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1.  Intestinal barrier: A gentlemen’s agreement between microbiota and immunity 
Our body is colonized by more than a hundred trillion commensals, represented by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This complex interaction has shown that the microbiome system contributes to the host’s adaptation to its environment, providing genes and functionality that give flexibility of diet and modulate the immune system in order not to reject these symbionts. In the intestine, specifically, the microbiota helps developing organ structures, participates of the metabolism of nutrients and induces immunity. Certain components of the microbiota have been shown to trigger inflammatory responses, whereas others, anti-inflammatory responses. The diversity and the composition of the microbiota, thus, play a key role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and explain partially the link between intestinal microbiota changes and gut-related disorders in humans. Tight junction proteins are key molecules for determination of the paracellular permeability. In the context of intestinal inflammatory diseases, the intestinal barrier is compromised, and decreased expression and differential distribution of tight junction proteins is observed. It is still unclear what is the nature of the luminal or mucosal factors that affect the tight junction proteins function, but the modulation of the immune cells found in the intestinal lamina propria is hypothesized as having a role in this modulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interaction of the gut microbiota with the immune system in the development and maintenance of the intestinal barrier.
doi:10.4291/wjgp.v5.i1.18
PMCID: PMC4024517  PMID: 24891972
Microbiota; Immune system; Lamina propria; Intestinal barrier
2.  Obesity in kidney disease: A heavyweight opponent 
World Journal of Nephrology  2014;3(3):50-63.
Obesity is an important worldwide challenge that must be faced in most developed and developing countries because of unhealthy nutritional habits. The consequences of obesity and being overweight are observed in different organs, but the kidney is one of the most affected. Excess adipose tissue causes hemodynamic alterations in the kidney that can result in renal disease. However, obesity is also commonly associated with other comorbidities such as chronic inflammation, hypertension and diabetes. This association of several aggravating factors is still a matter of concern in clinical and basic research because the pathophysiologic mechanisms surrounding chronic kidney disease development in obese patients remain unclear. This review will discuss the consequences of obesity in the context of renal injury.
doi:10.5527/wjn.v3.i3.50
PMCID: PMC4202492  PMID: 25332896
Overweight; Obesity; Kidney disease; Renin-angiotensin system; Diabetes
3.  Kinin B2 receptor does not exert renoprotective effects on mice with glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis 
World Journal of Nephrology  2014;3(3):85-91.
AIM: To investigate a potential protective role of the kinin B2 receptor in a glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis mouse model.
METHODS: We separated 28 C57Bl/6 male mice into 4 groups: untreated WT animals, untreated B2 knockout mice, glycerol-treated WT and glycerol-treated B2 knockout mice. Glycerol-treated animals received one intramuscular injections of glycerol solution (50% v/v, 7 mL/kg). After 48 h, urine and blood samples were collected to measure creatinine and urea levels. Additionally, kidney samples were extracted for histological evaluation, and the mRNA expression levels of kinin B1 and B2 receptors and inflammatory mediators were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Serum creatinine and urea levels showed differences between untreated wild-type and glycerol-treated wild-type mice (0.66 ± 0.04 vs 2.61 ± 0.53 mg/dL, P < 0.01; and 33.51 ± 2.08 vs 330.2 ± 77.7 mg/dL, P < 0.005), and between untreated B2 knockout mice and glycerol-treated knockout mice (0.56 ± 0.03 vs 2.23 ± 0.87 mg/dL, P < 0.05; and 42.49 ± 3.2 vs 327.2 ± 58.4 mg/dL, P < 0.01), but there was no difference between the glycerol-treated wild-type and glycerol-treated knockout mice. Glycerol was able to induce a striking increase in kinin B2 receptor expression (> 30 times, 31.34 ± 8.9) in kidney. Animals injected with glycerol had a higher degree of tubular injury than untreated animals. Wild-type and knockout mice treated with glycerol intramuscularly present kidney injury, with impairment in renal function. However, B2 knockout mice treated with glycerol did not show a different phenotype regarding kidney injury markers, when compared to the wild-type glycerol-treated group.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that the kinin B2 receptor does not have a protective role in renal injury.
doi:10.5527/wjn.v3.i3.85
PMCID: PMC4202495  PMID: 25332899
Kinins; acute kidney injury; Animal models; Rhabdomyolysis; Skeletal muscle
4.  Cytoprotective role of heme oxygenase-1 and heme degradation derived end products in liver injury 
World Journal of Hepatology  2013;5(10):541-549.
The activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) appears to be an endogenous defensive mechanism used by cells to reduce inflammation and tissue damage in a number of injury models. HO-1, a stress-responsive enzyme that catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and iron, has previously been shown to protect grafts from ischemia/reperfusion and rejection. In addition, the products of the HO-catalyzed reaction, particularly CO and biliverdin/bilirubin, have been shown to exert protective effects in the liver against a number of stimuli, as in chronic hepatitis C and in transplanted liver grafts. Furthermore, the induction of HO-1 expression can protect the liver against damage caused by a number of chemical compounds. More specifically, the CO derived from HO-1-mediated heme catabolism has been shown to be involved in the regulation of inflammation; furthermore, administration of low concentrations of exogenous CO has a protective effect against inflammation. Both murine and human HO-1 deficiencies have systemic manifestations associated with iron metabolism, such as hepatic overload (with signs of a chronic hepatitis) and iron deficiency anemia (with paradoxical increased levels of ferritin). Hypoxia induces HO-1 expression in multiple rodent, bovine and monkey cell lines, but interestingly, hypoxia represses expression of the human HO-1 gene in a variety of human cell types (endothelial cells, epithelial cells, T cells). These data suggest that HO-1 and CO are promising novel therapeutic molecules for patients with inflammatory diseases. In this review, we present what is currently known regarding the role of HO-1 in liver injuries and in particular, we focus on the implications of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against chemically induced injury.
doi:10.4254/wjh.v5.i10.541
PMCID: PMC3812456  PMID: 24179613
Heme oxygenases; Bilirubin; Hepatitis C; Kupffer cells; Polymorphisms; Immunoregulatory; Hypoxia; Liver ischemia
5.  Cytoprotection behind heme oxygenase-1 in renal diseases 
World Journal of Nephrology  2012;1(1):4-11.
Renal insults are considered a public health problem and are linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The heme oxygenase (HO) system consists of evolutionary specialized machinery that degrades free heme and produces carbon monoxide, biliverdin and free iron. In this sense, the inducible isoform HO-1 seems to develop an important role and is widely studied. The reaction involved with the HO-1 molecule provides protection to injured tissue, directly by reducing the toxic heme molecule and indirectly by the release of its byproducts. The up regulation of HO-1 enzyme has largely been described as providing antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Several works have explored the importance of HO-1 in renal diseases and they have provided consistent evidence that its overexpression has beneficial effects in such injuries. So, in this review we will focus on the role of HO-1 in kidney insults, exploring the protective effects of its up regulation and the enhanced deleterious effects of its inhibition or gene deletion.
doi:10.5527/wjn.v1.i1.4
PMCID: PMC3782207  PMID: 24175236
Heme oxigenase-1; Renal cytoprotection; Antioxidants; Anti-inflammatory; Renal diseases
6.  Immune regulatory properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: Where do we stand? 
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) can be isolated and efficiently expanded from almost every single body tissue and have the ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various mesodermal cell lineages. Moreover, these cells are considered immunologically privileged, related to a lack of surface expression of costimulatory molecules required for complete T cell activation. Recently, it has been observed that MSC are capable of suppressing the immune response by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells and suppressing the function of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as a new strategy for immunosuppression. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms by MSC is necessary for their use as immunotherapy in clinical applications for several diseases.
doi:10.4252/wjsc.v3.i1.1
PMCID: PMC3097934  PMID: 21607131
Immunosuppression; Mesenchymal stem cell; Immune system; Inflammation; Autoimmune disease
7.  Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHEDs) Induce Immune Modulatory Profile in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e98050.
Background
Mesenchymal stem cells have prominent immune modulatory properties, which may have clinical applications; however their major source, bone marrow, is of limited availability. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are readily accessible, but their immune regulatory properties have not been completely investigated. This study was designed, therefore, to evaluate the SHEDs influence on DCs differentiation, maturation, ability to activate T cells and to expand CD4+Foxp3+ T cells.
Methodology/Principal Findings
The experiments were based in cellular co-culture during differentiation and maturation of monocyte derived-DCs (moDCs), with, or not, presence of SHEDs. After co-culture with SHEDs, (moDCs) presented lower expression of BDCA-1 and CD11c, in comparison to DC cultivated without SHEDs. CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 levels were also decreased in mature DCs (mDCs) after co-cultivation with SHEDs. To assess the ability of SHEDs-exposed moDCs to modulate T cell responses, the former were separated from SHEDs, and co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes. After 5 days, the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was evaluated and found to be lower than that induced by moDCs cultivated without SHEDs. In addition, an increase in the proportion of CD4+Foxp3+IL-10+ T cells was observed among cells stimulated by mature moDCs that were previously cultivated with SHEDs. Soluble factors released during co-cultures also showed a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ), and an increase in the anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10.
Conclusion/Significance
This study shows that SHEDs induce an immune regulatory phenotype in moDCs cells, evidenced by changes in maturation and differentiation rates, inhibition of lymphocyte stimulation and ability to expand CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. Further characterization and validation of this phenomenon could support the use of SHEDs, directly or indirectly for immune modulation in the clinical practice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098050
PMCID: PMC4028272  PMID: 24846008
8.  Endotoxin Exposure during Sensitization to Blomia tropicalis Allergens Shifts TH2 Immunity Towards a TH17-Mediated Airway Neutrophilic Inflammation: Role of TLR4 and TLR2 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e67115.
Experimental evidence and epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (eLPS) or other TLR agonists prevent asthma. We have previously shown in the OVA-model of asthma that eLPS administration during alum-based allergen sensitization blocked the development of lung TH2 immune responses via MyD88 pathway and IL-12/IFN-γ axis. In the present work we determined the effect of eLPS exposure during sensitization to a natural airborne allergen extract derived from the house dust mite Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Mice were subcutaneously sensitized with Bt allergens co-adsorbed onto alum with or without eLPS and challenged twice intranasally with Bt. Cellular and molecular parameters of allergic lung inflammation were evaluated 24 h after the last Bt challenge. Exposure to eLPS but not to ultrapure LPS (upLPS) preparation during sensitization to Bt allergens decreased the influx of eosinophils and increased the influx of neutrophils to the airways. Inhibition of airway eosinophilia was not observed in IFN-γdeficient mice while airway neutrophilia was not observed in IL-17RA-deficient mice as well in mice lacking MyD88, CD14, TLR4 and, surprisingly, TLR2 molecules. Notably, exposure to a synthetic TLR2 agonist (PamCSK4) also induced airway neutrophilia that was dependent on TLR2 and TLR4 molecules. In the OVA model, exposure to eLPS or PamCSK4 suppressed OVA-induced airway inflammation. Our results suggest that B. tropicalis allergens engage TLR4 that potentiates TLR2 signaling. This dual TLR activation during sensitization results in airway neutrophilic inflammation associated with increased frequency of lung TH17 cells. Our work highlight the complex interplay between bacterial products, house dust mite allergens and TLR signaling in the induction of different phenotypes of airway inflammation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067115
PMCID: PMC3689683  PMID: 23805294
9.  MyD88 Signaling Is Directly Involved in the Development of Murine Placental Malaria 
Infection and Immunity  2014;82(2):830-838.
Malaria is a widespread infectious disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium. During pregnancy, malaria infection leads to a range of complications that can affect both the mother and fetus, including stillbirth, infant mortality, and low birth weight. In this study, we utilized a mouse model of placental malaria (PM) infection to determine the importance of the protein MyD88 in the host immune response to Plasmodium during pregnancy. Initially, we demonstrated that Plasmodium berghei NK65GFP adhered to placental tissue via chondroitin sulfate A and induced PM in mice with a C57BL/6 genetic background. To evaluate the involvement of MyD88 in the pathology of PM, we performed a histopathological analysis of placentas obtained from MyD88−/− and wild-type (WT) mice following infection on the 19th gestational day. Our data demonstrated that the detrimental placental alterations observed in the infected mice were correlated with the expression of MyD88. Moreover, in the absence of this protein, production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly reduced in the infected mice. More importantly, in contrast to fetuses from infected WT mice, which exhibited a reduction in body weight, the fetuses from infected MyD88−/− mice did not display significant weight loss compared to their noninfected littermates. In addition, we observed a decrement of maternal care associated with malaria infection, which was attenuated in the MyD88-deficient mice. Collectively, the results of this study illustrate the pivotal importance of the MyD88 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of placental malaria, thus presenting new possibilities for targeting MyD88 in therapeutic interventions.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01288-13
PMCID: PMC3911391  PMID: 24478096
10.  Macrophage Trafficking as Key Mediator of Adenine-Induced Kidney Injury 
Mediators of Inflammation  2014;2014:291024.
Macrophages play a special role in the onset of several diseases, including acute and chronic kidney injuries. In this sense, tubule interstitial nephritis (TIN) represents an underestimated insult, which can be triggered by different stimuli and, in the absence of a proper regulation, can lead to fibrosis deposition. Based on this perception, we evaluated the participation of macrophage recruitment in the development of TIN. Initially, we provided adenine-enriched food to WT and searched for macrophage presence and action in the kidney. Also, a group of animals were depleted of macrophages with the clodronate liposome while receiving adenine-enriched diet. We collected blood and renal tissue from these animals and renal function, inflammation, and fibrosis were evaluated. We observed higher expression of chemokines in the kidneys of adenine-fed mice and a substantial protection when macrophages were depleted. Then, we specifically investigated the role of some key chemokines, CCR5 and CCL3, in this TIN experimental model. Interestingly, CCR5 KO and CCL3 KO animals showed less renal dysfunction and a decreased proinflammatory profile. Furthermore, in those animals, there was less profibrotic signaling. In conclusion, we can suggest that macrophage infiltration is important for the onset of renal injury in the adenine-induced TIN.
doi:10.1155/2014/291024
PMCID: PMC4124723  PMID: 25132730
11.  Balance between the two kinin receptors in the progression of experimental focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in mice 
Disease Models & Mechanisms  2014;7(6):701-710.
Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most important renal diseases related to end-stage renal failure. Bradykinin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation, whereas the role of its receptor 2 (B2RBK; also known as BDKRB2) in FSGS has not been studied. FSGS was induced in wild-type and B2RBK-knockout mice by a single intravenous injection of Adriamycin (ADM). In order to further modulate the kinin receptors, the animals were also treated with the B2RBK antagonist HOE-140 and the B1RBK antagonist DALBK. Here, we show that the blockage of B2RBK with HOE-140 protects mice from the development of FSGS, including podocyte foot process effacement and the re-establishment of slit-diaphragm-related proteins. However, B2RBK-knockout mice were not protected from FSGS. These opposite results were due to B1RBK expression. B1RBK was upregulated after the injection of ADM and this upregulation was exacerbated in B2RBK-knockout animals. Furthermore, treatment with HOE-140 downregulated the B1RBK receptor. The blockage of B1RBK in B2RBK-knockout animals promoted FSGS regression, with a less-inflammatory phenotype. These results indicate a deleterious role of both kinin receptors in an FSGS model and suggest a possible cross-talk between them in the progression of disease.
doi:10.1242/dmm.014548
PMCID: PMC4036477  PMID: 24742784
Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis; Bradykinin receptors; Inflammation; Podocyte; Fibrosis
12.  Low-Level Laser Therapy Decreases Renal Interstitial Fibrosis 
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery  2012;30(12):705-713.
Abstract
Objective: the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Background data: Regardless of the etiology, CKD involves progressive widespread tissue fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and loss of kidney function. This process also occurs in kidney allograft. At present, effective therapies for this condition are lacking. We investigated the effects of LLLT on the interstitial fibrosis that occurs after experimental UUO in rats. Methods: The occluded kidney of half of the 32 Wistar rats that underwent UUO received a single intraoperative dose of LLLT (AlGaAs laser, 780 nm, 22.5 J/cm2, 30 mW, 0.75 W/cm2, 30 sec on each of nine points). After 14 days, renal fibrosis was assessed by Sirius red staining under polarized light. Immunohistochemical analyses quantitated the renal tissue cells that expressed fibroblast (FSP-1) and myofibroblast (α-SMA) markers. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and Smad3. Results: The UUO and LLLT animals had less fibrosis than the UUO animals, as well having decreased expression inflammatory and pro-fibrotic markers. Conclusions: For the first time, we showed that LLLT had a protective effect regarding renal interstitial fibrosis. It is conceivable that by attenuating inflammation, LLLT can prevent tubular activation and transdifferentiation, which are the two processes that mainly drive the renal fibrosis of the UUO model.
doi:10.1089/pho.2012.3272
PMCID: PMC3505828  PMID: 23134313
13.  Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Increase Skin Allograft Survival and Inhibit Th-17 Immune Response 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76396.
Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) exhibit immunosuppressive capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Their use for therapy in the transplant field is attractive as they could render the use of immunosuppressive drugs unnecessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSC therapy on prolonging skin allograft survival. Animals that were treated with a single injection of donor allogeneic ADSC one day after transplantation showed an increase in donor skin graft survival by approximately one week. This improvement was associated with preserved histological morphology, an expansion of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in draining lymph nodes, as well as heightened IL-10 expression and down-regulated IL-17 expression. In vitro, ADSC inhibit naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation and constrain Th-1 and Th-17 polarization. In summary, infusion of ADSC one day post-transplantation dramatically increases skin allograft survival by inhibiting the Th-17 pathogenic immune response and enhancing the protective Treg immune response. Finally, these data suggest that ADSC therapy will open new opportunities for promoting drug-free allograft survival in clinical transplantation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076396
PMCID: PMC3790669  PMID: 24124557
14.  Transcriptome Analysis of Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Its Modulation by Ischemic Pre-Conditioning or Hemin Treatment 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49569.
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute renal failure. The definition of the molecular mechanisms involved in renal IRI and counter protection promoted by ischemic pre-conditioning (IPC) or Hemin treatment is an important milestone that needs to be accomplished in this research area. We examined, through an oligonucleotide microarray protocol, the renal differential transcriptome profiles of mice submitted to IRI, IPC and Hemin treatment. After identifying the profiles of differentially expressed genes observed for each comparison, we carried out functional enrichment analysis to reveal transcripts putatively involved in potential relevant biological processes and signaling pathways. The most relevant processes found in these comparisons were stress, apoptosis, cell differentiation, angiogenesis, focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, ion transport, angiogenesis, mitosis and cell cycle, inflammatory response, olfactory transduction and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. In addition, the most important overrepresented pathways were MAPK, ErbB, JAK/STAT, Toll and Nod like receptors, Angiotensin II, Arachidonic acid metabolism, Wnt and coagulation cascade. Also, new insights were gained about the underlying protection mechanisms against renal IRI promoted by IPC and Hemin treatment. Venn diagram analysis allowed us to uncover common and exclusively differentially expressed genes between these two protective maneuvers, underscoring potential common and exclusive biological functions regulated in each case. In summary, IPC exclusively regulated the expression of genes belonging to stress, protein modification and apoptosis, highlighting the role of IPC in controlling exacerbated stress response. Treatment with the Hmox1 inducer Hemin, in turn, exclusively regulated the expression of genes associated with cell differentiation, metabolic pathways, cell cycle, mitosis, development, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and arachidonic acid metabolism, suggesting a pleiotropic effect for Hemin. These findings improve the biological understanding of how the kidney behaves after IRI. They also illustrate some possible underlying molecular mechanisms involved in kidney protection observed with IPC or Hemin treatment maneuvers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049569
PMCID: PMC3498198  PMID: 23166714
15.  Oxidative Stress and Modification of Renal Vascular Permeability Are Associated with Acute Kidney Injury during P. berghei ANKA Infection 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e44004.
Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044004
PMCID: PMC3432099  PMID: 22952850
16.  TLR2, TLR4 and the MYD88 Signaling Pathway Are Crucial for Neutrophil Migration in Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Sepsis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37584.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in sepsis-induced AKI. C57BL/6 TLR2−/−, TLR4−/− and MyD88−/− male mice were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Twenty four hours later, kidney tissue and blood samples were collected for analysis. The TLR2−/−, TLR4−/− and MyD88−/− mice that were subjected to CLP had preserved renal morphology, and fewer areas of hypoxia and apoptosis compared with the wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT). MyD88−/− mice were completely protected compared with the WT mice. We also observed reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the kidneys of the knockout mice compared with those of the WT mice and subsequent inhibition of increased vascular permeability in the kidneys of the knockout mice. The WT mice had increased GR1+low cells migration compared with the knockout mice and decreased in GR1+high cells migration into the peritoneal cavity. The TLR2−/−, TLR4−/−, and MyD88−/− mice had lower neutrophil infiltration in the kidneys. Depletion of neutrophils in the WT mice led to protection of renal function and less inflammation in the kidneys of these mice. Innate immunity participates in polymicrobial sepsis-induced AKI, mainly through the MyD88 pathway, by leading to an increased migration of neutrophils to the kidney, increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, vascular permeability, hypoxia and apoptosis of tubular cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037584
PMCID: PMC3360043  PMID: 22655058
17.  The Spleen CD4+ T Cell Response to Blood-Stage Plasmodium chabaudi Malaria Develops in Two Phases Characterized by Different Properties 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e22434.
The pivotal role of spleen CD4+ T cells in the development of both malaria pathogenesis and protective immunity makes necessary a profound comprehension of the mechanisms involved in their activation and regulation during Plasmodium infection. Herein, we examined in detail the behaviour of non-conventional and conventional splenic CD4+ T cells during P. chabaudi malaria. We took advantage of the fact that a great proportion of CD4+ T cells generated in CD1d-/- mice are I-Ab-restricted (conventional cells), while their counterparts in I-Ab-/- mice are restricted by CD1d and other class IB major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (non-conventional cells). We found that conventional CD4+ T cells are the main protagonists of the immune response to infection, which develops in two consecutive phases concomitant with acute and chronic parasitaemias. The early phase of the conventional CD4+ T cell response is intense and short lasting, rapidly providing large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and helping follicular and marginal zone B cells to secrete polyclonal immunoglobulin. Both TNF-α and IFN-γ production depend mostly on conventional CD4+ T cells. IFN-γ is produced simultaneously by non-conventional and conventional CD4+ T cells. The early phase of the response finishes after a week of infection, with the elimination of a large proportion of CD4+ T cells, which then gives opportunity to the development of acquired immunity. Unexpectedly, the major contribution of CD1d-restricted CD4+ T cells occurs at the beginning of the second phase of the response, but not earlier, helping both IFN-γ and parasite-specific antibody production. We concluded that conventional CD4+ T cells have a central role from the onset of P. chabaudi malaria, acting in parallel with non-conventional CD4+ T cells as a link between innate and acquired immunity. This study contributes to the understanding of malaria immunology and opens a perspective for future studies designed to decipher the molecular mechanisms behind immune responses to Plasmodium infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022434
PMCID: PMC3141041  PMID: 21814579

Results 1-17 (17)