To study oxidative stress in placental tissue as well as in serum in pre-eclamptic women.
Fifty pre-eclamptic cases and fifty normal pregnant women were selected in the study. Thio barbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) was measured as oxidative stress marker and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH (reduced glutathione) were measured for assessment of antioxidant status in placental tissue extract and serum.
TBARS and SOD activity were increased significantly (P < 0.001) in both placental homogenate and serum in pre-eclamptic women. Level of GSH was not altered much.
Placental oxidative stress can be assessed by measuring serum oxidative stress markers and this may help in prevention of further progress of this condition.
Preeclampsia; Placental oxidative stress; TBARS
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin manifestation that usually develops after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a major public health problem in India. The diagnosis and management of PKDL is complex. This is the first case report from India in which PKDL occurred after paromomycin treatment for VL in an Indian patient.
The effect of different isomers of tocotrienol was tested on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Although all of the tocotrienol isomers offered some degree of cardioprotection, gamma-tocotrienol was the most protective as evident from the result of myocardial apoptosis. To study the mechanism of tocotrienol mediated cardioprotection, we examined the interaction and/or translocation of different signaling components to caveolins and activity of proteasome. The results suggest that differential interaction of MAP kinases with caveolin 1/3 in conjuncture with proteasome stabilization play a unique role in tocotrienol mediated cardioprotection possibly by altering the availability of pro-survival and anti-survival proteins.
Caveolin; Proteasome; Tocotrienol; Heart; Ischemia/Reperfusion
A case of Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome in a seven-month-old male
infant presented with the features of epibulbar dermoid, microtia
and hemifacial microsomia associated with thumb defect. The
dermoid was bilateral and microtia was unilateral. Preauricular
appendages and pits were double and single respectively on
both the sides. Hemifacial microsomia was unilateral and was
associated with cleft lip, macrostomia, dental misalignment,
large tongue and high arched palate. The association of
hypoplastic thumb with Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome has not
been documented in the past.
Epibulbar dermoid; Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome; hemifacial microsomia; hypoplastic thumb; microtia
Anticancer role of andrographolide is well documented. To find novel potent derivatives with improved cytotoxicity than andrographolide on cancer cells, two series of di-spiropyrrolidino- and di-spiropyrrolizidino oxindole andrographolide derivatives prepared by cyclo-addition of azomethine ylide along with sarcosine or proline (viz. sarcosine and proline series respectively) and substitution of different functional groups (-CH3, -OCH3 and halogens) were examined for their cytotoxic effect on a panel of six human cancer cell lines (colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells, pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 cells, hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, lung carcinoma A549 and melanoma A375 cells). Except halogen substituted derivatives of proline series (viz. CY2, CY14 and CY15 for Br, Cl and I substitution respectively), none of the other derivatives showed improved cytotoxicity than andrographolide in the cancer cell lines examined. Order of cytotoxicity of the potent compounds is CY2>CY14>CY15>andrographolide. Higher toxicity was observed in HCT116, MiaPaCa-2 and HepG2 cells. CY2, induced death of HCT116 (GI50 10.5), MiaPaCa-2 (GI50 11.2) and HepG2 (GI50 16.6) cells were associated with cell rounding, nuclear fragmentation and increased percentage of apoptotic cells, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, ROS generation, and involvement of mitochondrial pathway. Upregulation of Bax, Bad, p53, caspases-3,-9 and cleaved PARP; downregulation of Bcl-2, cytosolic NF-κB p65, PI3K and p-Akt; translocation of P53/P21, NF-κB p65 were seen in CY2 treated HCT116 cells. Thus, three halogenated di-spiropyrrolizidino oxindole derivatives of andrographolide are found to be more cytotoxic than andrographolide in some cancer cells. The most potent derivative, CY2 induced death of the cancer cells involves ROS dependent mitochondrial pathway like andrographolide.
HspR is a repressor known to control expression of heat shock operons in a number of Eubacteria. In mycobacteria and in several other actinobacteria, this protein is synthesized from the dnaKJE-hspR operon. Previous investigations revealed that HspR binds to the operon promoter, thereby controlling its expression in an autoregulatory manner. DnaK, which is a product of the same operon, further aids this autoregulatory process by stimulating the operator binding activity of HspR. The molecular mechanism by which DnaK assists HspR in executing its function is not clearly understood. In this study, it has been shown that DnaK can augment DNA binding activity of HspR by two mechanisms: (i) DnaK can restore the activity of completely denatured HspR by forming a complex with it, and (ii) DnaK can prevent thermal instability of HspR renatured by other means. Unlike the first mechanism, the latter function does not involve complex formation. The C-terminal hydrophobic tail of HspR was found to play a significant role in determining its thermal stability and DnaK dependence properties. A deletion mutant in which this region is removed does not respond to thermal stress and functions independent of DnaK. The hydrophobic C-terminal tails of HspRs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and related Actinomycetales therefore may have evolved to make these HspRs more sensitive to thermal stress and, at the same time, subject to regulation by DnaK.
The mitochondrial flavoprotein Aif facilitates murine thymocyte development by reducing oxidative stress.
Apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein that regulates cell metabolism and survival in many tissues. We report that aif-hypomorphic harlequin (Hq) mice show thymic hypocellularity and a cell-autonomous thymocyte developmental block associated with apoptosis at the β-selection stage, independent of T cell receptor β recombination. No abnormalities are observed in the B cell lineage. Transgenes encoding wild-type or DNA-binding–deficient mutant Aif rectify the thymic defect, but a transgene encoding oxidoreductase activity–deficient mutant Aif does not. The Hq thymic block is reversed in vivo by antioxidant treatment, and Hq T but not B lineage cells show enhanced oxidative stress. Thus, Aif, a ubiquitous protein, serves a lineage-specific nonredundant antiapoptotic role in the T cell lineage by regulating reactive oxygen species during thymic β-selection.
The focus of India’s National Malaria Programme witnessed a paradigm shift recently from health facility to community-based approaches. The current thrust is on diagnosing and treating malaria by community health workers and prevention through free provision of long-lasting insecticidal nets. However, appropriate community awareness and practice are inevitable for the effectiveness of such efforts. In this context, the study assessed community perceptions and practice on malaria and similar febrile illnesses. This evidence base is intended to direct the roll-out of the new strategies and improve community acceptance and utilization of services.
A qualitative study involving 26 focus group discussions and 40 key informant interviews was conducted in two districts of Odisha State in India. The key points of discussion were centred on community perceptions and practice regarding malaria prevention and treatment. Thematic analysis of data was performed.
The 272 respondents consisted of 50% females, three-quarter scheduled tribe community and 30% students. A half of them were literates. Malaria was reported to be the most common disease in their settings with multiple modes of transmission by the FGD participants. Adoption of prevention methods was seasonal with perceived mosquito density. The reported use of bed nets was low and the utilization was determined by seasonality, affordability, intoxication and alternate uses of nets. Although respondents were aware of malaria-related symptoms, care-seeking from traditional healers and unqualified providers was prevalent. The respondents expressed lack of trust in the community health workers due to frequent drug stock-outs. The major determinants of health care seeking were socio-cultural beliefs, age, gender, faith in the service provider, proximity, poverty, and perceived effectiveness of available services.
Apart from the socio-cultural and behavioural factors, the availability of acceptable care can modulate the community perceptions and practices on malaria management. The current community awareness on symptoms of malaria and prevention is fair, yet the prevention and treatment practices are not optimal. Promoting active community involvement and ownership in malaria control and management through strengthening community based organizations would be relevant. Further, timely availability of drugs and commodities at the community level can improve their confidence in the public health system.
Malaria; Prevention; Treatment; Sociocultural belief; Community response; India
The envelope protein (E1–E2) of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major component of the viral structure. The glycosylated envelope protein is considered to be important for initiation of infection by binding to cellular receptor(s) and also known as one of the major antigenic targets to host immune response. The present study was aimed at identifying mouse monoclonal antibodies which inhibit binding of virus like particles of HCV to target cells. The first step in this direction was to generate recombinant HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs) specific for genotypes 3a of HCV (prevalent in India) using the genes encoding core, E1 and E2 envelop proteins in a baculovirus expression system. The purified HCV-LPs were characterized by ELISA and electron microscopy and were used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in mice. Two monoclonal antibodies (E8G9 and H1H10) specific for the E2 region of envelope protein of HCV genotype 3a, were found to reduce the virus binding to Huh7 cells. However, the mAbs generated against HCV genotype 1b (D2H3, G2C7, E1B11) were not so effective. More importantly, mAb E8G9 showed significant inhibition of the virus entry in HCV JFH1 cell culture system. Finally, the epitopic regions on E2 protein which bind to the mAbs have also been identified. Results suggest a new therapeutic strategy and provide the proof of concept that mAb against HCV-LP could be effective in preventing virus entry into liver cells to block HCV replication.
Gianotti-Crosti syndrome is parainfectious exanthematous disease having unique presentation of small papulovesicular eruptions symmetrically over extensor surface of limbs and face in children. Hemorrhagic lesions are very rare and are always localized. Here, a case of EBV-induced Gianotti-Crosti syndrome with extensive hemorrhagic vesicles in a one and half month old infant, possibly induced by Epstein Barr virus, is reported. Neither the involvement of the disease at this early age nor the extensive hemorrhagic vesicles as the predominant presentation is reported before.
Epstein-bar virus; Gianotti-Crosti syndrome; hemorrhage; purpura
Intravascular large B cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare, aggressive extranodal B cell lymphoma, classified as a subset of diffuse B cell lymphoma. IVLBCL typically occurs in elderly persons and the clinical heterogeneity of the condition makes the diagnosis elusive in most cases. Most of the reported cases have been in the Asian population with the majority of the cases being diagnosed postmortem. We present a unique case of IVLBCL in a 65-year-old Caucasian male who presented with fever of unknown origin.
In India, chloroquine has been replaced by a combination of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other available combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LF) and artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ), not included in the national program, are widely used by private practitioners. Little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of these artemisinin combinations and the prevalence of molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. A total of 157 patients with P. falciparum monoinfection were recruited and randomized into three study groups (AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ). All patients were followed up for 42 days to study the clinical and parasitological responses according to the WHO protocol (2009). We assessed the polymorphism of the pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes by the DNA-sequencing method. The PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacies of AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ were 90.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.969), 95.9% (95% CI, 0.860 to 0.995), and 100% (95% CI, 0.927 to 1.00), respectively. No specific mutational pattern was observed in the pfATPase6 gene. All isolates had a K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene. In the pfdhfr-pfdhps genotype, quadruple mutation was frequent, and quintuple mutation was documented in 6.3% of P. falciparum isolates. The significant failure rate of AS-SP (9.5%), although within the limit (10%) for drug policy change, was due to SP failure because of prevailing mutations in pfdhfr, I51R59N108, with pfdhps, G437 and/or E540. The efficacy of this ACT needs periodic monitoring. Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine are effective alternatives to the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination.
Patients with diabetes and heart failure (HF) have worse clinical outcomes compared to patients with HF without diabetes after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Patients with HF and diabetes represent a growing population at high risk for cardiovascular events and are increasingly treated with CRT. Although patients with diabetes and HF appear to benefit from CRT, their clinical outcomes are worse than those of patients without diabetes after CRT. The aim of this study was to identify clinical predictors that explain the differential hazard in patients with diabetes. We studied 442 patients (169 with diabetes) with systolic HF referred to the Massachusetts General Hospital CRT clinic from 2003 to 2010 to identify predictors of outcomes after CRT in patients with HF and diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more likely to have ischemic causes of HF than those without diabetes, but there was no difference in the left ventricular ejection fraction or HF classification at implantation. Patients with diabetes had poorer event-free survival (death or HF hospitalization) compared to those without diabetes (log-rank p = 0.04). The presence of diabetes was the most important independent predictor of differential outcomes in the entire population (hazard ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.51). Patients with diabetes receiving insulin therapy had poorer survival, whereas those not receiving insulin therapy had similar survival to patients without diabetes. Patients with peri-implantation glycosylated hemoglobin >7% had worse outcomes, whereas patients with glycosylated hemoglobin ≤7% had improved survival (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.86) equivalent to that of patients without diabetes. In conclusion, although the presence of diabetes, independent of other variables, increases the hazard of worse outcomes after CRT, there is additional risk conferred by insulin use and suboptimal peri-implantation glycemic control.
Paraganglioma is a rare tumor in head and neck region. A 35 years male presented with huge swelling of tonsillar region occupying a large portion of oropharynx. Tumor had been dissected out transorally. HPE showed extra-adrenal paraganglioma. It is being reported because of its rare clinical presentation and unusual surgical approach.
Paraganglioma; Oropharyngeal tumor; Extra-adrenal paraganglioma
Tuberculosis is a public health problem in India. The patients of Tuberculosis hide their disease from family, relatives, and community due to the presence of stigma. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perception regarding social variables of tuberculosis among patients and to associate the awareness with their literacy status.
Materials and Methods:
Type of study was observational, descriptive, and epidemiological. Study design was cross-sectional. Study setting was general out-patient department of tertiary care hospitals of West Bengal. Sample size was 464 (Four hundred sixty four) patients. The collected data were tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted by proper statistical methods (by percentage and Z test).
60.34% of study population was male. More than one third was illiterate (37.93%). Majority (91.38%) had heard about tuberculosis (TB). Correct answer on cause (infection) was responded by 16.81% patients. About 72.41% had heard about TB from an informal contact. The correct response on mode of spread of TB was told by 31.47% patients. About 62.07% correctly answered that cough was the commonest symptom. 82.76% knew about curability of the disease. Isolation of patient (08.62%) and avoidance of sharing of food (06.03%) were reported as preventive measures. The literacy status had a significant influence on awareness about TB.
An attempt could be made in future to improve awareness among illiterates to remove myths and misconceptions, to allay the social stigma attached with it, to decrease TB transmission.
Awareness; general patients; literacy association; tuberculosis
Ethmocephaly is the rarest form of holoprosencephaly, which occurs due to an incomplete cleavage of the forebrain. Clinically, the disease presents with a proboscis, hypotelorism, microphthalmos and malformed ears. Amniotic band syndrome is another rare congenital malformation with ring-like constriction bands in the limbs, head, face or trunk. We present a case of ethmocephaly with amniotic band syndrome, which is likely the first of its kind, published in the literature.
Amniotic Band Syndrome Ethmocephaly; Holoprosencephaly; Hypotelorism; Proboscis
To compare the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of mild to moderate cases of acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media (AECSOM).
Materials and Methods:
Adult patients diagnosed with AECSOM were screened and patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive either cefpodoxime 200 mg twice daily or ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily orally for 7 days. The primary outcome of this randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial (Registration Number - CTRI/2011/10/002079) was clinical success rate at day 14 visit and the secondary outcome was incidence of adverse events (AEs). Forty-six patients were enrolled: 23 in the cefpodoxime group and 23 in the ciprofloxacin group.
The clinical success rates were 95.6% in the cefpodoxime group versus 90.9% in the ciprofloxacin group. These rates are comparable, but no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. Few mild and self-limiting AEs were observed and the tolerability of both the drugs was also good.
The results of this randomized, open-labeled phase IV clinical trial showed that a 7-day course of cefpodoxime is therapeutically comparable to ciprofloxacin in terms of both clinical effectiveness and safety for the treatment of patients with AECSOM.
Cefpodoxime; ciprofloxacin; CSOM
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important group of isoenzymes that play an essential role in the detoxification of carcinogens. Polymorphism at exon 5 of the GST π family decreases the catalytic activity and affects the detoxification ability of the enzyme, GSTP1. GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation and loss of expression are frequently observed in various types of carcinoma. We hypothesized that somatic epigenetic modification in homozygous mutants increases the degree to which breast cancer risk is affected by lifestyle factors and dietary habits. The present study used tumor biopsies and blood samples from 215 breast cancer patients and 215 blood samples from healthy donors. GSTP1 polymorphism was studied using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, methylation using methylation-specific PCR and loss of expression using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. No significant increase was observed in the breast cancer risk of individuals with the mutant (Val) allele [odds ratio (OR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97–2.26 for heterozygotes; OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 0.86–2.42 homozygous mutants]. GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation was detected in one-third of tumor biopsies (74/215) and was found to be associated with a loss of expression. Genotype and tumor methylation associations were not observed. Estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor-positive tumors had a higher methylation frequency. GSTP1 polymorphism was not associated with increased promoter hypermethylation. The results suggest that GSTP1 methylation is a major event in breast carcinogenesis and may act as a tumor-specific biomarker.
GSTP1; polymorphism; methylation; expression
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the major killers in modern society. One strong risk factor of CVD is cigarette smoking that causes myocardial injury and leads to the genesis of pathological cardiovascular events. However, the exact toxic component(s) of cigarette smoke (CS) and its molecular and cellular mechanisms for causing myocardial injury leading to heart damage and its prevention are largely unknown.
Using a guinea pig model, here we show that chronic exposure to CS produces myocardial injury that is prevented by vitamin C. Male guinea pigs were fed either vitamin C-deficient (0.5 mg/day) or vitamin C-sufficient (15 mg/day) diet and subjected to CS exposure from 5 Kentucky Research cigarettes (3R4F)/day (6 days/week) in a smoke chamber up to 8 weeks. Pair-fed sham controls were subjected to air exposure instead of CS exposure under similar conditions. Myocardial injury was produced in CS-exposed marginal vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs as evidenced by release of cardiac Troponin-T and I in the serum, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, thrombosis and collagen deposition in the myocardium. Treatment of rat cardiomyocyte cells (H9c2) in vitro and guinea pigs in vivo with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in amounts derived from CS revealed that p-BQ was a major factor responsible for CS-induced myocardial damage. A moderately large dose of vitamin C (15 mg/day) prevented CS/p-BQ-induced myocardial injury. Population based studies indicated that plasma vitamin C levels of smokers without disease were significantly lower (p = 0,0000) than that of non-smokers. Vitamin C levels of CS-related cardiovascular patients were further lower (p = 0.0000) than that of smokers without disease.
The results indicate that dietary supplementation of vitamin C may be a novel and simple therapy for the prevention of pathological cardiovascular events in habitual smokers.
Expansion of cerebral tuberculomas or their new appearance as a manifestation of paradoxical reaction in patients under antituberculous chemotherapy is well documented. Distinguishing paradoxical reaction from disease progression or treatment failure is an important issue in tuberculosis management. Five cases of cerebral tuberculomas are reported here as manifestations of paradoxical reaction in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis on antituberculous treatment. Case 1 and 2 had tuberculous meningitis, Case 3 had miliary tuberculosis, Case 4 had miliary tuberculosis and destructive vertebral lesions, and Case 5 had pulmonary tuberculosis. Continuation of antituberculous drugs and addition of steroids led to full recovery of all patients.
Intracranial; paradoxical reaction; tuberculoma; tuberculosis
Paclitaxel is one of the most widely used and effective antineoplastic agents derived from natural sources. It has a wide spectrum of antitumor activity, particularly against ovarian cancer, breast cancer, nonsmall cell lung cancer, head and neck tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma, and urologic malignancies. It is a highly lipophilic compound with a log P value of 3.96 and very poor aqueous solubility of less than 0.01 mg/mL. In addition, the compound lacks functional groups that are ionizable which could potentially lead to an increase in its solubility with the alteration in pH. Therefore, the delivery of paclitaxel is associated with substantial challenges. Until the introduction of Abraxane, only commercial formulation was solution of paclitaxel in cremophor, which caused severe side effects. However, in recent years, a number of approaches have been reported to solubilize paclitaxel using cosolvents and inclusion complexes. In addition, innovative approaches have been reported for passive targeting of tumors using nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, emulsions, micelles, implants, pastes and gels. All approaches for delivery of improved therapeutic outcome have been discussed in this paper.
The clinical value of amphotericin B, the mainstay therapy for visceral leishmaniasis in sodium antimony gluconate-nonresponsive zones of Bihar, India, is now threatened by the emergence of acquired drug resistance, and a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms is the need of the hour. We have selected an amphotericin B-resistant clinical isolate which demonstrated 8-fold-higher 50% lethal doses (LD50) than an amphotericin B-sensitive strain to explore the mechanism of amphotericin B resistance. Fluorimetric analysis demonstrated lower anisotropy in the motion of the diphenylhexatriene fluorescent probe in the resistant strain, which indicated a higher fluidity of the membrane for the resistant strain than for the sensitive strain. The expression patterns of the two transcripts of S-adenosyl-l-methionine:C-24-Δ-sterol methyltransferase and the absence of ergosterol, replaced by cholesta-5,7,24-trien-3β-ol in the membrane of the resistant parasite, indicate a decreased amphotericin B affinity, which is evidenced by decreased amphotericin B uptake. The expression level of MDR1 is found to be higher in the resistant strain, suggesting a higher rate of efflux of amphotericin B. The resistant parasite also possesses an upregulated tryparedoxin cascade and a more-reduced intracellular thiol level, which helps in better scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by amphotericin B. The resistance to amphotericin B was partially reverted by the thiol metabolic pathway and ABC transporter inhibitors. Thus, it can be concluded that altered membrane composition, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and an upregulated thiol metabolic pathway have a role in conferring amphotericin B resistance in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.
Airway management in patients with faciomaxillary injuries is challenging due to disruption of components of upper airway. The anesthesiologist has to share the airway with the surgeons. Oral and nasal routes for intubation are often not feasible. Most patients have associated nasal fractures, which precludes use of nasal route of intubation. Intermittent intraoperative dental occlusion is needed to check alignment of the fracture fragments, which contraindicates the use of orotracheal intubation. Tracheostomy in such situations is conventional and time-tested; however, it has life-threatening complications, it needs special postoperative care, lengthens hospital stay, and adds to expenses. Retromolar intubation may be an option, But the retromolar space may not be adequate in all adult patients. Submental intubation provides intraoperative airway control, avoids use of oral and nasal route, with minimal complications. Submental intubation allows intraoperative dental occlusion and is an acceptable option, especially when long-term postoperative ventilation is not planned. This technique has minimal complications and has better patients’ and surgeons’ acceptability. There have been several modifications of this technique with an expectation of an improved outcome. The limitations are longer time for preparation, inability to maintain long-term postoperative ventilation and unfamiliarity of the technique itself. The technique is an acceptable alternative to tracheostomy for the good per-operative airway access.
Adult; intubation; intratracheal methods; maxillofacial injuries/surgery; oral/methods; surgery