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author:("Silva, joa S.")
1.  Adherence to reduced-polluting biomass fuel stoves improves respiratory and sleep symptoms in children 
BMC Pediatrics  2014;14:12.
Background
Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the use of improved stoves has not been critically examined.
Methods
Sleep-related symptom questionnaires were obtained from children <15 years of age in 56 families residing in the communities of Lliupapuquio, Andahuaylas province in Peru before and 2 years after installation of less-polluting Inkawasi cooking stoves.
Results
82 children with lifetime exposures to indoor fuel pollution were included. When compared to those alternating between both types of stoves or those using traditional stoves only, those children who exclusively used Inkawasi cooking stoves showed significant improvements in sleep and respiratory related symptoms, but some minor albeit significant improvements occurred when both stoves were concomitantly used.
Conclusions
Improvements in respiratory and sleep-related symptoms associated with elevated indoor biomass pollution occur only following implementation and exclusive utilization of improved kitchen stoves.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-12
PMCID: PMC3898254  PMID: 24433576
Biomass fuel pollution; Sleep; Respiration; Kitchen stoves
2.  Maternal near miss and death among women with severe hypertensive disorders: a Brazilian multicenter surveillance study 
Reproductive Health  2014;11:4.
Background
Hypertensive disorders represent the major cause of maternal morbidity in middle income countries. The main objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with severe maternal outcomes in women with severe hypertensive disorders.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study, including 6706 women with severe hypertensive disorder from 27 maternity hospitals in Brazil. A prospective surveillance of severe maternal morbidity with data collected from medical charts and entered into OpenClinica®, an online system, over a one-year period (2009 to 2010). Women with severe preeclampsia, severe hypertension, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome were included in the study. They were grouped according to outcome in near miss, maternal death and potentially life-threatening condition. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for cluster effect for maternal and perinatal variables and delays in receiving obstetric care were calculated as risk estimates of maternal complications having a severe maternal outcome (near miss or death). Poisson multiple regression analysis was also performed.
Results
Severe hypertensive disorders were the main cause of severe maternal morbidity (6706/9555); the prevalence of near miss was 4.2 cases per 1000 live births, there were 8.3 cases of Near Miss to 1 Maternal Death and the mortality index was 10.7% (case fatality). Early onset of the disease and postpartum hemorrhage were independent variables associated with severe maternal outcomes, in addition to acute pulmonary edema, previous heart disease and delays in receiving secondary and tertiary care.
Conclusions
In women with severe hypertensive disorders, the current study identified situations independently associated with a severe maternal outcome, which could be modified by interventions in obstetric care and in the healthcare system. Furthermore, the study showed the feasibility of a hospital system for surveillance of severe maternal morbidity.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-11-4
PMCID: PMC3896751  PMID: 24428879
Organ dysfunction; Organ failure; Severe preeclampsia; Eclampsia; Maternal mortality; Maternal morbidity
3.  Blimp-1 contributes to intestinal mucosa homeostasis by limiting the number of IL17-producing CD4+ T cells1 
The transcription factor B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) plays important roles in embryonic development and immunity. Blimp-1 is required for the differentiation of plasma cells, and mice with T-cell-specific deletion of Blimp-1 (Blimp-1 CKO mice) develop a fatal inflammatory response in the colon. Previous work demonstrated that lack of Blimp-1 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells leads to intrinsic functional defects, but little is known about the functional role of Blimp-1 in regulating differentiation of T helper (h) cells in vivo and their contribution to the chronic intestinal inflammation observed in the Blimp1CKO mice.
Here we show that Blimp-1 is required to restrain the production of the inflammatory cytokine IL17 by Th cells in vivo. Blimp-1CKO mice have greater numbers of IL17-producing TCRβ+CD4+cells in lymphoid organs and in the intestinal mucosa. The increase in IL17-producing cells was not restored to normal levels in wild type and Blimp-1CKO-mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, suggesting an intrinsic role for Blimp-1 in constraining the production of IL17 in vivo. The observation that Blimp-1-deficient CD4+ T cells are more prone to differentiate into IL17+/IFNγ+ cells and cause severe colitis when transferred to Rag1-deficient mice provides further evidence that Blimp-1 represses IL17 production. Analysis of Blimp-1 expression at the single cell level during Th differentiation reveals that Blimp-1 expression is induced in Th1 and Th2 but repressed by TGFβ in Th17 cells. Collectively, the results described here establish a new role for Blimp-1 in regulating IL17 production in vivo.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1201966
PMCID: PMC3529138  PMID: 23162130
4.  Identifying national health research priorities in Timor-Leste through a scoping review of existing health data 
Health research is crucial to understand a country’s needs and to improve health outcomes. We conducted a scoping review and analysis of existing health data in Timor-Leste to identify the health research priorities of the country. Published and unpublished health research in Timor-Leste from 2001 to 2011 that reported objectives, methods and results were identified. Key findings were triangulated with data from national surveys and the Health Management Information System; 114 eligible articles were included in the analysis, the leading topics of which were communicable (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases and dengue) and non-communicable (eye and mental health) diseases. There were 28 papers (25%) on safe motherhood, child health and nutrition, of which 20 (71%) were unpublished. The review of national indicators showed high infant, under-five and maternal mortality rates. Burden of disease is greatest in young children, with respiratory infections, febrile illnesses and diarrheal disease predominating. There is poor access to and utilization of health care. Childhood malnutrition is an important unresolved national health issue. There are several obstacles leading to under-utilization of health services. The following topics for future health research are suggested from the review: nutrition, safe motherhood, childhood illness (in particular identifying the causes and cause-specific burden of severe respiratory, febrile and diarrheal diseases) and access to and use of health services.
doi:10.1186/1478-4505-11-8
PMCID: PMC3599283  PMID: 23452321
Timor-Leste; East Timor; Health management information system; Health research
5.  Intrinsic expression of Nod2 in CD4+ T lymphocytes is not necessary for the development of cell-mediated immunity and host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii 
European Journal of Immunology  2011;41(12):3627-3631.
Summary
Nod2 belongs to the NLR family of proteins and senses bacterial cell wall components to initiate innate immune responses against various pathogens. Recently it has been reported that T cell-intrinsic expression of Nod2 promotes host defense against Toxoplasma gondii infection by inducing type 1 immunity. Here we present results that demonstrate that Nod2 does not play a role in the defense against T. gondii infection. Nod2-deficient mice were fully capable of inducing Th1 immune responses and did not show enhanced susceptibility to infection. Upon T cell receptor stimulation in vitro, Nod2-deficient CD4+ T cells showed normal activation, IL-2 production, proliferation and Th1/2 differentiation. Nod2 mRNA and protein are expressed in CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells at substantial levels. Therefore Nod2, although expressed in CD4+ T cells, does not have an intrinsic function in T cell activation and differentiation.
doi:10.1002/eji.201141876
PMCID: PMC3241608  PMID: 22002196
Toxoplasma gondii; Nod2; NLR proteins
6.  Molecular Etiology of Atherogenesis – In Vitro Induction of Lipidosis in Macrophages with a New LDL Model 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34822.
Background
Atherosclerosis starts by lipid accumulation in the arterial intima and progresses into a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. A major atherogenic process is the formation of lipid-loaded macrophages in which a breakdown of the endolysomal pathway results in irreversible accumulation of cargo in the late endocytic compartments with a phenotype similar to several forms of lipidosis. Macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL exihibit this phenomenon in vitro and manifest an impaired degradation of internalized lipids and enhanced inflammatory stimulation. Identification of the specific chemical component(s) causing this phenotype has been elusive because of the chemical complexity of oxidized LDL.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Lipid “core aldehydes" are formed in oxidized LDL and exist in atherosclerotic plaques. These aldehydes are slowly oxidized in situ and (much faster) by intracellular aldehyde oxidizing systems to cholesteryl hemiesters. We show that a single cholesteryl hemiester incorporated into native, non-oxidized LDL induces a lipidosis phenotype with subsequent cell death in macrophages. Internalization of the cholesteryl hemiester via the native LDL vehicle induced lipid accumulation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in “frozen" endolysosomes. Quantitative shotgun lipidomics analysis showed that internalized lipid in cholesteryl hemiester-intoxicated cells remained largely unprocessed in those lipid-rich organelles.
Conclusions/Significance
The principle elucidated with the present cholesteryl hemiester-containing native-LDL model, extended to other molecular components of oxidized LDL, will help in defining the molecular etiology and etiological hierarchy of atherogenic agents.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034822
PMCID: PMC3325953  PMID: 22514671
7.  Further clinical and molecular delineation of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2011;49(2):110-118.
Background
Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genomic disorder characterised by intellectual disability, growth retardation, unusual facial morphology and other anomalies. To date, 20 patients have been reported; 18 have had detailed breakpoint analysis.
Aim
To further delineate the features of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, the clinical and molecular characterisation of fifteen patients with deletions in the 15q24 region was performed, nearly doubling the number of reported patients.
Methods
Breakpoints were characterised using a custom, high-density array comparative hybridisation platform, and detailed phenotype information was collected for each patient.
Results
Nine distinct deletions with different breakpoints ranging in size from 266 kb to 3.75 Mb were identified. The majority of breakpoints lie within segmental duplication (SD) blocks. Low sequence identity and large intervals of unique sequence between SD blocks likely contribute to the rarity of 15q24 deletions, which occur 8–10 times less frequently than 1q21 or 15q13 microdeletions in our series. Two small, atypical deletions were identified within the region that help delineate the critical region for the core phenotype in the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome.
Conclusion
The molecular characterisation of these patients suggests that the core cognitive features of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, including developmental delays and severe speech problems, are largely due to deletion of genes in a 1.1–Mb critical region. However, genes just distal to the critical region also play an important role in cognition and in the development of characteristic facial features associated with 15q24 deletions. Clearly, deletions in the 15q24 region are variable in size and extent. Knowledge of the breakpoints and size of deletion combined with the natural history and medical problems of our patients provide insights that will inform management guidelines. Based on common phenotypic features, all patients with 15q24 microdeletions should receive a thorough neurodevelopmental evaluation, physical, occupational and speech therapies, and regular audiologic and ophthalmologic screening.
doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100499
PMCID: PMC3261729  PMID: 22180641
Academic medicine; clinical genetics; epilepsy and seizures; cytogenetics; molecular genetics; genetics; copy-number; developmental; epilepsy and seizures; neurology; neuroophthalmology; cancer: breast; cancer: colon; genetic screening/counselling; obstetrics and gynaecology
8.  Cell-Free Antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Drive IL-4 Production and Increase the Severity of Paracoccidioidomycosis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(6):e21423.
The thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most frequent systemic mycosis that affects the rural population in Latin America. PCM is characterized by a chronic inflammatory granulomatous reaction, which is consequence of a Th1-mediated adaptive immune response. In the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the immunoregulation triggered after a prior contact with cell-free antigens (CFA) during a murine model of PCM. The results showed that the inoculation of CFA prior to the infection resulted in disorganized granulomatous lesions and increased fungal replication in the lungs, liver and spleen, that paralleled with the higher levels of IL-4 when compared with the control group. The role of IL-4 in facilitating the fungal growth was demonstrated in IL-4-deficient- and neutralizing anti-IL-4 mAb-treated mice. The injection of CFA did not affect the fungal growth in these mice, which, in fact, exhibited a significant diminished amount of fungus in the tissues and smaller granulomas. Considering that in vivo anti-IL-4-application started one week after the CFA-inoculum, it implicates that IL-4-CFA-induced is responsible by the mediation of the observed unresponsiveness. Further, the characterization of CFA indicated that a proteic fraction is required for triggering the immunosuppressive mechanisms, while glycosylation or glycosphingolipids moieties are not. Taken together, our data suggest that the prior contact with soluble Pb antigens leads to severe PCM in an IL-4 dependent manner.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021423
PMCID: PMC3120880  PMID: 21731741
9.  A Simple Method Based on the Application of a CCD Camera as a Sensor to Detect Low Concentrations of Barium Sulfate in Suspension 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2011;11(1):864-875.
The development of a simple, rapid and low cost method based on video image analysis and aimed at the detection of low concentrations of precipitated barium sulfate is described. The proposed system is basically composed of a webcam with a CCD sensor and a conventional dichroic lamp. For this purpose, software for processing and analyzing the digital images based on the RGB (Red, Green and Blue) color system was developed. The proposed method had shown very good repeatability and linearity and also presented higher sensitivity than the standard turbidimetric method. The developed method is presented as a simple alternative for future applications in the study of precipitations of inorganic salts and also for detecting the crystallization of organic compounds.
doi:10.3390/s110100864
PMCID: PMC3274071  PMID: 22346607
imaging; precipitation; CCD camera; turbidity
10.  Antioxidant Supplementation and Premature Rupture of the Membranes: A Planned Secondary Analysis 
Objective
To determine if antioxidant supplementation during pregnancy reduces the incidence of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM).
Study Design
A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted. PROM and preterm PROM (PPROM) were planned secondary outcomes of the trial. Women between 120/7 and 196/7 weeks of gestation and diagnosed to have chronic hypertension or a prior history of preeclampsia were randomized to daily treatment with both vitamin C (1000 mg) and E (400 IU) or placebo.
Results
Outcome data for PROM were available for 697 of 739 patients. The rates of PROM 37/349 [10.6%] versus 19/348 [5.5%]; adjusted risk ratio [RR] 1.89 [95.42% confidence interval CI) 1.11, 3.23]; p=0.015), and PPROM (16/349 [4.6%] versus 6/348 [1.7%]; RR 2.68 [1.07, 6.71]; p=0.025) were increased in the antioxidant group.
Conclusion
Contrary to expectations, vitamins C and E supplementation in this dose combination may be associated with an increased risk of PROM and PPROM.
doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.07.011
PMCID: PMC2723730  PMID: 18928997
antioxidants; prematurity; premature rupture of the membranes; prevention; vitamin C; vitamin E
11.  Alterations in myocardial gene expression associated with experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection 
Genomics  2008;91(5):423-432.
Chagas disease, characterized by acute myocarditis and chronic cardiomyopathy, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. We sought to identify genes altered during the development of parasite-induced cardiomyopathy. Microarrays containing 27,400 sequence verified mouse cDNAs were used to analyze global gene expression changes in the myocardium of a murine model of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Changes in the gene expression were determined as the acute stage of infection developed into the chronic stage. This analysis was performed on the hearts of male CD-1 mice infected with trypomastigotes of T. cruzi (Brazil strain). At each interval we compared infected and uninfected mice and confirmed the microarray data with an oppositely labeled flip array. We identified eight district categories of mRNAs that were differentially regulated during infection and identified dysregulation of several key genes. These data may provide insight into the pathogenesis of Chagasic cardiomyopathy and provide new targets for intervention.
doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.01.008
PMCID: PMC2386515  PMID: 18343633
Gene array analysis; Infection/ inflammation; Cardiomyopathy; Chagas disease; Trypanosoma cruzi; cyclins; Fas

Results 1-12 (12)