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1.  Persistent inflammation and T cell exhaustion in severe sepsis in the elderly 
Critical Care  2014;18(3):R130.
Introduction
Sepsis is known as a complex immunological response with hyperinflammation in the acute phase followed by immunosuppression. Although aging is crucial in sepsis, the impact of aging on inflammation and immunosuppression is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between inflammation and immunosuppression in aged patients and mice after sepsis.
Methods
Fifty-five patients with severe sepsis and 30 healthy donors were prospectively enrolled, and 90-day survival was compared between elderly (≥65 years) and adult (18–64 years) septic patients with serial measurement of serum interleukin (IL)-6. Within 24 h after diagnosis of severe sepsis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated ex vivo to measure expression of the activation maker CD25 in T cells, IL-2 levels in the supernatant, and proliferation. In the mouse study, young (6–8 weeks) and aged (20–22 months) C57/B6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and survival was compared after 7 days with serial measurement of serum IL-6. Expression of the negative co-stimulatory molecules, CD25, and IL-2 in CD4+ T cells was measured.
Results
The survival rate in elderly sepsis patients and aged septic mice was significantly lower than that in adult patients and young septic mice (60% vs. 93% in septic patients, 0% vs. 63% in septic mice, P < 0.05). Serum IL-6 levels in elderly sepsis patients and aged septic mice were persistently higher than those in adult patients and young septic mice. Expression of negative co-stimulatory molecules in CD4+ T cells in the spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood was significantly higher in aged mice than in young mice (P < 0.01). Ex vivo stimulation decreased CD25 expression, IL-2 production, and proliferation to a greater extent in CD4+ T cells from elderly patients and aged septic mice than in those from adult patients and young septic mice. Elderly patients demonstrated increased detection of gram-negative bacteria at days 14–16 and 28–32 after sepsis (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Persistent inflammation and T cell exhaustion may be associated with decreased survival in elderly patients and mice after sepsis.
doi:10.1186/cc13941
PMCID: PMC4230031  PMID: 24962182
2.  Pronuclear injection-based mouse targeted transgenesis for reproducible and highly efficient transgene expression 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;38(22):e198.
Mouse transgenesis has proven invaluable for analysis of gene function and generation of human disease models. We describe here the development of a pronuclear injection-based targeted transgenesis (PITT) system, involving site-specific integration in fertilized eggs. The system was applied to two different genomic target loci to generate a series of transgenic lines including fluorescent mice, which reproducibly displayed strong, ubiquitous and stable transgene expression. We also demonstrated that knockdown mice could be readily generated by PITT by taking advantage of the reproducible and highly efficient expression system. The PITT system, which circumvents the problem of unpredictable and unstable transgene expression of conventional random-integration transgenic mice, reduces the time, cost and effort needed to generate transgenic mice, and is potentially applicable to both in vivo ‘gain-of-function’ and ‘loss-of-function’ studies.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq860
PMCID: PMC3001095  PMID: 20880997
3.  Distinct Role of Antigen-Specific T Helper Type 1 (Th1) and Th2 Cells in Tumor Eradication in Vivo 
The role of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells in tumor immunity was investigated using Th cells induced from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor transgenic mice. Although Th1 cells exhibited stronger cytotoxicity than Th2 cells, both cell types completely eradicated tumors when transferred into mice bearing A20 tumor cells transfected with the OVA gene (A20-OVA). Th1 cells eradicated the tumor mass by inducing cellular immunity, whereas Th2 cells destroyed the tumor by inducing tumor necrosis. Both Th1 and Th2 cells required CD8+ T cells to eliminate tumors, and neither of these cells were able to completely eliminate A20-OVA tumors from T and B cell–deficient RAG2−/− mice. Mice cured from tumors by Th1 and Th2 cell therapy rejected A20-OVA upon rechallenge, but CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes were induced only from spleen cells prepared from cured mice by Th1 cell therapy. Moreover, we demonstrated that Th1 and Th2 cells used distinct adhesion mechanisms during tumor eradication: the leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1–dependent cell–cell adhesion step was essential for Th1 cell therapy, but not for Th2 cell therapy. These findings demonstrated for the first time the distinct role of antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells during eradication of established tumors in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2195611  PMID: 10477547
Th1; Th2; tumor; adoptive immunotherapy; cytokine

Results 1-3 (3)