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1.  Localization of plasma membrane t-SNAREs syntaxin 2 and 3 in intracellular compartments 
BMC Cell Biology  2005;6:26.
Background
Membrane fusion requires the formation of a complex between a vesicle protein (v-SNARE) and the target membrane proteins (t-SNAREs). Syntaxin 2 and 3 are t-SNAREs that, according to previous over-expression studies, are predominantly localized at the plasma membrane. In the present study we investigated localization of the endogenous syntaxin 2 and 3.
Results
Endogenous syntaxin 2 and 3 were found in NRK cells in intracellular vesicular structures in addition to regions of the plasma membrane. Treatment of these cells with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which is known to inactivate membrane fusion, caused syntaxin 3 to accumulate in the trans-Golgi network and syntaxin 2 in perinuclear membrane vesicles. Kinetic analysis in the presence of NEM indicated that this redistribution of syntaxin 2 and 3 takes place via actin containing structures.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that syntaxin 2 cycles between the plasma membrane and the perinuclear compartment whereas syntaxin 3 cycles between the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. It is possible that this cycling has an important role in the regulation of t-SNARE function.
doi:10.1186/1471-2121-6-26
PMCID: PMC1156879  PMID: 15943887
2.  The Two Variants of Oxysterol Binding Protein-related Protein-1 Display Different Tissue Expression Patterns, Have Different Intracellular Localization, and Are Functionally Distinct 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2003;14(3):903-915.
Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) homologs comprise a family of 12 proteins in humans (Jaworski et al., 2001; Lehto et al., 2001). Two variants of OSBP-related protein (ORP) 1 have been identified: a short one that consists of the carboxy-terminal ligand binding domain only (ORP1S, 437 aa) and a longer N-terminally extended form (ORP1L, 950 aa) encompassing three ankyrin repeats and a pleckstrin homology domain (PHD). We now report that the two mRNAs show marked differences in tissue expression. ORP1S predominates in skeletal muscle and heart, whereas ORP1L is the most abundant form in brain and lung. On differentiation of primary human monocytes into macrophages, both ORP1S and ORP1L mRNAs were induced, the up-regulation of ORP1L being >100-fold. The intracellular localization of the two ORP1 variants was found to be different. Whereas ORP1S is largely cytosolic, the ORP1L variant localizes to late endosomes. A significant amount of ORP1S but only little ORP1L was found in the nucleus. The ORP1L ankyrin repeat region (aa 1–237) was found to localize to late endosomes such as the full-length protein. This localization was even more pronounced for a fragment that additionally includes the PHD (aa 1–408). The amino-terminal region of ORP1L consisting of the ankyrin repeat and PHDs is therefore likely to be responsible for the targeting of ORP1L to late endosomes. Interestingly, overexpression of ORP1L was found to enhance the LXRα-mediated transactivation of a reporter gene, whereas ORP1S failed to influence this process. The results suggest that the two forms of ORP1 are functionally distinct and that ORP1L is involved in control of cellular lipid metabolism.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-08-0459
PMCID: PMC151568  PMID: 12631712
3.  Monosaccharide Sequence of Protein-Bound Glycans of Uukuniemi Virus 
Journal of Virology  1982;41(2):390-400.
Uukuniemi virus, a member of the Bunyaviridae family, was grown in BHK-21 cells in the presence of [3H]mannose. The purified virions were disrupted with sodium dodecyl sulfate and digested with pronase. The [3H]mannose-labeled glycopeptides of the mixture of the two envelope glycoproteins G1 and G2 were characterized by degrading the glycans with specific exo-and endoglycosidases, by chemical methods, and by analyzing the products with lectin affinity and gel chromatography. The glycopeptides of Uukuniemi virus fell into three categories: complex, high-mannose type, and intermediate. The complex glycopeptides probably contained mainly two NeuNAc-Gal-GlcNAc branches attached to a core (Man)3(GlcNAc)2 peptide. The high-mannose-type glycans were estimated to contain at least five mannose units attached to two N-acetylglucosamine residues. Both glycan species appeared to be similar to the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides found in many soluble and membrane glycoproteins. The results suggested that the intermediate glycopeptides contained a mannosyl core. In about half of the molecules, one branch appeared to be terminated in mannose, and one appeared to be terminated in N-acetylglucosamine. Such glycans are a novel finding in viral membrane proteins. They may represent intermediate species in the biosynthetic pathway from high-mannose-type to complex glycans. Their accumulation could be connected with the site of maturation of the members of the Bunyaviridae family. Electron microscopic data suggest that the virions bud into smooth-surfaced cisternae in the Golgi region. The relative amounts of [3H]mannose in the complex, high-mannose-type, and intermediate glycans were 25, 62, and 13%, respectively, which corresponded to the approximate relative number of oligosaccharide chains of 2:2.8:1, respectively, in the roughly equimolar mixture of G1 and G2. Endoglycosidase H digestion of isolated [35S]methionine-labeled G1 and G2 proteins suggested that most of the complex and intermediate chains were attached to G1 and that most of the high-mannose-type chains were attached to G2.
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PMCID: PMC256769  PMID: 7077748
4.  Heterogeneous Distribution of the Unusual Phospholipid Semilysobisphosphatidic Acid through the Golgi Complex 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1997;8(11):2233-2240.
To investigate the distribution of lipids through the Golgi complex, we analyzed the envelopes of several viruses that assemble in different subcompartments of the Golgi, as well as subcellular fractions. Our results indicate that each Golgi subcompartment has a distinct phospholipid composition due mainly to differences in the relative amounts of semilysobisphosphatidic acid (SLBPA), sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly, SLBPA is enriched in the adjacent Golgi networks compared with the Golgi stack, and this enrichment varies with cell type. The heterogeneous distribution of SLBPA through the Golgi complex suggests it may play an important role in the structure and/or function of this organelle.
PMCID: PMC25704  PMID: 9362065

Results 1-4 (4)