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1.  Clinico-Microbiological Investigation of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection by Enterococcus faecalis: vanA Genotype 
Prolonged hospitalization and exposure to third generation cephalosporins are reported to facilitate the acquisition and colonization of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Though VRE is not uncommon in India, urinary tract infection with a vanA genotype is a cause of serious concern as VRE co-exhibit resistance to aminoglycosides. In India, majority of the VRE isolates recovered from hospitalized patients include Enterococcus faecium. We report a case of catheter associated urinary tract infection by an endogenous, multidrug resistant E. faecalis of vanA genotype following prolonged hospitalization, ICU stay, catheterisation and exposure to 3G cephalosporin and metronidazole. The patient responded to linezolid therapy.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2015/13856.6378
PMCID: PMC4576540  PMID: 26435949
High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR); Multidrug resistance; Vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)
2.  Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation 
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences  2015;7(Suppl 1):S111-S115.
Objective:
This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize.
Materials and Methods:
The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included.
Results:
No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments.
Conclusion:
Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.155847
PMCID: PMC4439646  PMID: 26015686
Biological indicator; microwave sterilization; molar bands; orthodontic pliers
4.  Antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves against Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm 
Introduction:
The Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. Hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy.
Aim:
To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel (mango kernel) and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves (tulsi) extracts with conventional irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine) against E. faecalis dentinal biofilm.
Materials and Methods:
Agar diffusion and broth microdilution assay was performed with the herbal extracts and conventional irrigants (2% chlorhexidine and 5% NaOCl) against E. faecalis planktonic cells. The assay was extended onto 3 week E. faecalis dentinal biofilm.
Results:
Significant reduction of colony forming units (CFU)/mL was observed for the herbal groups and the antibacterial activity of the herbal groups was at par with 5% NaOCl.
Conclusions:
The antibacterial activity of these herbal extracts is found to be comparable with that of conventional irrigants both on the biofilm and planktonic counterparts.
doi:10.4103/0972-0707.117507
PMCID: PMC3778630  PMID: 24082577
Antibacterial activity; Enterococcus faecalis biofilm; mango kernel; root canal; tulsi leaves

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