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1.  The Transmembrane Domain Is Sufficient for Sbh1p Function, Its Association with the Sec61 Complex, and Interaction with Rtn1p*S 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2007;282(42):30618-30628.
The Sec61 protein translocation complex in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is composed of three subunits. The α-subunit, called Sec61p in yeast, is a multispanning membrane protein that forms the protein conducting channel. The functions of the smaller, carboxyl-terminally tail-anchored β sub-unit Sbh1p, its close homologue Sbh2p, and the γ subunit Sss1p are not well understood. Here we show that co-translational protein translocation into the ER is reduced in sbh1Δ sbh2Δ cells, whereas there is a limited reduction of post-translational tranlocation and no effect on export of a mutant form of α-factor precursor for ER-associated degradation in the cytosol. The translocation defect and the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of sbh1Δ sbh2Δ cells were rescued by expression of the transmembrane domain of Sbh1p alone, and the Sbh1p transmembrane domain was sufficient for coimmunoprecipitation with Sec61p and Sss1p. Furthermore, we show that Sbh1p co-precipitates with the ER transmembrane protein Rtn1p. Sbh1p-Rtn1p complexes do not appear to contain Sss1p and Sec61p. Our results define the transmembrane domain as the minimal functional domain of the Sec61β homologue Sbh1p in ER translocation, identify a novel interaction partner for Shb1p, and imply that Sbh1p has additional functions that are not directly linked to protein translocation in association with the Sec61 complex.
PMCID: PMC2361393  PMID: 17699516
2.  A Cytosolic Splice Variant of Cab45 Interacts with Munc18b and Impacts on Amylase Secretion by Pancreatic Acini 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2007;18(7):2473-2480.
We identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen the EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein Cab45 as an interaction partner of Munc18b. Although the full-length Cab45 resides in Golgi lumen, we characterize a cytosolic splice variant, Cab45b, expressed in pancreatic acini. Cab45b is shown to bind 45Ca2+, and, of its three EF-hand motifs, EF-hand 2 is demonstrated to be crucial for the ion binding. Cab45b is shown to interact with Munc18b in an in vitro assay, and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of Ca2+. In this assay, Cab45b also binds the Munc18a isoform in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The endogenous Cab45b in rat acini coimmunoprecipitates with Munc18b, syntaxin 2, and syntaxin 3, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors with key roles in the Ca2+-triggered zymogen secretion. Furthermore, we show that Munc18b bound to syntaxin 3 recruits Cab45b onto the plasma membrane. Importantly, antibodies against Cab45b are shown to inhibit in a specific and dose-dependent manner the Ca2+-induced amylase release from streptolysin-O–permeabilized acini. The present study identifies Cab45b as a novel protein factor involved in the exocytosis of zymogens by pancreatic acini.
PMCID: PMC1924827  PMID: 17442889
3.  Identification of Mutations Causing Temperature-Sensitive Defects in Semliki Forest Virus RNA Synthesis 
Journal of Virology  2006;80(6):3108-3111.
We have sequenced the nonstructural protein coding region of Semliki Forest virus temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant strains ts1, ts6, ts9, ts10, ts11, ts13, and ts14. In each case, the individual amino acid changes uncovered were transferred to the prototype strain background and thereby identified as the underlying cause of the altered RNA synthesis phenotype. All mutations mapping to the protease domain of nonstructural protein nsP2 caused defects in nonstructural polyprotein processing and subgenomic RNA synthesis, and all mutations in the helicase domain of nsP2 affected subgenomic RNA production. These types of defects were not associated with mutations in other nonstructural proteins.
PMCID: PMC1395444  PMID: 16501123
4.  Molecular Interactions Position Mso1p, a Novel PTB Domain Homologue, in the Interface of the Exocyst Complex and the Exocytic SNARE Machinery in Yeast 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2005;16(10):4543-4556.
In this study, we have analyzed the association of the Sec1p interacting protein Mso1p with the membrane fusion machinery in yeast. We show that Mso1p is essential for vesicle fusion during prospore membrane formation. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Mso1p localizes to the sites of exocytosis and at the site of prospore membrane formation. In vivo and in vitro experiments identified a short amino-terminal sequence in Mso1p that mediates its interaction with Sec1p and is needed for vesicle fusion. A point mutation, T47A, within the Sec1p-binding domain abolishes Mso1p functionality in vivo, and mso1T47A mutant cells display specific genetic interactions with sec1 mutants. Mso1p coimmunoprecipitates with Sec1p, Sso1/2p, Snc1/2p, Sec9p, and the exocyst complex subunit Sec15p. In sec4-8 and SEC4I133 mutant cells, association of Mso1p with Sso1/2p, Snc1/2p, and Sec9p is affected, whereas interaction with Sec1p persists. Furthermore, in SEC4I133 cells the dominant negative Sec4I133p coimmunoprecipitates with Mso1p–Sec1p complex. Finally, we identify Mso1p as a homologue of the PTB binding domain of the mammalian Sec1p binding Mint proteins. These results position Mso1p in the interface of the exocyst complex, Sec4p, and the SNARE machinery, and reveal a novel layer of molecular conservation in the exocytosis machinery.
PMCID: PMC1237063  PMID: 16030256
5.  A Yeast t-SNARE Involved in Endocytosis 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  1998;9(10):2873-2889.
The ORF YOL018c (TLG2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein that belongs to the syntaxin protein family. The proteins of this family, t-SNAREs, are present on target organelles and are thought to participate in the specific interaction between vesicles and acceptor membranes in intracellular membrane trafficking. TLG2 is not an essential gene, and its deletion does not cause defects in the secretory pathway. However, its deletion in cells lacking the vacuolar ATPase subunit Vma2p leads to loss of viability, suggesting that Tlg2p is involved in endocytosis. In tlg2Δ cells, internalization was normal for two endocytic markers, the pheromone α-factor and the plasma membrane uracil permease. In contrast, degradation of α-factor and uracil permease was delayed in tlg2Δ cells. Internalization of positively charged Nanogold shows that the endocytic pathway is perturbed in the mutant, which accumulates Nanogold in primary endocytic vesicles and shows a greatly reduced complement of early endosomes. These results strongly suggest that Tlg2p is a t-SNARE involved in early endosome biogenesis.
PMCID: PMC25562  PMID: 9763449

Results 1-5 (5)