 years of age, a departure from prior recommendations of <140 mm Hg. However, it is not known whether this is an optimal choice, especially for the large population with coronary artery disease (CAD).
This study sought to evaluate optimal BP in patients ≥60 years of age.
Patients 60 years of age or older with CAD and baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg randomized to a treatment strategy on the basis of either atenolol/hydrochlorothiazide or verapamil-SR (sustained release)/trandolapril in INVEST (INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy) were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of achieved on-treatment systolic BP: group 1, <140 mm Hg; group 2, 140 to <150 mm Hg; and group 3, ≥150 mm Hg. Primary outcome was first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, total MI, nonfatal MI, total stroke, nonfatal stroke, heart failure, or revascularization, tabulated separately. Outcomes for each group were compared in unadjusted and multiple propensity score–adjusted models.
Among 8,354 patients included in this analysis with an accumulated 22,308 patient-years of follow-up, 4,787 (57%) achieved systolic BP of <140 mm Hg (group 1), 1,747 (21%) achieved systolic BP of 140 to <150 mm Hg (group 2), and 1,820 (22%) achieved systolic BP of ≥150 mm Hg (group 3). In unadjusted models, group 1 had the lowest rates of the primary outcome (9.36% vs. 12.71% vs. 21.32%; p < 0.0001), all-cause mortality (7.92% vs. 10.07% vs. 16.81%; p < 0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (3.26% vs. 4.58% vs. 7.80%; p < 0.0001), MI (1.07% vs. 1.03% vs. 2.91%; p < 0.0001), total stroke (1.19% vs. 2.63% vs. 3.85%; p <0.0001), and nonfatal stroke (0.86% vs 1.89% vs 2.86%; p<0.0001) compared with groups 2 and 3, respectively. In multiple propensity score–adjusted models, compared with the reference group of <140 mm Hg (group 1), the risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.77; p = 0.04), total stroke (adjusted HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.82; p = 0.002) and nonfatal stroke (adjusted HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.72; p = 0.03) was increased in the group with BP of 140 to <150 mm Hg, whereas the risk of primary outcome, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, total MI, nonfatal MI, total stroke, and nonfatal stroke was increased in the group with BP ≥150 mm Hg.
In hypertensive patients with CAD who are ≥60 years of age, achieving a BP target of 140 to <150 mm Hg as recommended by the JNC-8 panel was associated with less benefit than the previously recommended target of <140 mm Hg.
blood pressure; coronary artery disease; elderly; systolic; target
To identify the pathogenic mutations in a Chinese pedigree affected with Usher syndrome type II (USH2).
The ophthalmic examinations and audiometric tests were performed to ascertain the phenotype of the family. To detect the genetic defect, exons of 103 known RDs -associated genes including 12 Usher syndrome (USH) genes of the proband were captured and sequencing analysis was performed to exclude known genetic defects and find potential pathogenic mutations. Subsequently, candidate mutations were validated in his pedigree and 100 normal controls using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing.
The patient in the family occurred hearing loss (HL) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) without vestibular dysfunction, which were consistent with standards of classification for USH2. He carried the compound heterozygous mutations, c.721 C>T and c.1969 C>T, in the MYO7A gene and the unaffected members carried only one of the two mutations. The mutations were not present in the 100 normal controls.
We suggested that the compound heterozygous mutations of the MYO7A could lead to USH2, which had revealed distinguished clinical phenotypes associated with MYO7A and expanded the spectrum of clinical phenotypes of the MYO7A mutations.
Usher syndrome; mutation; MYO7A; next-generation sequencing
Metoprolol is a selective β-1 adrenergic receptor blocker that undergoes extensive metabolism by the polymorphic enzyme, CYP2D6. Our objective was to investigate the influence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on efficacy and tolerability of metoprolol tartrate. 281 study participants with uncomplicated hypertension received 50 mg of metoprolol twice daily followed by response guided titration to 100 mg twice daily. Phenotypes were assigned based on results of CYP2D6 genotyping and copy number variation assays. Clinical response to metoprolol and adverse effect rates were analyzed in relation to CYP2D6 phenotypes by using appropriate statistical tests. Heart rate response differed significantly by CYP2D6 phenotype (p-value <0.0001) with poor metabolizers & intermediate metabolizers showing greater HR reduction. However, blood pressure response and adverse effect rates were not significantly different by CYP2D6 phenotype. Other than a significant difference in heart rate response, CYP2D6 polymorphisms were not a determinant of the variability in response or tolerability to metoprolol.
CYP2D6; metoprolol; genotype; phenotype; copy number variation; clinical efficacy; tolerability
The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) has been used in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration using both the conventional slit lamp and a new image-guided laser system. A standardized protocol is needed for consistent results using this model, which has been lacking. We optimized details of laser-induced CNV using the image-guided laser photocoagulation system. Four lesions with similar size were consistently applied per eye at approximately double the disc diameter away from the optic nerve, using different laser power levels, and mice of various ages and genders. After 7 days, the mice were sacrificed and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera was flat-mounted, stained with Isolectin B4, and imaged. Quantification of the area of the laser-induced lesions was performed using an established and constant threshold. Exclusion criteria are described that were necessary for reliable data analysis of the laser-induced CNV lesions. The CNV lesion area was proportional to the laser power levels. Mice at 12-16 weeks of age developed more severe CNV than those at 6-8 weeks of age, and the gender difference was only significant in mice at 12-16 weeks of age, but not in those at 6-8 weeks of age. Dietary intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid reduced laser-induced CNV in mice. Taken together, laser-induced CNV lesions can be easily and consistently applied using the image-guided laser platform. Mice at 6-8 weeks of age are ideal for the laser-induced CNV model.
A new anticancer ligustrazine derivative, 3β-hydroxyolea-12-en-28-oic acid-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methylester (T-OA, C38H58O3N2), was previously reported. It was synthesized via conjugating hepatoprotective and anticancer ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine. We found that T-OA exerted its anticancer activity by preventing the expression of nuclear transcription factor NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 in S180 mice. However, the selective cytotoxicity of T-OA on various kinds of cell lines has not been studied sufficiently. In the present study, compared with Cisplatin, T-OA was more toxic to human hepatoma cell line Bel-7402 (IC50 = 6.36 ± 1.56 µM) than other three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HT-29, BGC-823), and no toxicity was observed toward Madin–Darby canine kidney cell line MDCK (IC50 > 150 µM). The morphological changes of Bel-7402 cells demonstrated that T-OA had an apoptosis-inducing effect which had been substantiated using 4ʹ,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining, flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential assay. Combining the immumohistochemical staining, we found T-OA could prevent the expression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 in Bel-7402 cells. Both of the proteins have been known to play roles in apoptosis and are mainly located in the nuclei. Moreover subcellular localization was performed to reveal that T-OA exerts in nuclei of Bel-7402 cells. The result was in accordance with the effects of down-regulating the expression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2.
ligustrazine derivative; selective cytotoxicity; hepatoma; NF-κB/p65 and COX-2
Thiazide diuretics are recommended as first line antihypertensive treatment, but may contribute to new onset diabetes. We aimed to describe change in fasting glucose (FG) during prolonged thiazide treatment in an observational setting.
We conducted an observational, non-randomized, open label, follow-up study of the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) and PEAR-2 studies. We enrolled previous participants from the PEAR or PEAR-2 studies with at least six months of continuous treatment with either hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or chlorthalidone. Linear regression was used to identify associations with changes in FG after prolonged thiazide and thiazide-like diuretic treatment.
A total of 40 participants were included with a mean 29 (range 8–72) months of thiazide treatment. FG increased 6.5 (SD 13.0) mg/dL during short-term thiazide treatment and 3.6 (SD 15.3) mg/dL FG during prolonged thiazide treatment. Increased FG at follow-up was associated with longer thiazide treatment duration (beta=0.34, p=0.008) and lower baseline FG (beta=−0.46, p=0.02). β blocker treatment in combination with prolonged thiazide diuretic treatment was also associated with increased FG and increased two-hour glucose obtained from OGTT.
Our results indicate that prolonged thiazide treatment duration is associated with increased FG and that overall glycemic status worsens when thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics are combined with β blockers.
hypertension; hydrochlorothiazide; chlorthalidone; glucose; diabetes; thiazide diuretics; β blockers
Pathological neovessel formation impacts many blinding vascular eye diseases. Identification of molecular signatures distinguishing pathological neovascularization from normal quiescent vessels is critical for developing new interventions. Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1) is a transcription factor important in tumor and pulmonary angiogenesis. This study investigated the potential role of TWIST1 in modulating pathological ocular angiogenesis in mice.
Twist1 expression and localization were analyzed in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Pathological ocular angiogenesis in Tie2-driven conditional Twist1 knockout mice were evaluated in both OIR and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization models. In addition, the effects of TWIST1 on angiogenesis and endothelial cell function were analyzed in sprouting assays of aortic rings and choroidal explants isolated from Twist1 knockout mice, and in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells treated with TWIST1 small interfering RNA (siRNA).
TWIST1 is highly enriched in pathological neovessels in OIR retinas. Conditional Tie2-driven depletion of Twist1 significantly suppressed pathological neovessels in OIR without impacting developmental retinal angiogenesis. In a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model, Twist1 deficiency also resulted in significantly smaller lesions with decreased vascular leakage. In addition, loss of Twist1 significantly decreased vascular sprouting in both aortic ring and choroid explants. Knockdown of TWIST1 in endothelial cells led to dampened expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and decreased endothelial cell proliferation.
Our study suggests that TWIST1 is a novel regulator of pathologic ocular angiogenesis and may represent a new molecular target for developing potential therapeutic treatments to suppress pathological neovascularization in vascular eye diseases.
TWIST1 is highly enriched in pathological retinal neovessels in mice. Conditional depletion of Twist1 in Tie2-expressing vascular endothelial cells significantly suppresses pathological ocular angiogenesis in mouse models, suggesting TWIST1 as a novel regulator of angiogenesis in eye diseases.
angiogenesis; retinopathy; TWIST1
The role of the CYP2C19 genotype on clopidogrel efficacy has been studied widely, with data suggesting reduced clopidogrel efficacy in loss-of-function variant carriers taking clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention; however, data are limited regarding the association between CYP2C19 genetic variants and outcomes in stroke patients. We investigated whether CYP2C19 metabolizer status affects the risk of recurrent stroke or major bleeding in subcortical stroke patients taking dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel.
Methods and Results
CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 were genotyped in 522 patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy from the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) study. CYP2C19 metabolizer status was inferred from genotype, and associations with the risk of recurrent stroke and major bleeding were assessed in the overall cohort and by race/ethnic group with logistic regression modeling. In the overall cohort, there were no differences in outcomes by CYP2C19 metabolizer status (recurrent stroke, odds ratio 1.81 [95% CI 0.76 to 4.30]; major bleeding, odds ratio 0.67 [95% CI 0.22 to 2.03]). In white participants, those with CYP2C19 intermediate or poor metabolizer status had higher odds of recurrent stroke (odds ratio 5.19 [95% CI 1.08 to 24.90]) than those with extensive or ultrarapid metabolizer status, but there was no evidence of difference in major bleeding.
There were significant differences in recurrent stroke by CYP2C19 genotype-inferred metabolizer status in white subcortical stroke patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel, consistent with cardiovascular studies on CYP2C19 and clopidogrel; however, the bleeding risk that led to early termination of the antiplatelet arm of the SPS3 trial does not appear to be explained by CYP2C19 genotype. This study was relatively underpowered; therefore, these findings should be interpreted with caution and warrant replication.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059306.
clopidogrel; CYP2C19; pharmacogenomics; stroke prevention; subcortical stroke
Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular neurodegenerative disorder in diabetic patients. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer changes have been described in patients with preclinical diabetic retinopathy, but study results have been inconsistent.
To assess changes in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in diabetic patients with preclinical diabetic retinopathy.
A literature search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. Case-control studies on RNFL thickness in preclinical diabetic retinopathy patients and healthy controls were retrieved. A meta-analysis of weighted mean difference and a sensitivity analysis were performed using RevMan 5.2 software.
Thirteen case-control studies containing 668 diabetic patients and 556 healthy controls were selected. Peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly reduced in patients with preclinical diabetic retinopathy compared to healthy controls in studies applying Optical Coherence Tomography (-2.88μm, 95%CI: -4.44 to -1.32, P = 0.0003) and in studies applying Scanning Laser Polarimeter (-4.21μm, 95%CI: -6.45 to -1.97, P = 0.0002). Reduction of RNFL thickness was significant in the superior quadrant (-3.79μm, 95%CI: -7.08 to -0.50, P = 0.02), the inferior quadrant (-2.99μm, 95%CI: -5.44 to -0.54, P = 0.02) and the nasal quadrant (-2.88μm, 95%CI: -4.93 to -0.82, P = 0.006), but was not significant in the temporal quadrant (-1.22μm, 95%CI: -3.21 to 0.76, P = 0.23), in diabetic patients.
Peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly decreased in preclinical diabetic retinopathy patients compared to healthy control. Neurodegenerative changes due to preclinical diabetic retinopathy need more attention.
Sef (similar expression to fgf genes) is a feedback inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and functions in part by binding to FGF receptors and inhibiting their activation. Genetic studies in mice and humans indicate an important role for fibroblast growth factor signaling in bone growth and homeostasis. We therefore investigated whether Sef had a function role in skeletal acquisition and remodeling. Sef expression is increased during osteoblast differentiation in vitro, and LacZ staining of Sef+/− mice showed high expression of Sef in the periosteum and chondro-osseous junction of neonatal and adult mice. Mice with a global deletion of Sef showed increased cortical bone thickness, bone volume and increased periosteal perimeter by μCT. Histomorphometric analysis of cortical bone revealed a significant increase in osteoblast number. Interestingly, Sef−/− mice showed very little difference intrabecular bone by μCT and histomorphometry compared to wild type mice. Bone marrow cells from Sef−/− mice grown in osteogenic medium showed increased proliferation and increased osteoblast differentiation compared to wild type bone marrow cells. Bone marrow cells from Sef−/− mice showed enhanced FGF2-induced activation of the ERK pathway, whereas bone marrow cells from Sef transgenic mice showed decreased FGF2-induced signaling. FGF2-induced acetylation and stability of Runx2 was enhanced in Sef −/− bone marrow cells, whereas overexpression of Sef inhibited Runx2-responsive luciferase reporter activity. Bone marrow from Sef−/− mice showed enhanced hematopoietic lineage-dependent and osteoblast-dependent osteoclastogenesis and increased bone resorptive activity relative to wild type controls in in vitro assays, while overexpression of Sef inhibited osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, these studies indicate that Sef has specific roles in osteoblast and osteoclast lineages, and that its absence results in increased osteoblast and osteoclast activity with a net increase in cortical bone mass.
Sef; fibroblast growth factor; osteoblast; osteoclast; differentiation