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1.  Angiopoietin-Like 4 Mediates PPAR Delta Effect on Lipoprotein Lipase-Dependent Fatty Acid Uptake but Not on Beta-Oxidation in Myotubes 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46212.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta is an important regulator of fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4), a multifunctional protein, is one of the major targets of PPAR delta in skeletal muscle cells. Here we investigated the regulation of Angptl4 and its role in mediating PPAR delta functions using human, rat and mouse myotubes. Expression of Angptl4 was upregulated during myotubes differentiation and by oleic acid, insulin and PPAR delta agonist GW501516. Treatment with GW501516 or Angptl4 overexpression inhibited both lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and LPL-dependent uptake of FAs whereas uptake of BSA-bound FAs was not affected by either treatment. Activation of retinoic X receptor (RXR), PPAR delta functional partner, using bexarotene upregulated Angptl4 expression and inhibited LPL activity in a PPAR delta dependent fashion. Silencing of Angptl4 blocked the effect of GW501516 and bexarotene on LPL activity. Treatment with GW501516 but not Angptl4 overexpression significantly increased palmitate oxidation. Furthermore, Angptl4 overexpression did not affect the capacity of GW501516 to increase palmitate oxidation. Basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation were not significantly modulated by Angptl4 overexpression. Our findings suggest that FAs-PPARdelta/RXR-Angptl4 axis controls the LPL-dependent uptake of FAs in myotubes, whereas the effect of PPAR delta activation on beta-oxidation is independent of Angptl4.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046212
PMCID: PMC3464237  PMID: 23056264
2.  Kinetics of GLUT4 Trafficking in Rat and Human Skeletal Muscle 
Diabetes  2009;58(4):847-854.
OBJECTIVE
In skeletal muscle, insulin stimulates glucose transport activity three- to fourfold, and a large part of this stimulation is associated with a net translocation of GLUT4 from an intracellular compartment to the cell surface. We examined the extent to which insulin or the AMP-activated protein kinase activator AICAR can lead to a stimulation of the exocytosis limb of the GLUT4 translocation pathway and thereby account for the net increase in glucose transport activity.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using a biotinylated photoaffinity label, we tagged endogenous GLUT4 and studied the kinetics of exocytosis of the tagged protein in rat and human skeletal muscle in response to insulin or AICAR. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles were obtained from male Wistar rats. Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle strips were prepared from open muscle biopsies obtained from six healthy men (age 39 ± 11 years and BMI 25.8 ± 0.8 kg/m2).
RESULTS
In rat epitrochlearis muscle, insulin exposure leads to a sixfold stimulation of the GLUT4 exocytosis rate (with basal and insulin-stimulated rate constants of 0.010 and 0.067 min−1, respectively). In human vastus lateralis muscle, insulin stimulates GLUT4 translocation by a similar sixfold increase in the exocytosis rate constant (with basal and insulin-stimulated rate constants of 0.011 and 0.075 min−1, respectively). In contrast, AICAR treatment does not markedly increase exocytosis in either rat or human muscle.
CONCLUSIONS
Insulin stimulation of the GLUT4 exocytosis rate constant is sufficient to account for most of the observed increase in glucose transport activity in rat and human muscle.
doi:10.2337/db08-1539
PMCID: PMC2661600  PMID: 19188436

Results 1-2 (2)