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Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease (1)
PLoS ONE (1)
Virology Journal (1)
Jiang, Yingliang (2)
Li, Shiqian (2)
Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2)
Yan, Daoguang (2)
Zhong, Wenbin (2)
Béaslas, Olivier (1)
Fontaine, Coralie (1)
Fu, Jiangnan (1)
Lehto, Markku (1)
Li, HongJian (1)
Li, ShiQian (1)
Li, YueQin (1)
Luo, Wei (1)
Ma, Hongling (1)
Perttilä, Julia (1)
Staels, Bart (1)
Vihervaara, Terhi (1)
Zeng, ZhiFeng (1)
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Increased Atherosclerotic Lesions in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice With Hematopoietic Nuclear Receptor Rev‐erbα Knock‐ Down
Olkkonen, Vesa M.
Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease
Nuclear receptor Rev‐erbα plays important roles in circadian clock timing, lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, and vascular inflammation. However, the role of Rev‐erbα in atherosclerotic lesion development has not been assessed in vivo.
Methods and Results
The nuclear receptor Rev‐erbα was knocked down in mouse haematopoietic cells by means of shRNA‐lentiviral transduction, followed by bone marrow transplantation into LDL receptor knockout mice. The Rev‐erbα protein in peripheral macrophage was reduced by 70% as compared to control mice injected with nontargeting shRNA lentivirus‐transduced bone marrow. A significant increase in atherosclerotic lesions was observed around the aorta valves as well as upon en face aorta analysis of Rev‐erbα knock‐down bone marrow recipients (P<0.01) as compared to the control mice, while plasma cholesterol, phospholipid, and triacylglycerol levels were not affected. Overexpression of Rev‐erbα in bone marrow mononuclear cells decreased inflammatory M1 while increasing M2 macrophage markers, while Rev‐erbα knock down increased the macrophage inflammatory phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, treatment of differentiating macrophages with the Rev‐erbα ligand heme promoted expression of antiinflammatory M2 markers.
These observations identify hematopoietic cell Rev‐erbα as a new modulator of atherogenesis in mice.
atherosclerosis; macrophages; Rev‐erbα
OSBP-Related Protein 8 (ORP8) Regulates Plasma and Liver Tissue Lipid Levels and Interacts with the Nucleoporin Nup62
Olkkonen, Vesa M.
We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis. We now investigated its action in hepatic cells in vivo and in vitro. Adenoviral overexpression of ORP8 in mouse liver induced a decrease of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides in serum (−34%, −26%, −37%, respectively) and liver tissue (−40%, −12%, −24%), coinciding with reduction of nuclear (n)SREBP-1 and -2 and mRNA levels of their target genes. Consistently, excess ORP8 reduced nSREBPs in HuH7 cells, and ORP8 overexpression or silencing by RNA interference moderately suppressed or induced the expression of SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 target genes, respectively. In accordance, cholesterol biosynthesis was reduced by ORP8 overexpression and enhanced by ORP8 silencing in [3H]acetate pulse-labeling experiments. ORP8, previously shown to bind 25-hydroxycholesterol, was now shown to bind also cholesterol in vitro. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed the nuclear pore component Nup62 as an interaction partner of ORP8. Co-localization of ORP8 and Nup62 at the nuclear envelope was demonstrated by BiFC and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the impact of overexpressed ORP8 on nSREBPs and their target mRNAs was inhibited in cells depleted of Nup62. Our results reveal that ORP8 has the capacity to modulate lipid homeostasis and SREBP activity, probably through an indirect mechanism, and provide clues of an entirely new mode of ORP action.
Effective inhibition of HCMV UL49 gene expression and viral replication by oligonucleotide external guide sequences and RNase P
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that typically causes asymptomatic infections in healthy individuals but may lead to serious complications in newborns and immunodeficient individuals. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of HCMV has posed a need for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies. Antisense molecules are promising gene-targeting agents for specific regulation of gene expression. External guide sequences (EGSs) are oligonucleotides that consist of a sequence complementary to a target mRNA and recruit intracellular RNase P for specific degradation of the target RNA. The UL49-deletion BAC of HCMV was significantly defective in growth in human foreskin fibroblasts. Therefore, UL49 gene may serve as a potential target for novel drug development to combat HCMV infection. In this study, DNA-based EGS molecules were synthesized to target the UL49 mRNA of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV).
By cleavage activity assessing in vitro, the EGS aimed to the cleavage site 324 nt downstream from the translational initiation codon of UL49 mRNA (i.e. EGS324) was confirmed be efficient to direct human RNase P to cleave the target mRNA sequence. When EGS324 was exogenously administered into HCMV-infected human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), a significant reduction of ~76% in the mRNA and ~80% in the protein expression of UL49 gene, comparing with the cells transfected with control EGSs. Furthermore, a reduction of about 330-fold in HCMV growth were observed in HCMV-infected HFFs treated with the EGS.
These results indicated that UL49 gene was essential for replication of HCMV. Moreover, our study provides evidence that exogenous administration of a DNA-based EGS can be used as a potential therapeutic approach for inhibiting gene expression and replication of a human virus.
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