The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent population of migratory cells unique to the vertebrate embryo, contributing to the development of multiple organ systems. Transcription factors pax3 and zic1 are among the earliest genes activated in NC progenitors, and they are both necessary and sufficient to promote NC fate. In order to further characterize the function of these transcription factors during NC development we have used hormone inducible fusion proteins in a Xenopus animal cap assay, and DNA microarray to identify downstream targets of Pax3 and Zic1. Here we present the results of this screen and the initial validation of these targets using quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and morpholinos-mediated knockdown. Among the targets identified we found several well-characterized NC-specific genes, including snail2, foxd3, gbx2, twist, sox8 and sox9, which validate our approach. We also obtained several factors with no known function in Xenopus NC, which represent novel regulators of NC fate. The comprehensive characterization of Pax3 and Zic1 targets function in the NC gene regulatory network, are essential to understanding the mechanisms regulating the emergence of this important cell population.
Xenopus; Neural crest; Pax3; Zic1; Microarray; Gene regulatory network
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) physiologically expressed only by nervous system cells displays remarkable capacity to transform CD4+ T lymphocytes and other types of non-neural cells. Here we report that activity of nucleophosphmin (NPM)/ALK chimeric protein, the dominant form of ALK expressed in T-cell lymphomas (ALK+TCL), closely resembles cell activation induced by interleukin 2 (IL-2), the key cytokine supporting growth and survival of normal CD4+ T lymphocytes. Direct comparison of gene expression by ALK+TCL cells treated with an ALK inhibitor and IL-2-dependent ALK-TCL cells stimulated with the cytokine revealed a very similar, albeit inverse, gene regulation pattern. Depending on the analysis method, up to 67% of the modulated genes could be defined as modulated in common by NPM/ALK and IL-2. Based on the gene expression patterns, Jak/STAT and IL-2 signaling pathways topped the list of pathways identified as affected by both IL-2 and NPM/ALK. The expression dependence on NPM/ALK and IL-2 of the five selected genes: CD25 (IL-2Rα), Egr-1, Fosl-1, SOCS3, and Irf-4 was confirmed at the protein level. In both ALK+TCL and IL-2-stimulated ALK-TCL cells, CD25, SOCS3, and Irf-4 genes were activated predominantly by the STAT5 and STAT3 transcription factors, while transcription of Egr-1 and Fosl-1 was induced by the MEK-ERK pathway. Finally, we found that Egr-1, a protein not associated previously with either IL-2 or ALK, contributes to the cell proliferation. These findings indicate that NPM/ALK transforms the target CD4+ T lymphocytes, at least in part, by utilizing the pre-existing, IL-2-dependent signaling pathways.
The reduction of functional β cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Here, we studied metabolic functions and islet gene expression profiles of C57BL/6J mice with naturally occurring nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) deletion mutation, a widely used model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes. On high fat diet (HF), the mice developed obesity and hyperinsulinemia, while blood glucose levels were only mildly elevated indicating a substantial capacity to compensate for insulin resistance. The basal serum insulin levels were elevated in HF mice, but insulin secretion in response to glucose load was significantly blunted. Hyperinsulinemia in HF fed mice was associated with an increase in islet mass and size along with higher BrdU incorporation to β cells. The temporal profiles of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of isolated islets were comparable in HF and normal chow fed mice. Islets isolated from HF fed mice had elevated basal oxygen consumption per islet but failed to increase oxygen consumption further in response to glucose or carbonyl cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). To obtain an unbiased assessment of metabolic pathways in islets, we performed microarray analysis comparing gene expression in islets from HF to normal chow-fed mice. A few genes, for example, those genes involved in the protection against oxidative stress (hypoxia upregulated protein 1) and Pgc1α were up-regulated in HF islets. In contrast, several genes in extracellular matrix and other pathways were suppressed in HF islets. These results indicate that islets from C57BL/6J mice with NNT deletion mutation develop structural, metabolic and gene expression features consistent with compensation and decompensation in response to HF diet.
Approximately 80% of childhood cancers can now be cured but a side effect of treatment results in about one-third of the surviving boys being infertile or severely subfertile when they reach reproductive age. Currently, more than 1 in 5000 men of reproductive age who are childhood cancer survivors suffer from this serious quality of life problem. It is possible to obtain a testicular biopsy before treatment to preserve the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) of the male by cryopreservation, but the results of long-term storage of SSCs on their subsequent functional ability to generate normal offspring has not been examined in any mammalian species. Moreover, it will be necessary to increase the number of these cryopreserved SSCs to remove any contaminating malignant cells and assure regeneration of spermatogenesis.
METHODS AND RESULTS
In this report, we demonstrate that long-term cryopreservation (>14 years) of testis cells from mouse, rat, rabbit and baboon safeguards SSC viability, and that these cells can colonize the seminiferous tubules of recipient testes. Moreover, mouse and rat SSCs can be cultured and re-establish complete spermatogenesis, and fertile mouse progeny without apparent genetic or epigenetic errors were generated by the sperm produced.
These findings provide a platform for fertility preservation in prepubertal boys undergoing gonadotoxic treatments.
cryopreservation; germ cells; spermatogenesis; spermatogonial stem cells; male infertility
The purpose of this study was to investigate light damage–induced transcript changes within neurosensory retina (NSR) and isolated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Similar studies have been conducted previously, but were usually limited to the NSR and only a portion of the transcriptome. Herein most of the transcriptome, not just in the NSR but also in isolated RPE, was queried.
Mice were exposed to 10,000 lux cool white fluorescent light for 18 hours and euthanized 4 hours after photic injury. NSR and isolated RPE were collected, and RNA was isolated. DNA microarray hybridization was conducted as described in the Affymetrix GeneChip Expression Analysis Technical Manual. Microarray analysis was performed using probe intensity data derived from the Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. For the genes of interest, confirmation of gene expression was done using quantitative real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence assessed protein levels and localization.
Numerous iron regulatory genes were significantly changed in the light-exposed NSR and RPE. Several of these gene expression changes favored an iron-overloaded state. For example, the transferrin receptor was upregulated in both light-exposed NSR and RPE. Consistent with this, there was stronger transferrin receptor immunoreactivity in the light-exposed retinas. Significant changes in gene expression following light damage were also observed in oxidative stress and complement system genes.
The concept of a photooxidative stress–induced vicious cycle of increased iron uptake leading to further oxidative stress was introduced.
We investigated the response of the mouse retina to light damage. Our data suggest that following photic injury the neural retinal and retinal pigment epithelium alter expression of iron regulatory genes favoring cellular iron accumulation. Increased labile iron may cause additional oxidative stress promoting cell death.
regarding mechanisms controlling gene expression in the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) will improve our understanding of the processes regulating spermatogenesis and aid in treating problems associated with male infertility. In the present study, we explored the global gene expression profiles of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-regulated transcription factors Ets (E-twenty-six) variant gene 5 (Etv5); B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma 6, member B (Bcl6b); and POU domain, class-3 transcription factor 1 (Pou3f1).
We reasoned that these three factors may function as a core set of transcription factors, regulating genes responsible for maintaining the SSC population. Using transient siRNA oligonucleotides to individually target Etv5, Bcl6b, and Pou3f1 within mouse SSC cultures, we examined changes to the global gene expression profiles associated with these transcription factors. Only modest overlaps in the target genes regulated by the three factors were noted, but ETV5 was found to be a critical downstream regulator of GDNF signaling that mediated the expression of several known SSC self-renewal related genes, including Bcl6b and LIM homeobox 1 (Lhx1).
Notably, ETV5 was identified as a regulator of Brachyury (T) and CXC chemokine receptor, type 4 (Cxcr4), and we showed that ETV5 binding to the Brachyury (T) gene promoter region is associated with an active state of transcription.
Moreover, in vivo transplantation of SSCs following silencing of Brachyury (T) significantly reduced the number of donor cell-derived colonies formed within recipient mouse testes. These results suggest Brachyury is of biological importance and functions as part of GDNF/ETV5 signaling to promote self-renewal of mouse SSCs cultured in vitro.
Microarray profiling of ETV5-associated gene expression identified Brachyury as a novel target gene expressed in spermatogonial stem cells that is critical for self-renewal.
Brachyury; ETV5; self-renewal; spermatogonial stem cells
The development of techniques to maintain the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) in vivo and in vitro for extended periods essentially allows for the indefinite continuation of an individual germline. Recent evidence indicates that the aging of male reproductive function is due to failure of the SSC niche. SSCs are routinely cultured for 6 mo, and no apparent effect of culture over this period has been observed. To determine the effects of SSC aging, we utilized an in vitro culture system, followed by quantitative transplantation experiments. After culture for 6 mo, SSCs that had been aged in vivo for 1500 days had a slower proliferation rate than SSCs that were aged in vivo to 8 or 300 days. Examination of methylation patterns revealed no apparent difference in DNA methylation between SSCs that were aged 8, 300, or 1500 days before culture. Long-term culture periods resulted in a loss of stem cell potential without an obvious change in the visual appearance of the culture. DNA microarray analysis of in vivo- and in vitro-aged SSCs identified the differential expression of several genes important for SSC function, including B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6, member B (Bcl6b), Lim homeobox protein 1 (Lhx1), and thymus cell antigen 1, theta (Thy1). Collectively, these data indicate that, although both in vitro and in vivo aging are detrimental to SSC function, in vitro aging results in greater loss of function, potentially due to a decrease in core SSC self-renewal gene expression and an increase in germ cell differentiation gene expression.
In vivo and in vitro aging of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) results in decreased SSC function due to differential expression of genes involved in the self-renewal vs. differentiation fate decisions.
Adult stem cells; aging; germline; methylation; microarray; spermatogonial stem cell
Hypoxia is a key determinant of tumor aggressiveness, yet little is known regarding hypoxic global gene regulation in vivo. We have employed the hypoxia marker EF5 coupled with laser capture microdissection to isolate RNA from viable hypoxic and normoxic regions of 9L experimental gliomas. Through microarray analysis, we have identified several mRNAs (including the HIF targets Vegf, Glut-1 and Hsp27) with increased levels under hypoxia compared to normoxia both in vitro and in vivo. However, we also found striking differences between the global in vitro and in vivo hypoxic mRNA profiles. Intriguingly, the mRNA levels of a substantial number of immunomodulatory and DNA repair proteins including CXCL9, CD3D and RAD51 were found to be downregulated in hypoxic areas in vivo, consistent with a pro-tumorigenic role of hypoxia in solid tumors. Immunohistochemical staining verified increased HSP27 and decreased RAD51 protein levels in hypoxic vs. normoxic tumor regions. Moreover, CD8+ T cells which are recruited to tumors upon stimulation by CXCL9 and CXCL10, were largely excluded from viable hypoxic areas in vivo. This is the first study to analyze the influence of hypoxia on mRNA levels in vivo and can be readily adapted to obtain a comprehensive picture of hypoxic regulation of gene expression and its influence on biological functions in solid tumors.
mRNA; 9L rat glioma; Rad51; HSP27
Background & Aims
Klf4 (Krüppel-like factor 4; GKLF) is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator highly expressed in skin and gastrointestinal epithelia, specifically in regions of cellular differentiation. Homozygous null mice for Klf4 die shortly after birth from skin defects, precluding their analysis at later stages. The aim of this study was to analyze the function of Klf4 in keratinocyte biology and epithelial homeostasis in the adult by focusing on the squamous lined esophagus.
Using the ED-L2 promoter of Epstein-Barr virus to drive Cre, we obtained tissue specific ablation of Klf4 in the squamous epithelia of the tongue, esophagus, and forestomach.
Mice with loss of Klf4 in esophageal epithelia survived to adulthood, bypassing the early lethality. Tissue-specific Klf4 knockout mice had increased basal cell proliferation and a delay in cellular maturation; these mice developed epithelial hypertrophy and subsequent dysplasia by 6 months of age. Moreover, loss of Klf4 in vivo was associated with increased expression of the pro-proliferative Klf5, and Klf4 downregulated Klf5 both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Using gene expression profiling, we also showed decreased expression of critical late-stage differentiation factors and identified alterations of several genes important in cellular differentiation.
Klf4 is essential for squamous epithelial differentiation in vivo and interacts with Klf5 to maintain normal epithelial homeostasis.
Klf4; esophageal epithelium; differentiation; dysplasia
Based on transcriptome responses of chick retina/RPE to unilateral spectacle lens wear, plus or minus lenses induce markedly different retinal responses, with initial responses quite different from those when growth patterns are well established. The lists of altered genes identify promising signaling candidates and regulatory pathways for future study, including the hypothesis that retinal circadian and clock genes may participate in the mechanisms governing refractive development.
Because of the retina's role in refractive development, this study was conducted to analyze the retinal transcriptome in chicks wearing a spectacle lens, a well-established means of inducing refractive errors, to identify gene expression alterations and to develop novel mechanistic hypotheses about refractive development.
One-week-old white Leghorn chicks wore a unilateral spectacle lens of +15 or −15 D for 6 hours or 3 days. With total RNA from the retina/(retinal pigment epithelium, RPE), chicken gene microarrays were used to compare gene expression levels between lens-wearing and contralateral control eyes (n = 6 chicks for each condition). Normalized microarray signal intensities were evaluated by analysis of variance, using a false discovery rate of <10% as the statistical criterion. Selected differentially expressed genes were validated by qPCR.
Very few retina/RPE transcripts were differentially expressed after plus lens wear. In contrast, approximately 1300 transcripts were differentially expressed under each of the minus lens conditions, with minimal overlap. For each condition, low fold-changes typified the altered transcriptome. Differentially regulated genes under the minus lens conditions included many potentially informative signaling molecules and genes whose protein products have roles in intrinsic retinal circadian rhythms.
Plus or minus lens wear induce markedly different, not opposite, alterations in retina/RPE gene expression. The initial retinal responses to defocus are quite different from those when the eye growth patterns are well established, suggesting that different mechanisms govern the initiation and persistence or progression of refractive errors. The gene lists identify promising signaling candidates and regulatory pathways for future study, including a potential role for circadian rhythms in refractive development.
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), in particular HIF-1α, have been implicated in tumor biology. However, HIF target genes in the esophageal tumor microenvironment remain elusive. Gene expression profiling was performed upon hypoxia-exposed non-transformed immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, EPC2-hTERT, and comparing with a gene signature of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In addition to known HIF-1α target genes such as carbonic anhydrase 9, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) was identified as a novel target gene among the commonly upregulated genes in ESCC as well as the cells exposed to hypoxia. The PTGES induction was augmented upon stabilization of HIF-1α by hypoxia or cobalt chloride under normoxic conditions and suppressed by dominant-negative HIF-1α. Whereas PTGES messenger RNA (mRNA) was negatively regulated by normoxia, PTGES protein remained stable upon reoxygenation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthesis was documented in transformed human esophageal cells by ectopic expression of PTGES as well as RNA interference directed against PTGES. Moreover, hypoxia stimulated PGE2 production in a HIF-1α-dependent manner. In ESCC, PTGES was overexpressed frequently at the mRNA and protein levels. Finally, COX-2 and PTGES were colocalized in primary tumors along with HIF-1α and IGFBP3. Activation of the COX-2–PTGES axis in primary tumors was further corroborated by concomitant upregulation of interleukin-1β and downregulation of hydroxylprostaglandin dehydrogenase. Thus, PTGES is a novel HIF-1α target gene, involved in prostaglandin E biosynthesis in the esophageal tumor hypoxic microenvironment, and this has implications in diverse tumors types, especially of squamous origin.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as common baldness, is characterized by a marked decrease in hair follicle size, which could be related to the loss of hair follicle stem or progenitor cells. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed bald and non-bald scalp from AGA individuals for the presence of hair follicle stem and progenitor cells. Cells expressing cytokeratin15 (KRT15), CD200, CD34, and integrin, α6 (ITGA6) were quantitated via flow cytometry. High levels of KRT15 expression correlated with stem cell properties of small cell size and quiescence. These KRT15hi stem cells were maintained in bald scalp samples. However, CD200hiITGA6hi and CD34hi cell populations — which both possessed a progenitor phenotype, in that they localized closely to the stem cell–rich bulge area but were larger and more proliferative than the KRT15hi stem cells — were markedly diminished. In functional assays, analogous CD200hiItga6hi cells from murine hair follicles were multipotent and generated new hair follicles in skin reconstitution assays. These findings support the notion that a defect in conversion of hair follicle stem cells to progenitor cells plays a role in the pathogenesis of AGA.
The discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression via post-transcriptional repression has revealed a previously unsuspected mechanism controlling development and progenitor-cell function (reviewed in [1, 2]); however, little is known of miRNA functions in mammalian organogenesis. Processing of miRNAs and their assembly into the RNA-induced silencing (RISC) complex requires the essential multifunctional enzyme Dicer . We found that Dicer mRNA and multiple miRNAs are expressed in mouse skin, suggesting roles in skin- and hair-follicle biology. In newborn mice carrying an epidermal-specific Dicer deletion, hair follicles were stunted and hypoproliferative. Hair-shaft and inner-root-sheath differentiation was initiated, but the mutant hair follicles were misoriented and expression of the key signaling molecules Shh and Notch1 was lost by postnatal day 7. At this stage, hair-follicle dermal papillae were observed to evaginate, forming highly unusual structures within the basal epidermis. Normal hair shafts were not produced in the Dicer mutant, and the follicles lacked stem cell markers and degenerated. In contrast to decreased follicular proliferation, the epidermis became hyperproliferative. These results reveal critical roles for Dicer in the skin and implicate miRNAs in key aspects of epidermal and hair-follicle development and function.
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) provide the foundation for spermatogenesis throughout the life of a male. Because SSCs of many species can colonize the mouse testis, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is responsible for stimulating SSC self-renewal in rodents, we reasoned that molecular mechanisms of SSC self-renewal are similar across species. GDNF-regulated genes have been identified in mouse SSCs; however, downstream targets of GDNF are unknown in other species. The objective of this work was to identify GDNF-regulated genes in rat SSCs and to define the biological significance of these genes for rat SSC self-renewal. We conducted microarray analysis on cultured rat germ cells enriched for SSCs in the presence and absence of GDNF. Many GDNF-regulated genes were identified, most notably, Bcl6b and Etv5, which are important for mouse SSC self-renewal. Bcl6b was the most highly regulated gene in both the rat and mouse. Additionally, we identified three novel GDNF-regulated genes in rat SSCs: Bhlhe40, Hoxc4, and Tec. Small interfering RNA treatment for Bcl6b, Etv5, Bhlhe40, Hoxc4, and Tec resulted in a decrease in SSC number, as determined by transplantation, without a change in total cell number within the culture. These data indicate that, like in the mouse SSC, Bcl6b and Etv5 are important for rat SSC self-renewal, suggesting that these genes may be important for SSCs in all mammals. Furthermore, identification of three novel GDNF-regulated genes in the rat SSC extends our knowledge of SSC activity and broadens the foundation for understanding this process in higher species, including humans.
Bcl6b, Etv5, Bhlhb2, Hoxc4, and Tec are regulated by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and important for spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal in the rat.
adult stem cells; germline; growth factors; microarray; rat; self-renewal
Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2) was identified as a down-regulated transcript in leukemic cells undergoing growth arrest. To investigate the effects of Trib2 in hematopoietic progenitors, mice were reconstituted with hematopoietic stem cells retrovirally expressing Trib2. Trib2-transduced bone marrow cells exhibited a growth advantage ex vivo and readily established factor-dependent cell lines. In vivo, Trib2-reconstituted mice uniformly developed fatal transplantable acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In mechanistic studies, we found that Trib2 associated with and inhibited C/EBPα. Furthermore, Trib2 expression was elevated in a subset of human AML patient samples. Together, our data identify Trib2 as an oncogene that induces AML through a mechanism involving inactivation of C/EBPα.
The glomerular podocyte is a highly specialized and polarized kidney cell type that contains major processes and foot processes that extend from the cell body. Foot processes from adjacent podocytes form interdigitations with those of adjacent cells, thereby creating an essential intercellular junctional domain of the renal filtration barrier known as the slit diaphragm. Interesting parallels have been drawn between the slit diaphragm and other sites of cell-cell contact by polarized cells. Notably mutations in several genes encoding proteins localized to the foot processes can lead to proteinuria and kidney failure. Mutations in the Wilm's tumor gene (WT1) can also lead to kidney disease and one isoform of WT1, WT1(+KTS), has been proposed to regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. We originally sought to identify mRNAs associated with WT1(+KTS) through an RNA immunoprecipitation and microarray approach, hypothesizing that the proteins encoded by these mRNAs might be important for podocyte morphology and function. We identified a subset of mRNAs that were remarkably enriched for transcripts encoding actin-binding proteins and other cytoskeletal proteins including several that are localized at or near the slit diaphragm. Interestingly, these mRNAs included those of α-actinin-4 and non-muscle myosin IIA that are mutated in genetic forms of kidney disease. However, isolation of the mRNAs occurred independently of the expression of WT1, suggesting that the identified mRNAs were serendipitously co-purified on the basis of co-association in a common subcellular fraction. Mass spectroscopy revealed that other components of the actin cytoskeleton co-purified with these mRNAs, namely actin, tubulin, and elongation factor 1α. We propose that these mRNAs encode a number of proteins that comprise a highly specialized protein interactome underlying the slit diaphragm. Collectively, these gene products and their interactions may prove to be important for the structural integrity of the actin cytoskeleton in podocytes as well as other polarized cell types.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22nt RNAs that regulate target gene expression. Altered expression of miRNAs has been demonstrated in many different human cancers. Many studies using microarray technologies to characterize miRNA expression profiles have relied on fresh tissue to determine the miRNA signatures. In this study, we prepared total RNA from paired samples of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh frozen malignant melanoma, and used that in microarray experiments to compare miRNA expression profiles between FFPE and fresh tissue with corresponding mRNA expression profiles from the same tissue sources. We demonstrate that miRNA expression profile from FFPE tissues closely resembles that from fresh tissues, and the correlation is significantly better than that for mRNA profiles from FFPE and fresh tissues. These results underscore the suitability of FFPE tissues as appropriate resources for molecular expression analyses and support the notion that miRNAs are more vigorous analytes for this purpose than mRNAs.
miRNA; melanoma; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE); microarray
β-catenin signaling is required for hair follicle development, but it is unknown whether its activation is sufficient to globally program embryonic epidermis to hair follicle fate. To address this we mutated endogenous epithelial β-catenin to a dominant active form in vivo. Hair follicle placodes were expanded and induced prematurely in activated β-catenin mutant embryos, but failed to invaginate or form multilayered structures. Eventually, the entire epidermis adopted hair follicle fate, broadly expressing hair shaft keratins in place of epidermal stratification proteins. Mutant embryonic skin was precociously innervated, and displayed prenatal pigmentation, a phenomenon never observed in wild-type controls. Thus β-catenin signaling programs the epidermis towards placode and hair shaft fate at the expense of epidermal differentiation, and activates signals directing pigmentation and innervation. In transcript profiling experiments we identified elevated expression of Sp5, a direct β-catenin target and transcriptional repressor. We show that Sp5 normally localizes to hair follicle placodes and can suppress epidermal differentiation gene expression. We identified the pigmentation regulators Foxn1, Adamsts20 and Kitl, and the neural guidance genes Sema4c, Sema3c, Unc5b and Unc5c, as potential mediators of the effects of β-catenin signaling on pigmentation and innervation. Our data provide evidence for a new paradigm in which, in addition to promoting hair follicle placode and hair shaft fate, β-catenin signaling actively suppresses epidermal differentiation and directs pigmentation and nerve fiber growth. Controlled downregulation of β-catenin signaling is required for normal placode patterning within embryonic ectoderm, hair follicle downgrowth, and adoption of the full range of follicular fates.
epidermis; hair follicle; mouse embryo; β-catenin; Wnt
Cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors involved in development and circadian clock regulation. They are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes as light sensors. Long Hypocotyl in Far-Red 1 (HFR1) has been identified as a positive regulator and a possible transcription factor in both blue and far-red light signaling in plants. However, the gene targets that are regulated by HFR1 in cryptochrome 1 (cry1)-mediated blue light signaling have not been globally addressed. We examined the transcriptome profiles in a cry1- and HFR1-dependent manner in response to 1 hour of blue light. Strikingly, more than 70% of the genes induced by blue light in an HFR1-dependent manner were dependent on cry1, and vice versa. High overrepresentation of W-boxes and OCS elements were found in these genes, indicating that this strong cry1 and HFR1 co-regulation on gene expression is possibly through these two cis-elements. We also found that cry1 was required for maintaining the HFR1 protein level in blue light, and that the HFR1 protein level is strongly correlated with the global gene expression pattern. In summary, HFR1, which is fine-tuned by cry1, is crucial for regulating global gene expression in cry1-mediated early blue light signaling, especially for the function of genes containing W-boxes and OCS elements.
Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant condition whereby the normal stratified squamous esophageal epithelium undergoes a transdifferentiation program resulting in a simple columnar epithelium reminiscent of the small intestine. These changes are typically associated with the stratified squamous epithelium chronically exposed to acid and bile salts as a result of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Despite this well-defined epidemiologic association between acid reflux and Barrett's esophagus, the genetic changes that induce this transdifferentiation process in esophageal keratinocytes have remained undefined.
To begin to identify the genetic changes responsible for transdifferentiaiton in Barrett's esophagus, we performed a microarray analysis of normal esophageal, Barrett's esophagus and small intestinal biopsy specimens to identify candidate signaling pathways and transcription factors that may be involved. Through this screen we identified the Cdx1 homeodomain transcription factor and the c-myc pathway as possible candidates. Cdx1 and c-myc were then tested for their ability to induce transdifferentiation in immortalized human esophageal keratinocytes using organotypic culturing methods. Analyses of these cultures reveal that c-myc and cdx1 cooperate to induce mucin production and changes in keratin expression that are observed in the epithelium of Barrett's esophagus.
These data demonstrate the ability of Cdx1 and c-myc to initiate the earliest stages of transdifferentiation of esophageal keratinocytes toward a cell fate characteristic of Barrett's esophagus.
Evidence has implicated the retina as a principal controller of refractive development. In the present study, the retinal transcriptome was analyzed to identify alterations in gene expression and potential signaling pathways involved in form-deprivation myopia of the chick.
One-week-old white Leghorn chicks wore a unilateral image-degrading goggle for 6 hours or 3 days (n = 6 at each time). Total RNA from the retina/(retinal pigment epithelium) was used for expression profiling with chicken gene microarrays (Chicken GeneChips; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). To identify gene expression level differences between goggled and contralateral nongoggled eyes, normalized microarray signal intensities were analyzed by the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) approach. Differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in independent biological replicates.
Small changes were detected in differentially expressed genes in form-deprived eyes. In chickens that had 6 hours of goggle wear, downregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and connective tissue growth factor was validated. In those with 3 days of goggle wear, downregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2, vasoactive intestinal peptide, preopro-urotensin II–related peptide and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 was validated, and upregulation of endothelin receptor type B and interleukin-18 was validated.
Form-deprivation myopia, in its early stages, is associated with only minimal changes in retinal gene expression at the level of the transcriptome. While the list of validated genes is short, each merits further study for potential involvement in the signaling cascade mediating myopia development.
Parvin-β is a focal adhesion protein downregulated in human breast cancer cells. Loss of Parvin-β contributes to increased integrin-linked kinase activity, cell-matrix adhesion, and invasion through the extracellular matrix in vitro. The effect of ectopic Parvin-β expression on the transcriptional profile of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, which normally do not express Parvin-β, was evaluated. Particular emphasis was placed upon propagating MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in three-dimensional culture matrices. Interestingly, Parvin-β reexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells increased the mRNA expression, serine 82 phosphorylation (mediated by CDK9), and activity of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and there was a concomitant increase in lipogenic gene expression as a downstream effector of PPARγ. Importantly, Parvin-β suppressed breast cancer growth in vivo, with associated decreased proliferation. These data suggest that Parvin-β might influence breast cancer progression.
Overexpression of c-Myc and inactivation of p53 are hallmarks of human Burkitt's lymphomas. We had previously showed that transduction of murine p53-null bone marrow cells with a Myc-encoding retrovirus is sufficient for B lymphomagenesis. To address the role of Myc in tumor sustenance, we generated lymphomas induced by the Mycestrogen receptor fusion protein (MycER). Engrafted hosts were continuously treated with the ER ligand 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) to allow tumor formation. Subsequent inactivation of MycER via 4-OHT deprivation resulted in tumor stasis but only partial regression. At the cellular level, dormant neoplastic lymphocytes withdrew from mitosis and underwent further B-cell differentiation. Concomitantly, they up-regulated genes involved in lymphocyte proliferation and survival, most notably interleukin 10 receptor α (IL10Rα) and CD20, the target for antibody therapy with Rituxan. We found that overexpression of IL10Rα affords significant proliferative advantages and in 4-OHT–deprived animals correlates with eventual tumor relapse. Both dormant and relapsing tumors maintain IL10Rα expression suggesting that they might be sensitive to emerging drugs targeting the IL-10 pathway. Up-regulation of CD20 following Myc inactivation was also observed in immortalized human lymphocytes. Importantly, in this system, MycOFFCD20HIGH cells were more prone to Rituxan-induced apoptosis than MycONCD20MED. Thus, targeting Myc, while moderately effective on its own, shapes the phenotype of dormant neoplastic cells and sensitizes them to adjuvant molecular therapies.
The presumed involvement of paired box gene 5 (PAX5) in B-lymphomagenesis is based largely on the discovery of Pax5-specific translocations and somatic hypermutations in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Yet mechanistically, the contribution of Pax5 to neoplastic growth remains undeciphered. Here we used 2 Myc-induced mouse B lymphoma cell lines, Myc5-M5 and Myc5-M12, which spontaneously silence Pax5. Reconstitution of these cells with Pax5–tamoxifen receptor fusion protein (Pax5ER
TAM) increased neoplastic growth in a hormone-dependent manner. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative Pax5 in murine lymphomas and Pax5 knockdown in human lymphomas negatively affected cell expansion. Expression profiling revealed that Pax5 was required to maintain mRNA levels of several crucial components of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including CD79a, a protein with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). In contrast, expression of 2 known ITAM antagonists, CD22 and PIR-B, was suppressed. The key role of BCR/ITAM signaling in Pax5-dependent lymphomagenesis was corroborated in Syk, an ITAM-associated tyrosine kinase. Moreover, we observed consistent expression of phosphorylated BLNK, an activated BCR adaptor protein, in human B cell lymphomas. Thus, stimulation of neoplastic growth by Pax5 occurs through BCR and is sensitive to genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway.