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1.  Potential drug–drug interactions in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Lagos, Nigeria 
Background
Multi-therapy is common in HIV-infected children, and the risk for clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs) is high. We investigated the prevalence of CSDIs between antiretroviral (ARV) and co-prescribed drugs for children attending a large HIV clinic in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods
The case files of pediatric patients receiving treatment at the HIV clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-Araba, between January 2005 and December 2010 were reviewed. The ARV and co-prescribed drug pairs were evaluated for potential interactions using the Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Group website. The potential interactions were rated as A (no known interaction), B (minor/no action needed), C (moderate/monitor therapy), D (major/therapy modification), and X (contraindicated/avoid combination).
Results
Of the 310 cases reviewed, 208 (67.1%) patients were at risk of CSDIs. Artemisinin-based combination therapy was prescribed for over one-half of the patients, accounting for 40% of the CSDIs. Excluding this drug class, the prevalence of CSDIs reduced from 67.1% to 18.7% in 58 patients. Most of the CSDIs (579; 97.2%) were moderately significant and frequently involved nevirapine and fluconazole (58; 9.7%), zidovudine and fluconazole (55; 9.2%), zidovudine and rifampicin (35; 5.9%), and nevirapine and prednisolone (31; 5.2%). Age (P=0.392), sex (P=0.783), and moderate (P=0.632) or severe (P=0.755) malnutrition were not associated with risk for CSDIs.
Conclusion
There is a tendency for CSDIs between ARV and co-prescribed drugs among the group of children evaluated in this study. Measures are necessary to prevent important drug interactions and to manage those that are unavoidable.
doi:10.2147/HIV.S52266
PMCID: PMC3982970  PMID: 24741328
infection; antiretroviral drug; co-prescribed drug; prevalence; therapy monitoring; therapy modification; contraindication
2.  Herbal medicines supplied by community pharmacies in Lagos, Nigeria: pharmacists’ knowledge 
Pharmacy Practice  2013;11(4):219-227.
Background
The use of herbal medicines is on the increase globally and they are usually supplied in pharmacies as non-prescription medicines. Pharmacists are, therefore, responsible for educating and informing the consumers about rational use of herbal medicines.
Objective
To evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria with regards to the herbal medicines they supplied by their pharmacies.
Methods
Pharmacists in charge of randomly selected 140 community pharmacies from 20 Local Government Areas in Lagos were required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. We gathered information on their knowledge of the indications, adverse effects, potential drug-herb interactions and contraindications of the herbal medicines they supply in their pharmacies.
Results
Of the 140 questionnaires distributed, 103 (72.9%) participants completed the questionnaire appropriately. The majority (74; 71.8%) of the participants were males and 36-50 years (56; 54.4%). The pharmacies supplied mostly Yoyo cleanser bitters® (101; 98.5%), ginseng (97; 98.5%), Jobelyn® (91; 88.3%), Ciklavit® (68; 66.6%), gingko (66; 64.1%), herbal tea (66; 64.1%), and Aloe vera (57; 55.3%). The pharmacists self-rated their knowledge of herbal medicines mostly as fair (39%) and good (42%), but they exhibited poor knowledge with regards to the indications, contraindications and safety profiles. Seventy participants consulted reference materials such as leaflet insert in the herbal medicines (56%) and internet (20%) before supplying herbal medicines. The information most frequently sought was herb-drug interactions (85%), contraindications (75%) and adverse effects (70%).
Conclusions
Community pharmacists need to be informed about the indications and safety profiles of herbal medicines.
PMCID: PMC3869638  PMID: 24367462
Phytotherapy; Herbal Medicine; Herb-Drug Interactions; Pharmacies; Pharmacists; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Nigeria
3.  Clinically significant interactions between antiretroviral and co-prescribed drugs for HIV-infected children: profiling and comparison of two drug databases 
Background
Drug–drug interactions are an important therapeutic challenge among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Early recognition of drug–drug interactions is important, but conflicts do exist among drug compendia on drug interaction information. We aimed to evaluate the consistencies of two drug information resources with regards to the severity rating and categorization of the potential interactions between antiretroviral and co-prescribed drugs.
Methods
We reviewed the case files of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children who were receiving treatment at the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi Araba, between January 2005 and December 2010. All of the co-prescribed and antiretroviral drug pairs were screened for potential interactions using the Medscape Drug Interaction Checker and the Monthly Index of Medical Specialties Interaction Checker. Drug–drug interaction (DDI) severity and categorization were rated on a scale of A (no known interaction); B (minor/no action needed); C (moderate/monitor therapy); D (major/therapy modification); and X (contraindicated/avoid combination).
Results
A total of 280 patients were at risk of 596 potential DDIs. The databases showed discrepancies, with Medscape database identifying 504 (84.6%) and USA MIMS database identifying 302 (50.7%) potential DDIs. Simultaneous identification of DDIs by both databases occurred for only 275 (46.1%) listed interactions. Both databases have a weak correlation on the severity rating (rs = 0.45; P < 0.001). The most common DDIs identified by the databases were nevirapine and artemisinin-based combination therapy (170; 28.5%), nevirapine and fluconazole (58; 9.7%), and zidovudine and fluconazole (55; 9.2%). There were 272 (45.6%) interaction severity agreements between the databases.
Conclusion
Discrepancies occurred in DDI listings between Medscape and USA MIMS databases. Health care professionals may need to consult more than one DDI information database to ensure safe concomitant prescribing for HIV patients.
doi:10.2147/TCRM.S44205
PMCID: PMC3660128  PMID: 23700368
drug-drug interactions; severity rating; drug interaction checkers; pediatric population; category of interaction; concomitant medication
4.  Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus in Adults (LADA) and it’s characteristics in a subset of Nigerians initially managed for type 2 diabetes 
Introduction
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is an entity characterized by the presence of GAD autoantibodies. LADA is largely understudied and underreported amongst Nigerians with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). We undertook to document the Prevalence, clinical and biochemical characteristics of LADA in a subset of Nigerians who hitherto had been treated for type 2 DM.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 235 patients being managed for type 2 DM. The diagnosis of LADA was made in the presence of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) positivity in the study subjects. Thereafter persons with LADA were compared with those without LADA. Clinical parameters such as demographic data, history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications were obtained, biochemical parameters including Fasting blood glucose (FBG), C-peptide, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid parameters were compared in both groups of Study subject. Test statistics used were Student t- test and χ 2. SPSS was used for data analysis.
Results
Thirty three out of 235 of the Study subjects were GADA positive, giving a prevalence of 14%. The mean age (SD) of the subjects with LADA is 53.24(7.22) with an age range of 30–63 years. Majority (48%) of LADA subjects were in the 50–59 age category. There was no significant difference in the proportion of males and females with LADA (p = 0.3). 37% of patients with LADA were on insulin for glycaemic control. Three (3) LADA subjects had history/clinical evidence of autoimmune thyroid disease. 66% of LADA were in the overweight/obese category. LADA subjects had significant poor long term glycaemic control compared with anti-GAD negative subjects (p = 0.026). About half of LADA subjects were insulinopaenic. LADA subjects had lower levels of total cholesterol than GADA-ve subjects (p = 0.03). A higher proportion of LADA had evidence of microvascular complications of DM compared with antiGAD negative individuals.
Conclusion
The diagnosis of LADA should be entertained in overweight/obese persons from the fourth decade of life presenting with DM. Pharmacotherapy with insulin is a potential means of managing hyperglycaemia in this group of patients especially since a significant proportion are insulinopaenic. The Prevalence of LADA in our patients is comparable to what obtains in Ghanaian and Caucasian populations.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-5-23
PMCID: PMC3464687  PMID: 22894705
LADA; Prevalence; Complications; Nigerians
5.  Understanding asthma and the metabolic syndrome - a Nigerian report 
Introduction
Nigeria is a developing country that is currently witnessing an upsurge in diabetes mellitus and obesity with its antecedent consequences. There is also a fairly high prevalence of asthma affecting an estimated 10.7% of the population. There is no data presently on the possible presence of metabolic syndrome in Nigerian living with asthma. The study was conceived to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among a population of asthmatics seen in our practice. We also attempt to compare asthma severity, control and pulmonary function tests in asthmatics with metabolic syndrome and those without.
Methodology
This cross-sectional study was carried out at the asthma clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the research and ethics committee of the hospital. Written consent was obtained from the participants. Interviewer based questionnaire was used to obtain required information, anthropometric indices were recorded and clinical examinations done. Pulmonary function tests were carried out using desktop Alpha Spirometer model 6000 made by Vitalograph UK (2007). Blood pressure was measured using sphygmomanometer in mmHg. Fasting venous blood was taken for blood sugar and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the international diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
Result
One hundred and fifty eight (158) asthmatics participated in the study comprising of 63 (39.9%) males and 95(60.1%) females. The age range was 14-78 years with a mean of 46.48+/-17.00 years. The mean duration of asthma diagnosis was 13.95+/-12.14 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.1%. 17 (10.8%) had fasting blood sugar above 100 mg/dl. Abdominal obesity was present in 78 (49.5%). The mean total cholesterol was 192.63+/-40.7 mg/dl. HDL was low in 21(22%) of female and 3 (4.8%) male. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 17.7%, affecting 28 asthma patients. Asthma control was affected by the presence of metabolic syndrome. P < 0.05. The pulmonary function test was not significantly affected by presence of metabolic syndrome.
Conclusion
Metabolic syndrome prevalence is high in the population of asthma patients studied. It is therefore important to screen patient with asthma for this condition and treat to improve outcome.
doi:10.1186/1755-7682-5-20
PMCID: PMC3499319  PMID: 22726248
6.  Characterisation of left ventricular function by tissue Doppler imaging technique in newly diagnosed, untreated hypertensive subjects 
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa  2008;19(5):259-263.
Background
Hypertension results in structural and functional changes in the heart. Early detection of abnormalities of cardiac structure and function is important in the assessment and treatment of hypertensive subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the tissue Doppler echocardiographic technique in characterising diastolic and systolic functions in untreated native black African hypertensive subjects.
Materials and methods
Forty consecutive, newly diagnosed, untreated hypertensives with adequate conventional echocardiographic (2-D, M-mode, transmitral and pulmonary Doppler flow velocities) and tissue Doppler echocardiographic images were recruited into the study. The control subjects were apparently normal individuals. Each arm of the study consisted of 21 male and 19 female subjects.
Results
The two groups were comparable by age (48.6 ± 11.35 years in the hypertensives vs 48.1 ± 11.33 years in the controls; p = 0.844) and gender distribution (M/F: 21/19 in both groups). Other baseline characteristics, except for blood pressure parameters, which were predictably higher in the hypertensive subjects, were comparable between the two groups. The hypertensive subjects had a lower systolic myocardial velocity (Sm) and early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em) in comparison with the controls (p = 0.033 and p = 0.018, respectively). The late diastolic myocardial velocity (Am) was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.430).
Conclusions
Tissue Doppler echocardiography demonstrates diastolic dysfunction relatively early in native African hypertensives and may be useful for detecting subtle deterioration in systolic function.
PMCID: PMC3971618  PMID: 18997987

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