Using macrophages overexpressing or reducing SNAP-23, this study shows that SNAP-23 is implicated in phagosome formation and maturation, presumably by mediating SNARE-based membrane traffic. Indeed, a conformational change in SNAP-23 structure based on FRET signal is observed on the phagosome membrane of cells overexpressing the lysosomal SNARE VAMP7.
Synaptosomal associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP-23), a plasma membrane–localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE), has been implicated in phagocytosis by macrophages. For elucidation of its precise role in this process, a macrophage line overexpressing monomeric Venus–tagged SNAP-23 was established. These cells showed enhanced Fc receptor–mediated phagocytosis. Detailed analyses of each process of phagocytosis revealed a marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species within phagosomes. Also, enhanced accumulation of a lysotropic dye, as well as augmented quenching of a pH-sensitive fluorophore were observed. Analyses of isolated phagosomes indicated the critical role of SNAP-23 in the functional recruitment of the NADPH oxidase complex and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase to phagosomes. The data from the overexpression experiments were confirmed by SNAP-23 knockdown, which demonstrated a significant delay in phagosome maturation and a reduction in uptake activity. Finally, for analyzing whether phagosomal SNAP-23 entails a structural change in the protein, an intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe was constructed, in which the distance within a TagGFP2-TagRFP was altered upon close approximation of the N-termini of its two SNARE motifs. FRET efficiency on phagosomes was markedly enhanced only when VAMP7, a lysosomal SNARE, was coexpressed. Taken together, our results strongly suggest the involvement of SNAP-23 in both phagosome formation and maturation in macrophages, presumably by mediating SNARE-based membrane traffic.
This study provides new insights into the mechanisms by which CIN85 regulates targeting of the EGF receptor for degradation. It is the first to demonstrate that CIN85 is phosphorylated by src, phosphorylation of CIN85 is essential for ubiquitinylation of the EGFR, and CIN85 mediates EGFR sequestration into intraluminal vesicles.
Ubiquitination of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by cbl and its cognate adaptor cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa (CIN85) is known to play an essential role in directing this receptor to the lysosome for degradation. The mechanisms by which this ubiquitin modification is regulated are not fully defined, nor is it clear where this process occurs. In this study we show that EGFR activation leads to a pronounced src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of CIN85 that subsequently influences EGFR ubiquitination. Of importance, phospho-CIN85 interacts with the Rab5-positive endosome, where it mediates the sequestration of the ubiquitinated receptor into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) for subsequent degradation. These findings provide novel insights into how src- kinase–based regulation of a cbl adaptor regulates the fate of the EGFR.
A GPCR ubiquitin-independent MVB/lysosomal sorting pathway is regulated by the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) and ALIX, a noncanonical ESCRT component. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 C-tail–localized, tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation. AP-3 also facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting.
The sorting of signaling receptors within the endocytic system is important for appropriate cellular responses. After activation, receptors are trafficked to early endosomes and either recycled or sorted to lysosomes and degraded. Most receptors trafficked to lysosomes are modified with ubiquitin and recruited into an endosomal subdomain enriched in hepatocyte growth factor–regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), a ubiquitin-binding component of the endosomal-sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, and then sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/lysosomes. However, not all receptors use ubiquitin or the canonical ESCRT machinery to sort to MVBs/lysosomes. This is exemplified by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein–coupled receptor for thrombin, which sorts to lysosomes independent of ubiquitination and HRS. We recently showed that the adaptor protein ALIX binds to PAR1, recruits ESCRT-III, and mediates receptor sorting to ILVs of MVBs. However, the mechanism that initiates PAR1 sorting at the early endosome is not known. We now report that the adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent sorting to MVBs through an ALIX-dependent pathway. AP-3 binds to a PAR1 cytoplasmic tail–localized tyrosine-based motif and mediates PAR1 lysosomal degradation independent of ubiquitination. Moreover, AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting.
Yeast vacuoles are large organelles that fragment and fuse in response to environmental conditions, such as changes in osmotic conditions or nutrient availability. The morphological changes during salt-induced vacuole fission are characterized, different stages are identified, and the functions of known fission factors are assigned to these stages.
Yeast vacuoles fragment and fuse in response to environmental conditions, such as changes in osmotic conditions or nutrient availability. Here we analyze osmotically induced vacuole fragmentation by time-lapse microscopy. Small fragmentation products originate directly from the large central vacuole. This happens by asymmetrical scission rather than by consecutive equal divisions. Fragmentation occurs in two distinct phases. Initially, vacuoles shrink and generate deep invaginations that leave behind tubular structures in their vicinity. Already this invagination requires the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p and the vacuolar proton gradient. Invaginations are stabilized by phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) produced by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase complex II. Subsequently, vesicles pinch off from the tips of the tubular structures in a polarized manner, directly generating fragmentation products of the final size. This phase depends on the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate and the Fab1 complex. It is accelerated by the PI(3)P- and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate–binding protein Atg18p. Thus vacuoles fragment in two steps with distinct protein and lipid requirements.
In insulin target tissues, GLUT4 is known to traffic through multiple compartments that may involve ubiquitin- and/or SUMO-dependent targeting. During these trafficking steps, GLUT4 is sorted into a storage reservoir compartment that is acutely released by insulin signalling processes that are downstream of PI 3-kinase associated changes in inositol phospholipids. As ESCRT components have recently been found to influence cellular sorting processes that are related to changes in both ubiquitination and inositol phospholipids, we have examined whether GLUT4 traffic is routed through ESCRT dependent sorting steps. Introduction of the dominant negative inhibitory constructs of the ESCRT-III components CHMP3 (CHMP3(1–179)) and Vps4 (GFP-Vps4E235Q) into rat adipocytes leads to the accumulation of GLUT4 in large, coalesced and extended vesicles structures that co-localise with the inhibitory constructs over large parts of the extended structure. A new swollen hybrid and extensively ubiquitinated compartment is produced in which GLUT4 co-localises more extensively with the endosomal markers including EEA1 and transferrin receptors but also with the TGN marker syntaxin6. These perturbations are associated with failure of insulin action on GLUT4 traffic to the cell surface and suggest impairment in an ESCRT-dependent sorting step used for GLUT4 traffic to its specialised reservoir compartment.
HIV-1 Nef pirates PACS-1 and PACS-2 to downregulate MHC-I, but little is known about the Nef–PACS interaction. The sites on Nef and the PACS proteins required for their interaction are identified, and their importance for Nef trafficking and Nef-induced MHC-I downregulation is discussed. The results provide insight into the molecular basis of Nef action.
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Nef directs virus escape from immune surveillance by subverting host cell intracellular signaling and membrane traffic to down-regulate cell-surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I). The interaction of Nef with the sorting proteins PACS-1 and PACS-2 mediates key signaling and trafficking steps required for Nef-mediated MHC-I down-regulation. Little is known, however, about the molecular basis underlying the Nef–PACS interaction. Here we identify the sites on Nef and the PACS proteins required for their interaction and describe the consequences of disrupting this interaction for Nef action. A previously unidentified cargo subsite on PACS-1 and PACS-2 interacted with a bipartite site on Nef formed by the EEEE65 acidic cluster on the N-terminal domain and W113 in the core domain. Mutation of these sites prevented the interaction between Nef and the PACS proteins on Rab5 (PACS-2 and PACS-1)- or Rab7 (PACS-1)-positive endosomes as determined by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and caused a Nef mutant defective in PACS binding to localize to distorted endosomal compartments. Consequently, disruption of the Nef–PACS interaction repressed Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis of Nef action and suggest new strategies to combat HIV-1.
The distribution and dynamics of phosphatidylserine are studied in the plasma membrane and in organellar membranes of live cells using two novel fluorescent probes in combination with various biophysical techniques, including fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and single-particle tracking.
Much has been learned about the role of exofacial phosphatidylserine (PS) in apoptosis and blood clotting using annexin V. However, because annexins are impermeant and unable to bind PS at low calcium concentration, they are unsuitable for intracellular use. Thus little is known about the topology and dynamics of PS in the endomembranes of normal cells. We used two new probes—green fluorescent protein (GFP)–LactC2, a genetically encoded fluorescent PS biosensor, and 1-palmitoyl-2-(dipyrrometheneboron difluoride)undecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (TopFluor-PS), a synthetic fluorescent PS analogue—to examine PS distribution and dynamics inside live cells. The mobility of PS was assessed by a combination of advanced optical methods, including single-particle tracking and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Our results reveal the existence of a sizable fraction of PS with limited mobility, with cortical actin contributing to the confinement of PS in the plasma membrane. We were also able to measure the dynamics of PS in endomembrane organelles. By targeting GFP-LactC2 to the secretory pathway, we detected the presence of PS in the luminal leaflet of the endoplasmic reticulum. Our data provide new insights into properties of PS inside cells and suggest mechanisms to account for the subcellular distribution and function of this phospholipid.
cPLA2 hydrolyzes phospholipids and regulates membrane curvature and/or tubulation. Despite disparate roles for cPLA2 at the Golgi and early endosomes, its function in the regulation of membranes containing GPI-anchored proteins is not known. A role for cPLA2α and EHD1 is identified in the vesiculation of cholesterol-rich, GPI-AP–containing membranes.
The lipid modifier phospholipase A2 catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to inverted-cone–shaped lysophospholipids that contribute to membrane curvature and/or tubulation. Conflicting findings exist regarding the function of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and its role in membrane regulation at the Golgi and early endosomes. However, no studies addressed the role of cPLA2 in the regulation of cholesterol-rich membranes that contain glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Our studies support a role for cPLA2α in the vesiculation of GPI-AP–containing membranes, using endogenous CD59 as a model for GPI-APs. On cPLA2α depletion, CD59-containing endosomes became hypertubular. Moreover, accumulation of lysophospholipids induced by a lysophospholipid acyltransferase inhibitor extensively vesiculated CD59-containing endosomes. However, overexpression of cPLA2α did not increase the endosomal vesiculation, implying a requirement for additional factors. Indeed, depletion of the “pinchase” EHD1, a C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EHD) ATPase, also induced hypertubulation of CD59-containing endosomes. Furthermore, EHD1 and cPLA2α demonstrated in situ proximity (<40 nm) and interacted in vivo. The results presented here provide evidence that the lipid modifier cPLA2α and EHD1 are involved in the vesiculation of CD59-containing endosomes. We speculate that cPLA2α induces membrane curvature and allows EHD1, possibly in the context of a complex, to sever the curved membranes into vesicles.
The activation of translocated lysosomal H+-ATPase is attributed to FasL-induced formation and maintenance of an acid microenvironment around the endothelial cell membrane, which facilitates the activation of ASM and production of ceramide, thereby leading to MR clustering and redox signaling platform formation.
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mediates the formation of membrane raft (MR) redox signalosomes in a process that depends on a local acid microenvironment in coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs). However, it is not known how this local acid microenvironment is formed and maintained. The present study hypothesized that lysosomal V1 H+-ATPase provides a hospitable acid microenvironment for activation of ASM when lysosomes traffic and fuse into the cell membrane. Confocal microscopy showed that local pH change significantly affected MRs, with more fluorescent patches under low pH. Correspondingly, the ASM product, ceramide, increased locally in the cell membrane. Electron spin resonance assay showed that local pH increase significantly inhibited NADPH oxidase–mediated production of O2−. in CAECs. Direct confocal microscopy demonstrated that Fas ligand resulted in localized areas of decreased pH around CAEC membranes. The inhibitors of both lysosomal fusion and H+-ATPase apparently attenuated FasL-caused pH decrease. V1 H+-ATPase accumulation and activity on cell membranes were substantially suppressed by the inhibitors of lysosomal fusion or H+-ATPase. These results provide the first direct evidence that translocated lysosomal V1 H+-ATPase critically contributes to the formation of local acid microenvironment to facilitate activation of ASM and consequent MR aggregation, forming MR redox signalosomes and mediating redox signaling in CAECs.
Endocytosis and subsequent delivery of activated EGFR to lysosomes are essential for the termination of EGFR signaling. It is shown that EGFR regulates the kinase activity of LRRK1 via tyrosine phosphorylation and that this is required for proper regulation of endosomal trafficking of EGFR.
Ligand-induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) initiates trafficking events that relocalize the receptors from the cell surface to intracellular endocytic compartments. We recently reported that leucine-rich repeat kinase 1 (LRRK1) is involved in the trafficking of EGFR from early to late endosomes. In this study, we demonstrate that EGFR regulates the kinase activity of LRRK1 via tyrosine phosphorylation and that this is required for proper endosomal trafficking of EGFR. Phosphorylation of LRRK1 at Tyr-944 results in reduced LRRK1 kinase activity. Mutation of LRRK1 Tyr-944 (Y944F) abolishes EGF-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting in hyperactivation of LRRK1 kinase activity and enhanced motility of EGF-containing endosomes toward the perinuclear region. The compartments in which EGFR accumulates are mixed endosomes and are defective in the proper formation of intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. These results suggest that feedback down-regulation of LRRK1 kinase activity by EGFR plays an important role in the appropriate endosomal trafficking of EGFR.
In this paper, we investigated the role of sorting nexin 12 (SNX12) in the endocytic pathway. SNX12 is a member of the PX domain-containing sorting nexin family and shares high homology with SNX3, which plays a central role in the formation of intralumenal vesicles within multivesicular endosomes. We found that SNX12 is expressed at very low levels compared to SNX3. SNX12 is primarily associated with early endosomes and this endosomal localization depends on the binding to 3-phosphoinositides. We find that overexpression of SNX12 prevents the detachment (or maturation) of multivesicular endosomes from early endosomes. This in turn inhibits the degradative pathway from early to late endosomes/lysosomes, much like SNX3 overexpression, without affecting endocytosis, recycling and retrograde transport. In addition, while previous studies showed that Hrs knockdown prevents EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular endosomes, we find that overexpression of SNX12 restores the sorting process in an Hrs knockdown background. Altogether, our data show that despite lower expression level, SNX12 shares redundant functions with SNX3 in the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes.
During viral infection, fusion of the viral envelope with endosomal membranes and nucleocapsid release were thought to be concomitant events. We show here that for the vesicular stomatitis virus, they occur sequentially, at two successive steps of the endocytic pathway. Fusion already occurs in transport intermediates between early and late endosomes, presumably releasing the nucleocapsid within the lumen of intra-endosomal vesicles, where it remains hidden. Transport to late endosomes is then required for the nucleocapsid to be delivered to the cytoplasm. The latter step, which initiates infection, depends on the late endosomal lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its putative effector Alix/AIP1 and is regulated by PI3P signaling via the PI3P-binding protein SNX16. We conclude that the nucleocapsid is exported into the cytoplasm after the back-fusion of internal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes, and that this process is controlled by the phospholipids LBPA and PI3P, and by their effectors.
Animals; Biological Transport; physiology; Cattle; Cell Line; Cricetinae; Cytosol; metabolism; ultrastructure; Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport; Endosomes; metabolism; ultrastructure; Epithelial Cells; virology; Fibroblasts; virology; Hela Cells; Humans; Lysophospholipids; physiology; Membrane Fusion; drug effects; physiology; Microscopy, Electron; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Monoglycerides; Nucleocapsid; metabolism; Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates; physiology; Phosphoproteins; genetics; physiology; RNA, Viral; biosynthesis; metabolism; Signal Transduction; physiology; Sorting Nexins; Time Factors; Transport Vesicles; metabolism; ultrastructure; Vesicular Transport Proteins; genetics; physiology; Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus; physiology; Virus Replication; genetics
Rab20, a member of the Rab GTPase family, is known to be involved in membrane trafficking, however its implication in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es) in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20, it was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with the phagosomal membranes. During the early stage of phagosome formation, Rab20 was not localized on the membranes of phagocytic cups, but was gradually recruited to the newly formed phagosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 to some extent, the association of Rab20 with the phagosomes persisted even after the loss of Rab5 from the phagosomal membranes. Then, Rab20 was colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on the internalized phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of Rab20 mutant expression revealed that the maturation of phagosomes was significantly delayed in cells expressing the GDP-bound mutant Rab20-T19N. These data suggest that Rab20 is an important component of phagosome and regulates the phagosome maturation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.
A large set of high-content RNAi screens investigating mammalian virus infection and multiple cellular activities is analysed to reveal the impact of population context on phenotypic variability and to identify indirect RNAi effects.
Cell population context determines phenotypes in RNAi screens of multiple cellular activities (including virus infection, cell size regulation, endocytosis, and lipid homeostasis), which can be accounted for by a combination of novel image analysis and multivariate statistical methods.Accounting for cell population context-mediated effects strongly changes the reproducibility and consistency of RNAi screens across cell lines as well as of siRNAs targeting the same gene.Such analyses can identify the perturbed regulation of population context dependent cell-to-cell variability, a novel perturbation phenotype.Overall, these methods advance the use of large-scale RNAi screening for a systems-level understanding of cellular processes.
Isogenic cells in culture show strong variability, which arises from dynamic adaptations to the microenvironment of individual cells. Here we study the influence of the cell population context, which determines a single cell's microenvironment, in image-based RNAi screens. We developed a comprehensive computational approach that employs Bayesian and multivariate methods at the single-cell level. We applied these methods to 45 RNA interference screens of various sizes, including 7 druggable genome and 2 genome-wide screens, analysing 17 different mammalian virus infections and four related cell physiological processes. Analysing cell-based screens at this depth reveals widespread RNAi-induced changes in the population context of individual cells leading to indirect RNAi effects, as well as perturbations of cell-to-cell variability regulators. We find that accounting for indirect effects improves the consistency between siRNAs targeted against the same gene, and between replicate RNAi screens performed in different cell lines, in different labs, and with different siRNA libraries. In an era where large-scale RNAi screens are increasingly performed to reach a systems-level understanding of cellular processes, we show that this is often improved by analyses that account for and incorporate the single-cell microenvironment.
cell-to-cell variability; image analysis; population context; RNAi; virus infection
The variable portion of the γ-protocadherin (Pcdh-γ) cytoplasmic domain (VCD) controls Pcdh-γ trafficking and organelle tubulation in the endolysosome system. Active VCD segments are conserved in Pcdh-γA and Pcdh-γB subfamilies.
Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are arranged in gene clusters (α, β, and γ) with variable and constant exons. Variable exons encode cadherin and transmembrane domains and ∼90 cytoplasmic residues. The 14 Pcdh-αs and 22 Pcdh-γs are spliced to constant exons, which, for Pcdh-γs, encode ∼120 residues of an identical cytoplasmic moiety. Pcdh-γs participate in cell–cell interactions but are prominently intracellular in vivo, and mice with disrupted Pcdh-γ genes exhibit increased neuronal cell death, suggesting nonconventional roles. Most attention in terms of Pcdh-γ intracellular interactions has focused on the constant domain. We show that the variable cytoplasmic domain (VCD) is required for trafficking and organelle tubulation in the endolysosome system. Deletion of the constant cytoplasmic domain preserved the late endosomal/lysosomal trafficking and organelle tubulation observed for the intact molecule, whereas deletion or excision of the VCD or replacement of the Pcdh-γA3 cytoplasmic domain with that from Pcdh-α1 or N-cadherin dramatically altered trafficking. Truncations or internal deletions within the VCD defined a 26–amino acid segment required for trafficking and tubulation in the endolysosomal pathway. This active VCD segment contains residues that are conserved in Pcdh-γA and Pcdh-γB subfamilies. Thus the VCDs of Pcdh-γs mediate interactions critical for Pcdh-γ trafficking.
This study shows that impaired cholesterol egress from late endosomes in cells with high annexin A6 levels is associated with altered soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion protein 23 (SNAP23) and syntaxin-4 cellular distribution and assembly and accumulation in Golgi membranes. This correlates with reduced secretion of cargo along the constitutive and SNAP23/syntaxin-4–dependent secretory pathway.
Cholesterol regulates plasma membrane (PM) association and functioning of syntaxin-4 and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein 23 (SNAP23) in the secretory pathway. However, the molecular mechanism and cellular cholesterol pools that determine the localization and assembly of these target membrane SNAP receptors (t-SNAREs) are largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that high levels of annexin A6 (AnxA6) induce accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes, thereby reducing cholesterol in the Golgi and PM. This leads to an impaired supply of cholesterol needed for cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to drive Golgi vesiculation and caveolin transport to the cell surface. Using AnxA6-overexpressing cells as a model for cellular cholesterol imbalance, we identify impaired cholesterol egress from late endosomes and diminution of Golgi cholesterol as correlating with the sequestration of SNAP23/syntaxin-4 in Golgi membranes. Pharmacological accumulation of late endosomal cholesterol and cPLA2 inhibition induces a similar phenotype in control cells with low AnxA6 levels. Ectopic expression of Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) or exogenous cholesterol restores the location of SNAP23 and syntaxin-4 within the PM. Importantly, AnxA6-mediated mislocalization of these t-SNAREs correlates with reduced secretion of cargo via the SNAP23/syntaxin-4–dependent constitutive exocytic pathway. We thus conclude that inhibition of late endosomal export and Golgi cholesterol depletion modulate t-SNARE localization and functioning along the exocytic pathway.
FGFR3 is implicated in several human diseases. Following activation and endocytosis, FGFR3 undergoes sequential ectodomain and intramembrane cleavages to generate a soluble cytoplasmic fragment that can translocate to the nucleus.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a major negative regulator of bone growth that inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Activating mutations of its c isoform cause dwarfism in humans; somatic mutations can drive oncogenic transformation in multiple myeloma and bladder cancer. How these distinct activities arise is not clear. FGFR3 was previously shown to undergo proteolytic cleavage in the bovine rib growth plate, but this was not explored further. Here, we show that FGF1 induces regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of FGFR3. The ectodomain is proteolytically cleaved (S1) in response to ligand-induced receptor activation, but unlike most RIP target proteins, it requires endocytosis and does not involve a metalloproteinase. S1 cleavage generates a C-terminal domain fragment that initially remains anchored in the membrane, is phosphorylated, and is spatially distinct from the intact receptor. Ectodomain cleavage is followed by intramembrane cleavage (S2) to generate a soluble intracellular domain that is released into the cytosol and can translocate to the nucleus. We identify the S1 cleavage site and show that γ-secretase mediates the S2 cleavage event. In this way we demonstrate a mechanism for the nuclear localization of FGFR3 in response to ligand activation, which may occur in both development and disease.
Both retrolinkin and its interaction partner endophilin A1 are required for BDNF-induced dendrite outgrowth of cultured hippocampal neurons. They function sequentially in an early endocytic trafficking pathway for BDNF-activated TrkB, which provides spatiotemporal control of downstream ERK signaling from endosomes.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) binds to its cell surface receptor TrkB to regulate differentiation, development, synaptic plasticity, and functional maintenance of neuronal cells. Binding of BDNF triggers TrkB dimerization and autophosphorylation, which provides docking sites for adaptor proteins to recruit and activate downstream signaling molecules. The molecular mechanisms underlying BDNF–TrkB endocytic trafficking crucial for spatiotemporal control of signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. Here we show that retrolinkin, a transmembrane protein, interacts with endophilin A1 and mediates BDNF-activated TrkB (pTrk) trafficking and signaling in CNS neurons. We find that activated TrkB colocalizes and interacts with the early endosome marker APPL1. Both retrolinkin and endophilin A1 are required for BDNF-induced dendrite development and acute extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation from early endosomes. Suppression of retrolinkin expression not only blocks BDNF-triggered TrkB internalization, but also prevents recruitment of endophilin A1 to pTrk vesicles trafficking through APPL1-positive endosomes. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for BDNF–TrkB to regulate signaling both in time and space through a specific membrane trafficking pathway.
MICAL-like1 (MICAL-L1), a Rab13 effector, is associated with late endosomes and regulates epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking. The N-terminal calponin (CH) domain associates with the C-terminal Rab13 binding domain (RBD) of MICAL-L1. The binding of Rab13 to RBD disrupts the CH/RBD interaction and may induce a conformational change in MICAL-L1, promoting its activation.
Small GTPase Rabs are required for membrane protein sorting/delivery to precise membrane domains. Rab13 regulates epithelial tight junction assembly and polarized membrane transport. Here we report that Molecule Interacting with CasL (MICAL)-like1 (MICAL-L1) interacts with GTP-Rab13 and shares a similar domain organization with MICAL. MICAL-L1 has a calponin homology (CH), LIM, proline rich and coiled-coil domains. It is associated with late endosomes. Time-lapse video microscopy shows that green fluorescent protein–Rab7 and mcherry-MICAL-L1 are present within vesicles that move rapidly in the cytoplasm. Depletion of MICAL-L1 by short hairpin RNA does not alter the distribution of a late endosome/lysosome-associated protein but affects the trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Overexpression of MICAL-L1 leads to the accumulation of EGFR in the late endosomal compartment. In contrast, knocking down MICAL-L1 results in the distribution of internalized EGFR in vesicles spread throughout the cytoplasm and promotes its degradation. Our data suggest that the N-terminal CH domain associates with the C-terminal Rab13 binding domain (RBD) of MICAL-L1. The binding of Rab13 to RBD disrupts the CH/RBD interaction, and may induce a conformational change in MICAL-L1, promoting its activation. Our results provide novel insights into the MICAL-L1/Rab protein complex that can regulate EGFR trafficking at late endocytic pathways.
The MARCH family of proteins are membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligases that down-regulate surface membrane proteins. Expression of MARCH8 in cells causes the ubiquitination and down-regulation of surface CD98 and CD44—cargo proteins that enter cells by clathrin-independent endocytosis and are usually routed to recycling, not degradation.
Following endocytosis, internalized plasma membrane proteins can be recycled back to the cell surface or trafficked to late endosomes/lysosomes for degradation. Here we report on the trafficking of multiple proteins that enter cells by clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) and determine that a set of proteins (CD44, CD98, and CD147) found primarily in recycling tubules largely failed to reach late endosomes in HeLa cells, whereas other CIE cargo proteins, including major histocompatibility complex class I protein (MHCI), trafficked to both early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) and late endosomal compartments in addition to recycling tubules. Expression of the membrane-associated RING-CH 8 (MARCH8) E3 ubiquitin ligase completely shifted the trafficking of CD44 and CD98 proteins away from recycling tubules to EEA1 compartments and late endosomes, resulting in reduced surface levels. Cargo affected by MARCH expression, including CD44, CD98, and MHCI, still entered cells by CIE, suggesting that the routing of ubiquitinated cargo occurs after endocytosis. MARCH8 expression led to direct ubiquitination of CD98 and routing of CD98 to late endosomes/lysosomes.
Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) is the main lipid binding partner of proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy coupled to computational image analysis revealed that the balance of PIP2 synthesis in the bulk plasma membrane and its local turnover within clathrin-coated pits control multiple distinct yet only partly overlapping stages of CME.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major mechanism for internalization in mammalian cells. CME initiates by recruitment of adaptors and clathrin to form clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Nearly half of nascent CCPs abort, whereas others are stabilized by unknown mechanisms and undergo further maturation before pinching off to form clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2), the main lipid binding partner of endocytic proteins, is required for CCP assembly, but little is currently known about its contribution(s) to later events in CCV formation. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown and overexpression, we have analyzed the effects of manipulating PIP2 synthesis and turnover on CME by quantitative total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and computational analysis. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase cannot be detected within CCPs but functions in initiation and controls the rate and extent of CCP growth. In contrast, the 5′-inositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 localizes to CCPs and controls early stabilization and maturation efficiency. Together these results suggest that the balance of PIP2 synthesis in the bulk plasma membrane and its local turnover within CCPs control multiple stages of CCV formation.
We report that exocytosis of secretory lysosomes in nonspecialized cells does not depend on the mechanisms of late endocytic membrane transport but on Rab27A-like, lysosome-related organelles in specialized cells. We also find that this unconventional secretory process depends on clathrin, the Adaptor Protein complex 1 (AP1) adaptor, and the AP1-binding partner Gadkin.
Whereas lysosome-related organelles (LRO) of specialized cells display both exocytic and endocytic features, lysosomes in nonspecialized cells can also acquire the property to fuse with the plasma membrane upon an acute rise in cytosolic calcium. Here, we characterize this unconventional secretory pathway in fibroblast-like cells, by monitoring the appearance of Lamp1 on the plasma membrane and the release of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. After sequential ablation of endocytic compartments in living cells, we find that donor membranes primarily derive from a late compartment, but that an early compartment is also involved. Strikingly, this endo-secretory process is not affected by treatments that inhibit endosome dynamics (microtubule depolymerization, cholesterol accumulation, overexpression of Rab7 or its effector Rab-interacting lysosomal protein [RILP], overexpression of Rab5 mutants), but depends on Rab27a, a GTPase involved in LRO secretion, and is controlled by F-actin. Moreover, we find that this unconventional endo-secretory pathway requires the adaptor protein complexes AP1, Gadkin (which recruits AP1 by binding to the γ1 subunit), and AP2, but not AP3. We conclude that a specific fraction of the AP2-derived endocytic pathway is dedicated to secretory purposes under the control of AP1 and Gadkin.
DHHC2 regulates dynamic palmitoylation of PSD95, a process that appears to be linked to changes in DHHC2 localization. The precise distribution and membrane dynamics of DHHC2 are not clear. We demonstrate that DHHC2 cycles between the plasma membrane and recycling endosomes (RE) and that this dynamic localization requires an intact C-terminal domain.
Intracellular palmitoylation dynamics are regulated by a large family of DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys) palmitoyl transferases. The majority of DHHC proteins associate with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi membranes, but an interesting exception is DHHC2, which localizes to dendritic vesicles of unknown origin in neurons, where it regulates dynamic palmitoylation of PSD95. Dendritic targeting of newly synthesized PSD95 is likely preceded by palmitoylation on Golgi membranes by DHHC3 and/or DHHC15. The precise intracellular distribution of DHHC2 is presently unclear, and there is very little known in general about how DHHC proteins achieve their respective localizations. In this study, membrane targeting of DHHC2 in live and fixed neuroendocrine cells was investigated and mutational analysis employed to define regions of DHHC2 that regulate targeting. We report that DHHC2 associates with the plasma membrane, Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, and vesicular structures. Plasma membrane integration of DHHC2 was confirmed by labeling of an extrafacial HA epitope in nonpermeabilized cells. Antibody-uptake experiments suggested that DHHC2 traffics between the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes. This dynamic localization was confirmed using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching analysis, which revealed constitutive refilling of the recycling endosome (RE) pool of DHHC2. The cytoplasmic C-terminus of DHHC2 regulates membrane targeting and a mutant lacking this domain was associated with the ER. Although DHHC2 is closely related to DHHC15, these proteins populate distinct membrane compartments. Construction of chimeric DHHC2/DHHC15 proteins revealed that this difference in localization is a consequence of divergent sequences within their C-terminal tails. This study is the first to highlight dynamic cycling of a mammalian DHHC protein between clearly defined membrane compartments, and to identify domains that specify membrane targeting of this protein family.
α-SNAP has an essential role in membrane fusion that consists of bridging cis SNARE complexes to NSF. α-SNAP stimulates NSF, which releases itself, α-SNAP, and individual SNAREs that subsequently re-engage in the trans arrays indispensable for fusion. α-SNAP also binds monomeric syntaxin and NSF disengages the α-SNAP/syntaxin dimer. Here, we examine why recombinant α-SNAP blocks secretion in permeabilized human sperm despite the fact that the endogenous protein is essential for membrane fusion. The only mammalian organism with a genetically modified α-SNAP is the hyh mouse strain, which bears a M105I point mutation; males are subfertile due to defective sperm exocytosis. We report here that recombinant α-SNAP-M105I has greater affinity for the cytosolic portion of immunoprecipitated syntaxin than the wild type protein and in consequence NSF is less efficient in releasing the mutant. α-SNAP-M105I is a more potent sperm exocytosis blocker than the wild type and requires higher concentrations of NSF to rescue its effect. Unlike other fusion scenarios where SNAREs are subjected to an assembly/disassembly cycle, the fusion machinery in sperm is tuned so that SNAREs progress uni-directionally from a cis configuration in resting cells to monomeric and subsequently trans arrays in cells challenged with exocytosis inducers. By means of functional and indirect immunofluorescense assays, we show that recombinant α-SNAPs — wild type and M105I — inhibit exocytosis because they bind monomeric syntaxin and prevent this SNARE from assembling with its cognates in trans. Sequestration of free syntaxin impedes docking of the acrosome to the plasma membrane assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The N-terminal deletion mutant α-SNAP-(160–295), unable to bind syntaxin, affects neither docking nor secretion. The implications of this study are twofold: our findings explain the fertility defect of hyh mice and indicate that assembly of SNAREs in trans complexes is essential for docking.