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1.  Hostile, Hypoxia-A2-Adenosinergic Tumor Biology as the Next Barrier to the Tumor Immunologists 
Cancer immunology research  2014;2(7):598-605.
The hypoxia-driven and A2A or A2B adenosine receptors (A2AR/A2BR)-mediated (“Hypoxia-A2-Adenosinergic”) and T cell autonomous immunosuppression was first recognized as critical and non-redundant in protection of normal tissues from inflammatory damage and autoimmunity. However, this immunosuppressive mechanism is high-jacked by bacteria and tumors to misguidedly protect pathogens and cancerous tissues. The inhibitors of Hypoxia-A2-Adenosinergic pathway represent the conceptually novel type of immunological co-adjuvants to be combined with cancer vaccines, adoptive cell transfer and/or blockade of immunological negative regulators in order to further prolong survival and minimize side effects. In support of this approach are preclinical studies and findings that some human cancers are resistant to chemotherapies and immunotherapies due to the tumor-generated extracellular adenosine and intracellular cAMP-elevating A2AR and A2BR on anti-tumor T and NK cells. Among co-adjuvants are i) antagonists of A2AR/A2BR; ii) extracellular adenosine-degrading drugs; iii) inhibitors of adenosine generation by CD39/CD73 ecto-enzymes and iv) inhibitors of the hypoxia-HIF-1 alpha signaling. It is emphasized that even after the multi-combinatorial blockade of immunological negative regulators the anti-tumor T and NK cells would be still vulnerable to inhibition by hypoxia and A2AR and A2BR. The advantage of combining these co-adjuvants with the blockade of the CTLA4-A and/or PD-1 is in expectations of additive or even synergistic effects of targeting both immunological and physiological tumor-protecting mechanisms. Yet to be tested is the potential capacity of co-adjuvants to minimize the side effects of blockade of CTLA-4 and/or PD1 by decreasing the dose of blocking antibodies or by eliminating the need in dual blockade.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0075
PMCID: PMC4331061  PMID: 24990240
2.  Genetic deletion of the alternative isoform I.1 of HIF-1α in T cells enhances anti-bacterial immune response and improves survival in the model of bacterial peritonitis in mice 
European journal of immunology  2013;43(3):655-666.
Summary
Hypoxia-adenosinergic suppression and re-direction of the immune response has been implicated in the regulation of anti-pathogen and anti-tumor immunity, with Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) playing a major role. In this study, we investigated the role of isoform I.1, a quantitatively minor alternative isoform of HIF-1α, in anti-bacterial immunity and sepsis survival. By using the cecal ligation and puncture model of bacterial peritonitis we studied the function of I.1 isoform in T cells using mice with total I.1-isoform deficiency and mice with T cell-targeted I.1 knockdown. We found that genetic deletion of the I.1 isoform resulted in enhanced resistance to septic lethality, significantly reduced bacterial load in peripheral blood, increased M1 macrophage polarization, augmented levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum, and significantly decreased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Our data suggest an immunosuppressive role of the I.1 isoform in T cells during bacterial sepsis that was previously unrecognized. We interpret these data as indicative that activation-inducible isoform I.1 hinders the contribution of T cells to the anti-bacterial response by affecting M1/M2 macrophage polarization and microbicidal function.
doi:10.1002/eji.201242765
PMCID: PMC3757952  PMID: 23208786
Animal models; Hypoxia-inducible Factor; Sepsis; T lymphocytes
3.  Targeted Deletion of HIF-1α Gene in T Cells Prevents their Inhibition in Hypoxic Inflamed Tissues and Improves Septic Mice Survival 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(9):e853.
Background
Sepsis patients may die either from an overwhelming systemic immune response and/or from an immunoparalysis-associated lack of anti-bacterial immune defence. We hypothesized that bacterial superantigen-activated T cells may be prevented from contribution into anti-bacterial response due to the inhibition of their effector functions by the hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α) in inflamed and hypoxic areas.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Using the Cre-lox-P-system we generated mice with a T–cell targeted deletion of the HIF-1α gene and analysed them in an in vivo model of bacterial sepsis. We show that deletion of the HIF-1α gene leads to higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, stronger anti-bacterial effects and much better survival of mice. These effects can be at least partially explained by significantly increased NF-κB activation in TCR activated HIF-1 α deficient T cells.
Conclusions/Significance
T cells can be recruited to powerfully contribute to anti-bacterial response if they are relieved from inhibition by HIF-1α in inflamed and hypoxic areas. Our experiments uncovered the before unappreciated reserve of anti-bacterial capacity of T cells and suggest novel therapeutic anti-pathogen strategies based on targeted deletion or inhibition of HIF-1 α in T cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000853
PMCID: PMC1959117  PMID: 17786224
4.  Oxygenation Inhibits the Physiological Tissue-Protecting Mechanism and Thereby Exacerbates Acute Inflammatory Lung Injury 
PLoS Biology  2005;3(6):e174.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) usually requires symptomatic supportive therapy by intubation and mechanical ventilation with the supplemental use of high oxygen concentrations. Although oxygen therapy represents a life-saving measure, the recent discovery of a critical tissue-protecting mechanism predicts that administration of oxygen to ARDS patients with uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation also may have dangerous side effects. Oxygenation may weaken the local tissue hypoxia-driven and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanism and thereby further exacerbate lung injury. Here we report experiments with wild-type and adenosine A2AR-deficient mice that confirm the predicted effects of oxygen. These results also suggest the possibility of iatrogenic exacerbation of acute lung injury upon oxygen administration due to the oxygenation-associated elimination of A2AR-mediated lung tissue-protecting pathway. We show that this potential complication of clinically widely used oxygenation procedures could be completely prevented by intratracheal injection of a selective A2AR agonist to compensate for the oxygenation-related loss of the lung tissue-protecting endogenous adenosine. The identification of a major iatrogenic complication of oxygen therapy in conditions of acute lung inflammation attracts attention to the need for clinical and epidemiological studies of ARDS patients who require oxygen therapy. It is proposed that oxygen therapy in patients with ARDS and other causes of lung inflammation should be combined with anti-inflammatory measures, e.g., with inhalative application of A2AR agonists. The reported observations may also answer the long-standing question as to why the lungs are the most susceptible to inflammatory injury and why lung failure usually precedes multiple organ failure.
A mouse model suggests that oxygen therapy may exacerbate lung injury by weakening the anti-inflammatory mechanisms driven by hypoxia.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030174
PMCID: PMC1088279  PMID: 15857155

Results 1-4 (4)