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1.  How to Perform and Interpret Upper Esophageal Sphincter Manometry 
Manometry of the pharynx and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) provides important information on the swallowing mechanism, especially about details on the pharyngeal contraction and relaxation of the UES. However, UES manometry is challenging because of the radial asymmetry of the sphincter, and upward movement of the UES during swallowing. In addition, the rapidity of contraction of the pharyngoesophageal segment requires high frequency recording for capturing these changes in pressure; this is best done with the use of solid state transducers and high-resolution manometry. UES manometry is not required for routine patient care, when esophageal manometry is being performed. The major usefulness of UES manometry in clinical practice is in the evaluation of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.
doi:10.5056/jnm.2013.19.1.99
PMCID: PMC3548135  PMID: 23350055
Achalasia, cricopharyngeal; Dysphagia, oropharyngeal; Esophageal sphincter, upper; Manometry
2.  Bone mineral density and disorders of mineral metabolism in chronic liver disease 
AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for metabolic bone disease in patients with cirrhosis.
METHODS: The study was performed on 72 Indian patients with cirrhosis (63 male, nine female; aged < 50 years). Etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholism (n = 37), hepatitis B (n = 25) and hepatitis C (n = 10). Twenty-three patients belonged to Child class A, while 39 were in class B and 10 in class C. Secondary causes for metabolic bone disease and osteoporosis were ruled out. Sunlight exposure, physical activity and dietary constituents were calculated. Complete metabolic profiles were derived, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as a Z score below -2.
RESULTS: Low BMD was found in 68% of patients. Lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site. Risk factors for low BMD included low physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, and low lean body mass. Calcium intake was adequate, with unfavorable calcium: protein ratio and calcium: phosphorus ratio. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent (92%). There was a high incidence of hypogonadism (41%). Serum estradiol level was elevated significantly in patients with normal BMD. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and IGF binding protein 3 levels were below the age-related normal range in both groups. IGF-1 was significantly lower in patients with low BMD. Serum osteocalcin level was low (68%) and urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio was high (79%), which demonstrated low bone formation with high resorption.
CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis have low BMD. Contributory factors are reduced physical activity, low lean body mass, vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism and low IGF-1 level.
doi:10.3748/wjg.15.3516
PMCID: PMC2715978  PMID: 19630107
Bone mineral density; Liver disease; Chronic disease; Cirrhosis; Bone mineral metabolism; Hepatic osteodystrophy
3.  Relation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels to growth retardation in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction 
Hepatology International  2008;3(1):305-309.
Background
Growth retardation has been described in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). An abnormal growth hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has been postulated as a possible etiology. We compared anthropometric parameters and IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in patients with EHPVO with their siblings as controls.
Methods and patients
Consecutive patients diagnosed with EHPVO who presented to out-patient clinic in Department of Gastroenterology between February 2005 and February 2006 were enrolled along with their siblings whenever possible. After detailed history and clinical examination, anthropometric parameters such as age, height, weight, and mid-parental height were measured in patients and controls. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were also estimated.
Results
Fifty-two patients (40 males, 32 adults) were enrolled. Sibling controls were available for 28 patients. Variceal bleeding was the presenting symptom in 41 of 52 (78.8%) patients. Target height was not achieved in 7 of 32 (22.6%) adults and 6 of 20 (30%) children, showing evidence of growth retardation. The mean IGF-1 levels in patients and controls were 124.71 ± 65.49 ng/ml and 233 ± 76.98 ng/ml (P < 0.01), respectively. The mean IGFBP-3 levels in patients and controls were 2.90 ± 1.07 μg/ml and 4.22 ± 0.77 μg/ml (P < 0.01), respectively. Hormonal levels between those with and without evidence of growth retardation did not differ significantly. Duration of symptoms, spleen size, platelet count, and age of presentation did not correlate with anthropometry and hormonal levels.
Conclusions
Growth retardation by anthropometry was documented in a quarter of patients with EHPVO. All patients had significantly low IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in comparison with controls despite normal anthropometry in majority of patients (75%).
doi:10.1007/s12072-008-9102-1
PMCID: PMC2712316  PMID: 19669381
Portal vein thrombosis; Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction

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