Natural pyrethrins are used to control household and agricultural pests, and it is of value to understand biosynthesis in Tanacetum cinerariifolium for enhanced production. We previously found that a blend of four green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and (E)-β-farnesene emitted by T. cinerariifolium seedlings enhanced gene expressions of certain biosynthetic enzymes in unwounded seedlings; however, the extent to which such a regulation facilitates pyrethrin biosynthesis remains unknown. Here we have investigated the effects of the blend of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on gene expressions of seven biosynthetic enzymes. VOC treatment resulted in enhanced chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS), chrysanthemic acid synthase (CAS), Tanacetum cinerariifolium GDSL lipase (TcGLIP) and acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACX1) gene expressions that reached a peak at a 12 h VOC treatment, whereas the treatment minimally influenced the expressions of other biosynthetic genes. In undifferentiated Tanacetum tissues, such VOC-induced amplification of CDS, CAS, TcGLIP and ACX1 gene expressions were markedly reduced, suggesting that a high-resolution, VOC-mediated communication is an event selective to differentiated plants.
Biosynthesis; (E)-β-farnesene; gene expression analysis; green Leaf volatiles; pyrethrins; tanacetum cinerariifolium; volatile organic compounds
Meroterpenoid chrodrimanins, produced from Talaromyces sp. YO-2, are known to paralyze silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae, but their target is unknown. We have investigated the actions of chrodrimanin B on ligand-gated ion channels of silkworm larval neurons using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B had no effect on membrane currents when tested alone at 1 μM. However, it completely blocked the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced current and showed less pronounced actions on acetylcholine- and L-glutamate-induced currents, when delivered at 1 μM for 1 min prior to co-application with transmitter GABA. Thus, chrodrimanins were also tested on a wild-type isoform of the B. mori GABA receptor (GABAR) RDL using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B attenuated the peak current amplitude of the GABA response of RDL with an IC50 of 1.66 nM. The order of the GABAR-blocking potency of chrodrimanins B > D > A was in accordance with their reported insecticidal potency. Chrodrimanin B had no open channel blocking action when tested at 3 nM on the GABA response of RDL. Co-application with 3 nM chrodrimanin B shifted the GABA concentration response curve to a higher concentration and further increase of chrodrimanin B concentration to10 nM; it reduced maximum current amplitude of the GABA response, pointing to a high-affinity competitive action and a lower affinity non-competitive action. The A282S;T286V double mutation of RDL, which impairs the actions of fipronil, hardly affected the blocking action of chrodrimanin B, indicating a binding site of chrodrimanin B distinct from that of fipronil. Chrodrimanin B showed approximately 1,000-fold lower blocking action on human α1β2γ2 GABAR compared to RDL and thus is a selective blocker of insect GABARs.
In 1989, indole alkaloid okaramines isolated from the fermentation products of Penicillium simplicissimum were shown to be insecticidal, yet the mechanism of their toxicity to insects remains unknown. We therefore examined the action of okaramine B on silkworm larval neurons using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Okaramine B induced inward currents which reversed close to the chloride equilibrium potential and were blocked by fipronil. Thus it was tested on the silkworm RDL (resistant-to-dieldrin) γ-aminobutyric-acid-gated chloride channel (GABACl) and a silkworm L-glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Okaramine B activated GluCl, but not RDL. GluCl activation by okaramines correlated with their insecticidal activity, offering a solution to a long-standing enigma concerning their insecticidal actions. Also, unlike ivermectin, okaramine B was inactive at 10 μM on human α1β2γ2 GABACl and α1β glycine-gated chloride channels and provides a new lead for the development of safe insect control chemicals.
•A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α-subunit (Rsanα1) was identified in Rhipicephalus sanguineus.•Rsanα1 was not restricted to the synganglion (“brain”).•Rsanα1 was functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes.•Rsanα1 responded to acetylcholine, nicotine and choline.•Rsanα1 was unresponsive to imidacloprid and spinosad.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases have a major impact on human and animal health worldwide. Current control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical acaricides, most of which target the CNS and with increasing resistance, new drugs are urgently needed. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are targets of highly successful insecticides. We isolated a full-length nAChR α subunit from a normalised cDNA library from the synganglion (brain) of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Phylogenetic analysis has shown this R. sanguineus nAChR to be most similar to the insect α1 nAChR group and has been named Rsanα1. Rsanα1 is distributed in multiple tick tissues and is present across all life-stages. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Rsanα1 failed to function as a homomer, with and without the addition of either Caenorhabditis elegans resistance-to-cholinesterase (RIC)-3 or X. laevis RIC-3. When co-expressed with chicken β2 nAChR, Rsanα1 evoked concentration-dependent, inward currents in response to acetylcholine (ACh) and showed sensitivity to nicotine (100 μM) and choline (100 μM). Rsanα1/β2 was insensitive to both imidacloprid (100 μM) and spinosad (100 μM). The unreliable expression of Rsanα1 in vitro suggests that additional subunits or chaperone proteins may be required for more robust expression. This study enhances our understanding of nAChRs in arachnids and may provide a basis for further studies on the interaction of compounds with the tick nAChR as part of a discovery process for novel acaricides.
Rhipicephalus sanguineus; Tick; Ion channel; Acaricide; Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; Xenopus oocytes; Imidacloprid
Plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a means to warn other plants of impending danger. Nearby plants exposed to the induced VOCs prepare their own defense weapons in response. Accumulated data supports this assertion, yet much of the evidence has been obtained in laboratories under artificial conditions where, for example, a single VOC might be applied at a concentration that plants do not actually experience in nature. Experiments conducted outdoors suggest that communication occurs only within a limited distance from the damaged plants. Thus, the question remains as to whether VOCs work as a single component or a specific blend, and at which concentrations VOCs elicit insect and pathogen defenses in undamaged plants. We discuss these issues based on available literature and our recent work, and propose future directions in this field.
cis-jasmone; ethylene; green leaf volatiles; isoprene; methyl jasmonate; methyl salicylate; plant-plant communications; pyrethrins; terpenoids; volatile organic compounds; within-plant communications
Asperparalines produced by Aspergillus japonicus JV-23 induce
paralysis in silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae, but the target
underlying insect toxicity remains unknown. In the present study, we have
investigated the actions of asperparaline A on ligand-gated ion channels
expressed in cultured larval brain neurons of the silkworm using patch-clamp
electrophysiology. Bath-application of asperparaline A (10 µM) had no
effect on the membrane current, but when delivered for 1 min prior to
co-application with 10 µM acetylcholine (ACh), it blocked completely the
ACh-induced current that was sensitive to mecamylamine, a nicotinic
acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-selective antaogonist. In contrast, 10 µM
asperparaline A was ineffective on the γ-aminobutyric acid- and
L-glutamate-induced responses of the Bombyx larval neurons. The
fungal alkaloid showed no-use dependency in blocking the ACh-induced response
with distinct affinity for the peak and slowly-desensitizing current amplitudes
of the response to 10 µM ACh in terms of IC50 values of 20.2
and 39.6 nM, respectively. Asperparaline A (100 nM) reduced the maximum neuron
response to ACh with a minimal shift in EC50, suggesting that the
alkaloid is non-competitive with ACh. In contrast to showing marked blocking
action on the insect nAChRs, it exhibited only a weak blocking action on chicken
α3β4, α4β2 and α7 nAChRs expressed in Xenopus
laevis oocytes, suggesting a high selectivity for insect over
certain vertebrate nAChRs.
Neonicotinoid insecticides, which act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in a variety of ways, have extremely low mammalian toxicity, yet the molecular basis of such actions is poorly understood. To elucidate the molecular basis for nAChR–neonicotinoid interactions, a surrogate protein, acetylcholine binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis (Ls-AChBP) was crystallized in complex with neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI) or clothianidin (CTD). The crystal structures suggested that the guanidine moiety of IMI and CTD stacks with Tyr185, while the nitro group of IMI but not of CTD makes a hydrogen bond with Gln55. IMI showed higher binding affinity for Ls-AChBP than that of CTD, consistent with weaker CH–π interactions in the Ls-AChBP–CTD complex than in the Ls-AChBP–IMI complex and the lack of the nitro group-Gln55 hydrogen bond in CTD. Yet, the NH at position 1 of CTD makes a hydrogen bond with the backbone carbonyl of Trp143, offering an explanation for the diverse actions of neonicotinoids on nAChRs.
Acetylcholine binding protein (Lymnaea stagnalis); Crystal structures; Neonicotinoids; Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; Ion channels
An insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus sphaericus A3-2 was purified to elucidate its structure and mode of action. The active principle purified from the culture broth of A3-2 was a protein with a molecular mass of 53 kDa that rapidly intoxicated German cockroaches (Blattela germanica) at a dose of about 100 ng when injected. The insecticidal protein sphaericolysin possessed the undecapeptide motif of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and had a unique N-terminal sequence. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was equally as potent as the native protein. Sphaericolysin-induced hemolysis resulted from the protein's pore-forming action. This activity as well as the insecticidal activity was markedly reduced by a Y159A mutation. Also, coapplication of sphaericolysin with cholesterol abolished the insecticidal action, suggesting that cholesterol binding plays an important role in insecticidal activity. Sphaericolysin-lysed neurons dissociated from the thoracic ganglia of the German cockroaches. In addition, sphaericolysin's activity in ganglia was suppressed by the Y159A mutation. The sphaericolysin-induced damage to the cockroach ganglia was greater than the damage to the ganglia of common cutworms (Spodoptera litura), which accounts, at least in part, for the higher sensitivity to sphaericolysin displayed by the cockroaches than that displayed by cutworms.
Neonicotinoid insecticides are agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and show selective toxicity for insects over vertebrates. To elucidate the molecular basis of the selectivity, amino acid residues influencing neonicotinoid sensitivity were investigated by site-directed mutagenesis of the chicken α7 nicotinic AChR subunit, based on the crystal structure of an ACh binding protein (AChBP).In the ligand binding site of AChBP, Q55 in loop D is close to Y164 in loop F that corresponds to G189 of the α7 nicotinic receptor. Since Q55 of AChBP is preserved as Q79 in the α7 nicotinic receptor and the G189D and G189E mutations have been found to reduce the neonicotinoid sensitivity, we investigated effects of Q79E, Q79K and Q79R mutations on the neonicotinoid sensitivity of the α7 receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes to evaluate contributions of the glutamine residue to nicotinic AChR–neonicotinoid interactions.The Q79E mutation markedly reduced neonicotinoid sensitivity of the α7 nicotinic AChR whereas the Q79K and Q79R mutations increased sensitivity, suggesting electronic interactions of the neonicotinoids with the added residues.By contrast, the Q79E mutation scarcely influenced responses of the α7 nicotinic receptor to ACh, (−)-nicotine and desnitro–imidacloprid (DN–IMI), an imidacloprid derivative lacking the nitro group, whereas the Q79K and Q79R mutations reduced the sensitivity to these ligands. The results indicate that the glutamine residue of the α7 nicotinic receptor is likely to be located close to the nitro group of the insecticides in the nicotinic receptor–insecticide complex.
Imidacloprid; nitenpyram; neonicotinoid; desnitro-imidacloprid; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; chicken α7 subunit; loop D; loop F; Xenopus laevis oocyte; two-electrode voltage-clamp
The nitroguanidine insecticide imidacloprid along with a second generation of related compounds including nitenpyram, all nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor ligands, are used increasingly in many countries. Site-directed mutagenesis and heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes have been deployed to investigate mutants (G189D and G189E) of the chicken α7 homomer-forming nicotinic receptor subunit which are predicted to enhance the negative charge at the negative subsite (loop D) of the ACh binding site.Xenopus oocytes expressing wild-type α7 nicotinic receptors respond to imidacloprid with rapid inward currents. Imidacloprid and nitenpyram are partial agonists, whereas ACh, (−)-nicotine and (+)-epibatidine are full agonists.Compared to wild-type α7, the mutant G189D and G189E receptors are much less sensitive to the insecticides, whereas their sensitivity to (−)-nicotine, ACh and (+)-epibatidine is only slightly reduced. In contrast, G189N and G189Q mutants are sensitive not only to ACh, (−)-nicotine and (+)-epibatidine, but also to the two insecticides. Thus reduction of the insecticide-sensitivity by the mutations G189D and G189E are attributed to an increase in negativity of loop D. Desnitro-imidacloprid (DN-IMI), an imidacloprid derivative lacking the nitro group is a potent agonist on the G189D and G189E mutants suggesting an important role of loop D in nicotinic receptor interactions with the nitro group of nitroguanidine insecticides.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; α7 subunit; negative subsite mutations; neonicotinoids; imidacloprid; nitenpyram; (+)-epibatidine
A novel tricyclic dinitrile, KN244, blocked the wild-type (dieldrin-sensitive) homo-oligomeric γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sensitivity to the block by KN244 of the response to 30 μM GABA (IC50=41.6 nM, wild-type RDLac) was reduced abut 100 fold (IC50=4.5 μM) in the dieldrin-resistant (RDLacA302S) form of RDL.
GABA-gated Cl− channel; KN244 (a tricyclic dinitrile); Drosophila melanogaster; RDL (resistant to dieldrin) subunit